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AN 

ANGLO-SAXON READER 



EDITED, WITH NOTES, A COMPLETE GLOSSARY, 
A CHAPTER ON VERSIFICATION 



AND 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR 



. j^ ^-~^:. BY 
JAMES w! BRIGHT, Ph.D., Litt.D. 

OAKOLINE DONOVAN PROFESSOR OF ENGLISH LITERATURE IN THE 
JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY 



FOURTH EDITION 



NEW YORK 

HENRY HOLT AND COMPANY 

1917 

C 



I 






Copyright, 1891, 1894,, (1917, i 

BY 

HENRY HOLT & CO. 
June, igsO 



PRINTED IN THE U. S. A, 



^ PKEFACE. 

The first three of the following paragraphs are from the 
former Preface of this book. 

In the choice of texts by which the student is to be intro- 
duced to the language and literature of Anglo-Saxon times, 
an editor is compelled, in view of the practical end, to 
suppress many considerations : there must be gradation 
that may contradict chronology, or dialectal relationship ; 
there must be a degree of variety that may do violence to 
completeness. An adjustment in partial harmony with all 
reasonable requirements is as much as can be hoped for. 

The West-Saxon dialect, though not exactly in the line of 
the subsequent development of the language, is yet best 
adapted to the conditions of the beginner, for it possesses 
sufficient uniformity in phonology and inflection, the gram- 
mars are based upon it, and it embraces most of the litera- 
ture. The style and the character of the literature also 
determine the easiest introduction to be through the later 
form of this dialect. The following texts have been selected 
and arranged in accordance with these views. The first 
three extracts are intended to supply a sufficient basis for 
an elementary preparation that will fit the student to pass 
to the study of the Early West-Saxon dialect, and there- 
after to read the literature in chronological order. Any 
slight admixture of dialectal forms will be easily under- 
stood by the use of Sievers' Grrammar, 

iii 



W PBEFACE. 

Orthograpliic variation (chiefly due to chronological 
differences in the texts) has made difficult a compact yet 
clear arrangement of the glossary ; however, the variant 
forms in parentheses, the principal parts of the verbs, and 
the citations will be found, it is believed, to mitigate the 
somewhat sparing use of cross-references. The etymologi- 
cal hints conveyed either in the definitions or by the brack- 
eted forms will suggest some of the fundamental principles 
of derivation, but they are especially meant to lead the 
student to consult the Etymological Dictionaries of Skeat 
and Kluge. 

In the successive issues of the third edition of this Eeader, 
corrections and revisions were introduced without fornial 
notice. These changes, it was believed, did not warrant 
a disturbance of the practical acceptance of different 
issues as being the same edition. However, an indulgence 
in ' silent changes,' if carried too far, would needlessly 
occasion confusion in the use of the book in the class-room. 
The form in which the fourth edition is now offered to 
teachers and pupils will be found to be sufficiently revised 
to justify the specific designation, which was so nearly 
made appropriate by several of the revised portions of the 
third edition. 

The special feature of the present edition will be observed 
in the Outline of Grammar, which has been revised chiefly 
by changing the principal stem-terminations from the Indo- 
germanic to the Germanic forms. The theory, represented 
in Professor Sievers' Grammar, that Anglo-Saxon is to be 
distinguished from the other Germanic languages by a 
peculiar retention of the Indogermanic form of stem-vowels, 
is set aside in conformity to the now prevailing view of 
scholars. This will, however, cause no difficulty in follow- 
ing, as before, the fuller exposition of details in Professor 



PREFACE. V 

Sievers' Grammar (designated by S.), made available in 
Professor Cook's translation. 

Many of the teachers who have been using this Eeader 
have, from time to time, obligingly reported minor errors or 
omissions, which have all been duly considered. For this 
helpful kindness thankful acknowledgment is especially due 
Professors William H. Hulme (specifically for a collation of 
the manuscripts of the nineteenth selection), John S. P. 
Tatlock, 0. F. Emerson, William Strunk, Jr., Nathaniel E. 
Griffin, and B. S. Monroe. 

JAMES W. BRIGHT. 

Johns Hopkins University, 
March, 1917. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

An Outline of Anglo-Saxon Grammar • . • • - ix 

PART I. 

I. From the Gospels: St. Mark, Chap. IV ^ 1 

II. Orpheus and Eurydice 5 

III. Account of the Poet C^dmon , . 8 

PART II. 

IV. Cynewulf and Cyneheard ..... e e ... 14 
V. Wars of Alfred the Great 16 

VI. Alfred's Preface to the Pastoral Care 26 

VII. From the Pastoral Care 30 

VIII. The Voyages of Ohthere and Wulfstan 38 

IX. It is better to suffer an Injury than to inflict one 45 

X. Providence and Fate 48 

XI, The Nature of God 59 

XII. The Conversion of Edwin ... o ....... 62 

PART III. 

XIII. A Blickling Homily 67 

XIV. ^lfric's Homily on the Assumption of St. John the 

Apostle 74 

XV. ^lfric's Homily on St. Gregory the Great . . . ,86 

XVI. ^Elfric's Life of King Oswald 98 

vii 



Vlll CONTENTS, 

PAGE 

XVII. ^LFEic's Preface to Genesis ...... o . . 107 

XVIII. The Legend of St. Andrew 113 

XIX. The Harrowing of Hell 129 

PART IV. 

XX. C^dmon's Genesis : The Offering of Isaac . . . 142 

XXI. The Battle of Brunanburh 146 

XXII. The Battle of Maldon 149 

XXIII. The Wanderer 160 

XXIV. The Phcenix 165 

APPENDIX I. Lactantius De Ave Phoenice 189 

NOTES 195 

APPENDIX II. Anglo-Saxon Versification ...... 229 

GLOSSAKY 241 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON 
GRAMMAR. 



-oOj*:;c 



mTKODUCTORY REMARK. 

1. The following outline of Anglo-Saxon Grammar 
is restricted to the West-Saxon Dialect, that form of 
the language which in the reign of Alfred the Great 
(871-901) became dominant for literary purposes and 
maintained that supremacy to the close of the Anglo- 
Saxon period. The changes which took place within 
the West-Saxon Dialect, though slight in respect of 
phonology and inflection, make it necessary to dis- 
tinguish Early West-Saxon (EWS), the language of 
Alfred's time, from Late West-Saxon (LWS), the lan- 
guage of the following two and a half centuries, with 
^Ifric (died between 1020 and 1025) as the central 
literary figure. In this outline EWS is regarded as 
the norm to which LWS is subordinated. 

PHOKOLOOY. 

ALPHABET AND PRONUNCIATION. 

2. The Anglo-Saxon alphabet, as here employed, has 
two characters (]?, 9") that are not employed in Modern 
English. 

Note. — The MSS. use a special character for w; 5 for g; 7 (= and) 
and f (= />at) are usual. 

ix 



X AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS. 

3. An approximate pronunciation of the vowels is 
indicated in the following table : 

a as in German Mann. 

a the preceding sound lengthened. 

ae like a in at., man. 

se the preceding sound lengthened. 

el 

j^ as in let, men. 

e the preceding sound lengthened, as in the^. 

i as in hit, sit, in. 

i the preceding sound lengthened, as in machine. 

o as in German Gott. 

6 the preceding soiand lengthened, as in German so. 

<? as in not. 

u as in full, put. 

u the preceding sound lengthened, as in rule. 

y like u in German : hiihsch, Brucke. 

f the preceding sound lengthened, as in German griin. 

oe like o in German schon. 



le 
ie 
ea 
ea 
eo 
5o 
io 

lO 



These diphthongs (long and short) receive the 
stress upon the first element; the second element, 
being unaccented, is very much obscured in pro- 
^ nunciation. The sound of ea, ea is approximately 
that of se + a, se + a (perhaps more nearly ae + uh^ ; 
otherwise the component parts of these diphthongs 
are to be pronounced as indicated above. 



Note. — The diphthongs ie, le are peculiar to EWS, where they, 
however, begin to change into i, i ; in LWS the most usual representa- 
tion is y, y. (S. §§ 22, 31, 41, 97.) 



PHONOLOGY, XI 



CONSONANTS. 



4. (a) The following consonants are pronounced as 
in Modern English : b, d, 1, m, n, p, r (trilled), t, w, x. 
The pronunciation of the remaining consonants requires 
special attention. 

(5) c has always the sound of k (the use of the symbol 
k is exceptional). The sound of kw or qu is, accord- 
ingly, represented by cw (or cu), as in cwen, cwearan, 
etc., and cs has the value of x. 

Note. — This ^•-sound has a guttural or a palatal quality (somewhat 
as in English cold^ and ]dn)y according to its pronunciation with gut- 
tural or with i3alatal vowels. 

((?) f has two values. (1) In the initial and final 

positions, in the combinations ff, fs, ft, and in most 

medial positions (cf. the note below), it has the usual 

(voiceless) sound. (2) In the medial position between 

vowels and voiced consonants it has the sound of v ; 

e.g., hiaford, ofer, sealfian, sefre. 

Note. — In compounds like a-fyrhtan, of-lystan, etc.,/ is strictly 
not in the medial position, and has therefore its usual sound. 

(cZ) g- has two values. (1) It almost always repre- 
sents a voiced spirant, which is either guttural, or pala- 
tal (like g in German sagen^ or like y in English you)^ 
according to its pronunciation with guttural or with 
palatal vowels. (2) It is pronounced like g in English 
go only when doubled, as in frog-g-a, frog ; and in the 
combination ng-, as in English longer. 

The combination eg (by origin a geminated ^) is to 
be pronounced as dg in English ridge. 

(e) h is never silent; it is always to be pronounced 
as a voiceless spirant either guttural (as in German acA), 
or palatal (as in German icK) in quality, according to 
the sounds with which it is combined. 



xii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

(/) s has, in all positions, the voiceless sound, except 
single s between vowels, which has the voiced sound (3) ; 
e.g., wesan, risan, etc. 

(^) tf and p are used w^ithout distinction to denote 
the dental spirant th^ in all positions, presumably, the 
voiceless spirant (as in English thin)^ except (as in the 
case of f) between vowels and voiced consonants where 
the voiced spirant (as in English thine) is employed ; 
e.g., oSTor, cweiaran, siSTSTaii, weoi-araii, etc. The voiced 
spirant may also be employed in the pronominal forms tTu, 
iarset, (Jes, etc. 

ACCENTUATION. 

5. In Anglo-Saxon words are accented according to 
the following rules : 

Rule I. — Simple words and words with formative or 
derivative suffixes are accented on the first syllable. 
The most significant of these suffixes may receive a 
secondary accent. 

Thus, ddgas, grene, eag-e, eagena, sw^otole, helpan ; 
swetest, ariirstig", bdduiig, l^oruung-a, df rling, niicelnes, 
wynsum, glsedlice, b^rende, wiindrian, wundrode. 

Note. — No vowels or consonants are silent; and both long and 
short diphthongs require the accent to be placed on the first element. 

The secondary accent on suffixes is inferred from metrical usage. 
See the chapter on Versification : Appendix II, pp. 235 ff. 

Rule II, — Compound words constitute two classes, 
(1) substantive compounds, and (2) verbal compounds. 

A substantive compound receives the chief stress upon 
the first syllable of its first component (cf . Rule I) ; the 
accent of the second component is usually retained as a 
secondary stress. 

A verbal compound is accented on the radical syllable 
of the verb ; the prefix is therefore unaccented. 



PHONOLOGY. xiii 

Thus, (1) substantive compounds : g<51d-smi9', mQnn- 
cynn, swiO'-mod (adj.), s61f-willes (adv.), vnd-giet, 
(^nd-swaru, bi-g-^ng, bi-spell, f<5r-weard (adj.), in-g-^ng, 
mis-d^d, dn-g-inn, 6r-eald (adj.), t6-weard (adj.), ymb- 
liwyrft. 

(2) Verbal compounds : a-risan, bo-batan, for-lg§tan, 
ge-bfddan, for-w^oraran, mis-ffCran, ofer-ciiman, to- 
w^orpan, wiar-stvndan, ynib-sittan. 

Note 1. — An important exception to Bule II is to be observed in 
the accentuation of substantive compounds with the prefixes ge-, be-, 
and for-; tliese prefixes are unaccented; e.g., ge-bod, ge-broijor, 
ge-feoht, ge-weald ; be-bod, be-gQng, be-hat ; for-gytol (adj.), 
for-Tvyrd. That, however, these prefixes were formerly accented in 
substantive compounds, according to the rule, is shown by gafol, 
gQmel, etc., in wdiich the first element is ga-, the accented form of 
ge- ; the accented form of be- is also left in words like bi-gQDg, 
bi-spcU, bi-wist, etc., and notice beot < *bi-hat, by the side of the 
later be-hat; and frge-beorht (adj.), frge-micel, fra-coa", show a 
survival of the accented form of for-. 

Note 2. — This difference in accentuation between substantive and 
verbal compounds (cf. English abstract : abstract ; present : present; 
nibject : subject) has (as, in part, seen above) resulted in a correspond- 
ing difference of form in certain prefixes : 

Qnd-giet, intelligence : on-gietan, to understand. 

Qnd-saec, resistance : on-sacan, to resist. 

£ef-)?unca, grudge : of-]?yncan, to displease. 

bi-g^ng, practice : be-gQngan, to practice. 
6r-cnawe (adj.), recognizable : a-cnawao, to know. 

6r-J>Qnc, device : a-J?^ncan, to devise. 

uiaf-g^ng, escape : oaf-gQngan, to escape. 

wiiffer-saec, hostility : wiaf-sdcan, to resist. 

PHONOLOGICAL CHANGES. 

6. By the operation of phonetic processes, the Anglo- 
Saxon system of vowels is made somewhat diversified 
and complicated. The most important of these processes 
affecting the radical vowels will now be briefly described, 



xiv 4N OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 
THE CHANGE OF a INTO 86. 

7. The occurrence of the vowel a is very much re- 
stricted. In a closed syllable, and in an open syllable 
followed by e(i) in the next syllable, the vowel a is 
mostly modified to se ; but a remains unchanged in an 
open syllable that is followed by a, o, or u in the next 
syllable. (S. § 49 f.) 

Thus, dseg, daeges, dsege, (Taet, waes, faegen, waeter ; 
dagas, daga, dag-um, faran, hafoc, wacol. 

Note. — It might be supposed that the i of endings in the second 
weak conjugation, as in the infinitive ending -ian, would change a into 
ae in an open syllable ; but this i was originally o, therefore words like 
latS'iau, manian, Tv^anian, etc., constitute only an apparent exception 
to the rule. 

THE CHANGE OF a INTO Q. 

8. Before a nasal consonant the vowel a is changed 
into <?. But there is no uniformity in the employment 
of Q for a. The predominant form in EWS is <?; in 
LWS it is a. (S. § 65.') 

Thus, Qnd, and ; liQnd, hand ; l^nd, land ; niQnig, 
manig ; gQugan, gangan ; gesQninian, gesaninian. 

Note. — When the preceding Qn (< an) occurs before a voiceless 
spirant, f, 9*, s, the nasal disappears, and, in compensation, the vowel 
is lengthened into o. Under the same conditions, in and un become 
i and u. (S. §§ 66, 185.) 

Thus, softe «*s<?nfte), softly; toff «*tqnff), tooth; offor 
«*Qnl5'or), other; gos « *gQns), goose; siS" (Goth. sin>s), a 
going ; swiff (Goth. swm)»s), strong ; muff (Goth. niun)?s), mouth. 

breae:ing. 

9. Before r + consonant, 1 + consonant, h + consonant, 
and h final, the vowels se (from a. 7), e, and i are 
*' broken " into short diphthongs, ae becoming ea, and 
e, i becoming eo, io, (S. §§ 77-84.) 



PHONOLOGY, XV 

(a) Thus, ae into ea : *h8erd (for hard, 7) > heard, 
hard; *h8elf > healf , AaZ/'; wearSF, pret.sg.of weor&an, ^o 
become; ^^oldsin^ to wield ; beald, 5o/tf ; f eallan, ^o /a// ; 
heall, hall; eahta, eight; seah, pret. sg. of seon, to see. 

(5) e into eo (io) before r + consonant : weor9"an, to 
become; eorare, earth; heorte, heart; weorc, work. 

e into eo (io) before 1 + consonant is restricted to 
1 + c or h : nieolcaii, to milk; seolh, seal. Otherwise 
the e remains : helpan, to help ; swelgan, to sivallow ; 
sweltan, to die. 

Before h + consonant, and h final: feohtaii, to fight; 
teohhian, to arrange; feoh, cattle. 

. (e) i into io (eo) : stem *hirdia > *hiordi > hierde 
(i-umlaut), herdsman. *liht (< liht) > lioht, leoht, lights 
not heavy; Piht, Pioht, Peoht, Pict. *betwih >betwih, 
betweoh, between. 

Note. — Breaking results from the combination of a palatal vowel 
(ae, e, i) and a guttural consonant (r, 1, h). In passing from the 
pronunciation of the vowel to that of the consonant, a glide-sound is 
produced which is a more or less definite guttural vowel. This may 
be observed in pronouncing well as wce-al ; there as thce-ar or the-ur ; 
fire as fi-ur or fi-or. It is this glide-vowel that has supplied the second 
element of these short diphthongs. 

PALATALIZATION. 

10. The palatals g", c, and sc, in the initial position 
change a following ae into ea ; se ( = Germanic e) into 
ea; and e into ie (i, y; see 3, Note). (S. § 75.) 

(«) Thus, ae into ea : *gaef (7) > geaf, gave; ^g-set > 
geat, got; *c8ef > ceaf, chaff ; Lat. castra > *C8ester > 
ceaster, town ; *sc8el > sceal, shall ; *sc8eft > seeaft, 
shaft; *sc8er > scear, sheared (pret. sg.). 

(5) se into ea : *g8efon > geafon, gave (pret. pi.) ; 
*g8etoii > geaton, got (pret. pi.) ; Lat. caseus > *c^si > 



xvi AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAE. 

*ceasi>ciese (i-umlaut), cheese; *sc3ep > sceap, sheep; 
*sc8eron > scearon, sheared (pret. pi.)* 

(c) e into ie (i, y) : *gefan > giefan, to give; *getaii> 
gietan, to get; *sceran > scieran, to shear. 

Note 1. — Before all vowels except se, se (= Germanic e) and 
e, initial g and c do not change the following vowel (S. § 76); but 
initial sea- and sco- frequently become scea-, sceo-, e.g., scand, 
sceand, scQnd, scegnd, shame; pret. scEd, scean, shone; Scottas, 
Sceottas, the Scots ; scop, sceop, poet ; scacan, sceacan, pret. scoc, 
sceoc, shake; pret. scop, sceop, created. 

Note 2. — The palatal pronunciation of medial e, ce, g, and eg, 
followed by a, o, or u, is often indicated by the insertion of an e 
(sometimes of an i). This inserted e (i) represents a trace of an 
original formative i or j. (S. § 206, 6.) 

Thus, sec(e)aii (<*socian, S. § 45, 8; Goth, sokjan), to seek; 
cw^ce(e)an (< *ewaeejan), to quake; in^nig(e)o «*inanigi; 
Goth, managei), multitude; byeg(e)an (Goth, bugjan), to buy; 
s^cg(e)as, s^cg(e)a, secg(i)um, pi. of s^cg (stem *ssegja), man. 

Note 3. — The inserted letter observed in the preceding note marks 
with prominence the "glide" effect of palatals. This element in the 
pronunciation leads to further variation in the written forms. Thus, 
for example, for ia (ja) the graphic substitutes may be ga, iga, igea ; 
for ie they may be ge, ige : n^rian, n^rgan, n^rigan, n^rigean, 
to save; li^r(i)g(e)as, li^r(i)g(e)a, h^r(i)guni, pi. of h^re (stem 
*h8erja-), army; wundriende, wundrigende, icondering ; wini- 
g(e)a, gen. pi; of wine (stem *wini-), friend. 

Also as a graphic substitute for final i, some use is made of ig : 
bi-spell, big-spell, parahle ; hi, big, pron. ; si, sig (Opt.), he; and 
medial ig is occasionally represented by igg : igaS", iggaiaf, small 
island. (S. § 24, Note.) 

Note 4. — It is also to be observed that initial *jae, ^o become 
gea, geo (gio). Thus, gear (<*jfcer; Goth, jer), year ; geoc, gioc 
« *joc ; Goth, juk), yoke. In like manner initial *ju becomes geo, 
gio, or is represented by iu (io) . Thus, geong, giong, iung (< ^ ung ; 
Goth, juggs), young ; geo, gio, iu, io (Goth, in), formerly. (S. § 74.) 

GEMINATION BEFORE j. 

11. A single consonant (except r) when preceded 
by a short vowel is geminated by a following j. The 



PHONOLOGY. XVll 

vowel is also umlauted (13), and the j itself disappears. 
(S. § 228.) 

Thus, cynn (stem *cunja), Arm; s^llan (<*saeljaii; 
Goth, saljan), to give; l^cg-an (< *l8eg-jan; Goth, lag- 
jan), to lay ; h^bban (*hgefjan; Goth, hafjan), to heave; 
scieppan, 13 (<*sceapjaii, 10<*sc8epjan; Goth, skap- 
jan), to create; hliehhan (<*bleabjan, 9<*hl8ebjan; 
Goth, blabjan), to laugh. 

But T is not geminated: b^re (stem ^baerja; Goth. 
barjis), army; n^rian, 10, Note 3 (<*n8erjan; Goth. 
nasjan), to save. 

Note 1. — It will be noticed that geminated f and g become bb 
and eg respectively. 

Note 2. — On the other hand, when the radical vowel or radical 
syllable is long, this formative j, first becoming i (S. § 45, 8), has not 
caused gemination of the preceding consonant. 

Thus, sec(e)aii (<*socian), to seek; denian (<*domiaii), to 
judge; s^ndan (<*sQiidian), to send. 

FINAL DOUBLE CONSONANTS. 

12. Double consonants (except eg-) at the end of a 
word are usually simplified. (S. § 225.) 

Thus, nKjnn, inQii, man; ni^nn, m^n, men; eall, eal, 
all; cynn, cyn, A;m; b^dd, b^d, ^^cZ; sibb, sib, jt?^ace. — 
But, s^cg, man; brycg, ridge; w^cg, wedge. 

UMLAUT (i-UMLAUT). 

13. The accented vowels (radical vowels) are palatal- 
ized by an i or j of the following syllable. This species 
of palatalization is called i-umlaut, or, briefly, umlaut. 
The i and j causing the umlaut were, for the most part, 
either changed into e or entirely lost in an early period 
of the language. (S. §§ 85-100.:> 




xviii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAE. 

The results of umlaut may be tabulated thus ; 

r becomes ^. (Sometimes ae. S. § 89, 
3e(<a. 7) I 1, Notel.) 

<? (< a. 8) becomes ^. 

a (< Germanic ai) becomes ge. 
se (< Germanic e) remains se. 

become e, e. 

become y, y. 

become ie, ie; i, i; in LWS usually 
y, y (3, Note). 

(rt) Thus, se into ^: h^re (< stem ^haerja), army; 
l^cg^an (< *l8egjan), to lay; s^Uan (< *sseljan), to 
give; m^te (stem *in8eti), meat, 

(5) Q into ^ : dat. sg. m^n(n) (< *iiiQnni), nom. 
(ace.) pi. m^n(n) (< *ni<?nniz), man; 9'^iic(e)an 
(< ^SfQiician), to think ; w^ndan (< *wQndian), to 
turn, 

(c) a and se into se : dsel (stem *dali ; Goth, dails), 
portion; dselan (<*dalian; Goth, dailjan), to share; 
hselan (<*halian; Goth, hailjan), to heal; dsed (stem 
*dsedi; Goth. -deds), deed; Isece (stem *lgecia; Goth. 
lekeis), leech. 

(^d) o, 6 into e, e: morgen (< ^morgan), but mer- 

gen (< *inorgin ; Goth, maurgins), morrow ; dat. sg. 

dehter (< *dolitri), daughter; deman (< *doinian), 

to judge; fet, tear, ges, dat. sg. and nom. (ace.) pi. of 

fot, foot, toaf (8, Note), tooth, gos, goose. 

Note. — The umlaut of o (short) is restricted by reason of the 
Germanic law according to which o is changed into u before a fol- 
lowing! or j. (S. § 45, 30 



PHONOLOGY, xix 

(e) u, u into y, y: cyning (<*cuning), king; cyme 
(stem *cunii), a coming; lyre (stem *luri), loss ; gylden 
(<*guldin<*g-oldin, S. § 93, Note), Q,dj. golden; bycgran 
(Goth, bug-jan), to buy ; lys, mys, dat. sg. and nom 
(ace.) pi. of nius, mouse, lus, louse; cyaran (<*cu9'ian< 
*cun9'iaii, 8, Note ; Goth. kunj7jan), to make knoum. 

(/) ea, eo, io into ie (i, y), and ea, eo, lo into ie 
(i, y): wielm, wylm (stem *w0elmi > *wealmi, 9), a 
surging; eald, old^ comp. ieldra, supl. ieldesta; hierde 
(stem *hirdia > *heordia, 9), herdsm^an. feorr, far, 
afyrran, to remove ; hieran (< *heariaii ; Goth, haiis 
jan), to hear; geliefan (< *geleafiaii ; Goth, galaubjan), 
to believe; leoht, light, liehtan, to illuminate; friend, 
fiend, dat. sg. and nom. (ace.) pi. of friond (freond), 
friend, fiond (feond), foe. 

U- O-UMLAUT. 

14. In the accented syllable, and when followed by 
a single consonant, a may be changed into ea, and e, i 
into eo, io, by the influence of u or o (a) in the follow- 
ing syllable. This process is called u- o-umlaut. It 
is, however, not uniformly operative in the West-Saxon 
dialect. (S. §§ 103-109.) 

Thus, eafora, heir; lieafola, head; weorold, ivorld ; 
heofon, heaven; nietod, meotod. Creator; seofon, seven; 
wita, wiota, wise man; tilian, tiolian (< *tiloian), to 
endeavor ; clipian, cliopian, cleopian, to cry out; medu, 
medo, nieodo, mead; siodu, custom. 

Intervening c and g prevent the operation of this 
umlaut; nacod, adj. naked; magu, mago, son; racu, 
narrative; sacu, strife ; regol^rule; plega, play ; sigor, 
victory. 



XX AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR, 
PALATAL-UMLAUT. 

15. In some instances, eo (io) which resulted from 
the breaking of e before li + consonant (9) becomes ie 
(i, y). This process presupposes the change of the 
guttural h, which caused the breaking, into a palatal 
li, which then produces an effect agreeing with that of 
i-umlaut. (S. § 108.) 

Thus, reoht, rielit, riht, ryht, right; cneoht, cnieht, 
cnilit, ciiylit, boi/ ; seox (x = hs), siex, six, syx, six. 

Note 1. — In LWS ea, ea before h, x, g, and c are sometimes 
changed into e, e : sleh (for sleah) imp. sg. of slean, to strike ; seh 
(for seah) pret. sg. of seon, to see; geneahhe, geneh(h)e, enough ; 
neah, neh, near; afeah, STeh, though; Tv^eaxan, wexan, to grow; 
beag, beg, ring ; eac, ec, also. 

Note 2. — In LWS ea, ea after the palatals g, c, and sc are also 
sometimes changed into e, e (S. § 100): gef (for geaf) pret. sg. of 
giefan, to give; get (for geat) pret. sg. of gietan, to get; geat, 
get, gate; gear, ger, year; ongean, ongen, against; cealf, celf, 
calf ; sceap, seep, sheep. 

LOSS OF MEDIAL g. 

16. After a palatal vowel, g (palatal) often disap- 
pears before d and n, and, in compensation, the vowel 
is lengthened. (S. § 214, 3.) 

Thus, breg-dan, bredan, pret. sg. braegd, brsed, to 
brandish; pret. sg. saeg'de, sgede, pp. gessegd, g-essecl, of 
s^cgan, to say ; frignan, frinan, to ifiquire; nisegden, 
inseden.^ maiden ; SFeg-eii, STeii, servant; aregnian, arenian, 
to serve; wsegn, wsen, tvain. 

The occasional disappearance of g (guttural) after 
a guttural vowel is therefore due to the influence of 
palatal forms : pret. pi. briidon, pp. broden (for brug- 
don, brogden) follow the pattern of bregdan, bredan, 
etc. 



PHoyoLOGT. xxi 

Note, — The spirant quality of medial g, which underlies this 
process of disappearance, is further shown in the frequent change 
(especially in LWS) of final (and occasionally of medial) g into li. 
This change is most frequent after a long guttural vowel and after 
1 and r, but it occurs also , under other conditions. Thus, beag 
(beah), ring; burg (burh), borough; earg (earh), cowardly; 
iergiSu (ierhSfu), cowardice; sorg (sorh), sorroio ; flog (floh), 
log (loh), slog (sloh), pret. of flean, to flay, lean, to blame, slean, 
to slay. 

LOSS OF MEDIAL h. 

17. Medial h (not hh) preceded by r or 1 and 
followed by an inflectional vowel disappears, and, in 
compensation, the stem-vowel is lengthened. (S. § 218.) 

Thus, niearli, gen. nieares, horse; feorh, gen. f cores, 
life; seolh, gen. seoles, seal. 

CONTRACTION. 

18. Intervocalic li disappears, and the vowels thus 
brought together are contracted, or the first vowel 
absorbs the second. (S. §§ 110-119, 218, 222.) 

Thus, feoh, gen. feos, property ; eoh, gQw. eos, horse ; 
pleoli, gQn. pleos, peril; lieah, gen. heas, and heaii 
(< *heahaii), high. 

Note 1. — This disappearance of li also occurs (with variation) 
before inflexional syllables beginning with n and r ; before the com- 
parative ending in r, and in composition and derivation : heah. ace. 
masc. heane (heanne, S. § 222, Note 2), dat. fem. heare, comp. hiera 
(hierra) ; healic, high; pleolic, perilous ; nea-l^can, to draw near. 

Note 2. — Many contracted themes are due to the early loss of 
intervocalic h. 

Thus, ah + a or u results in ea : slean (< *sleahaa, 9, < *sl8ehan, 
7; Goth, slahan), to strike ; aCwean (Goth. 9''\vahan), to wash ; ea 
(<*aha; Goth, ahva, OS and OHG aha), river; tear (< *teahur 
< *tahur) , tear. 

eh + a or o results in eo (io) : seen (sion) (< *seohaii < *sehan ; 
Goth, saihvan, OS and OHG sehan), to see ; gefeon (< *gefehauj, 
to rejoice; tweo (< *tweho), doubt. 



xxii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 

i + a or a results in io (eo) : ffeon (< ^iffihaii ; Goth. >elhaii 
< *S'enhan), to thrive; wreon (< *wrihan), to cover; beot 
(< *bihat), boast. 

A long vowel absorbs the following vowel : f on (< *fohau < 
*fQnhaii), to seize; hon (< *liohaii < *hQnhan), io hang; teon 
(<*teohan), to draw; fleon (<*fleohan), to Jlee. 

INFLUENCE OF W. 

19. The diphthongs eo, io produced by the breakmg 
(9) or by the u-o-umlaut (14) of e, i are sometimes 
Labialized by a preceding w into u or o. (S. §§ 71, 
72.) 

Thus, weorSfan (< ^wersaran, 9), to become, appears 
also in the form wuri5'aii ; weorSTian, wurariau, to 
honor; weorpan, wurpan, to throw; weorold (14), 
worold, woruld, ivorld ; sweord, swurd, sword; wita, 
wiota (14), weota, wuta, ivise man; widuwe, wioduwe 
(14), wuduwe, widoiv; betwib, betweoh (9), betwuh^ 
with disappearance of w, betuh, between. 



INFLE C Tl ON : DE C LENS ION. 



XXlll 



INFLECTION. 
DECLENSION OF NOUNS. 

THE a-DECLENSION. (S. §§ 235-250.) 

20. The a-declension (which includes the stems in 
-ja and -wa) represents the inflection of the greater 
number of the masculine and the neuter nouns. (Latin 
and Greek o-declension.) 

Masculine a-SiEMS. 

21. (a) Monosyllabic themes: stan (Germanic 
*stainas > -az ; ai > a), stone; dseg, day; weal(l), 
wall; mearh, horse. 



Sing. N.A. 


Stan 


daeg 


weal(l) (12) 


mearh 


G. 


stanes 


daeges 


wealles (9) 


meares (17) 


DL 


stane 


dsege 


wealle 


meare 


Plur. N.A. 


stanas 


dagas (7) 


weallas 


mearas 


G. 


stana 


daga 


wealla 


meara 


D.L 


stanum 


dagum 


weallum 


mearum 



22. (V) Dissyllabic themes: eSTel, property; ^ngel, 

angel; heofon, heaven; fugol, bird. 

Sing. NA. eiSTel ?ngel heofon (14) fugol 

G. eiJles angles heofones fugles 

D.I. effle ?ngle heofone fugle 

Plur. N.A. eS'las ^nglas heofenas fuglas 

G. el51a ^ngla heofena fugla 

D.I. e<51uni ^nglam heofenum fuglum 



23. (1) In the inflection of dissyllabic themes, when 
the radical syllable is long, the (short) middle vowel is 



xxiv AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR, 

syncopated (eSries, fugles) ; when the radical syllable 
is short, the middle vowel is retained (lieofones). 

(2) But certain of the themes in -el, -ol, -er, -or almost 
regularly do not retain the middle vowel after a short 
radical syllable (fugles; S. § 245). 

(3) A middle vowel which is long (by position) is 
retained: wsefels, wsefelses, covering; fsetels, fsetelses, 
vessel; li^ngest, h^ngestes, stallion; fsereld, fsereldes, 
journey. 

Note, — There is always more or less deviation from the normal 
forms in the matter of the loss and the retention of the middle vowel. 
The middle vowel tends to assume the form e before a following a, o, 
u (heofones, but heofenas ; S. § 129). but there is much of unregu- 
lated distribution of o and e as middle vowels. 



Neuter a-STEMS. 
(a) Monosyllabic themes: gear (-aii< Indogerm. 
year ; word, word; faet, vessel ; lim, limb ; feoh, 



24. 

-om), 

cattle. 

S. N.A. gear (10, 4) ivord 

G. geares wordes 

D.I. geare worde 

P. N.A. gear word 

(i. geara worda 

D.I. gearum wordum 



faet 

faetes 

faete 

fatu (7) 

fata 

fatum 



lim 



feoh (fee) 



fees (18) 
feo 



limes 

lime 

limu, leomu (14) 

lima, leonia 

limum, leomum 



25. The case-ending (u) of the iiom. and ace. pi. 
disappears after a long radical sjdlable ; after a short 
radical syllable it is retained: gear, word, but fatu, 
limu (liomu, leomu). 

Note. — The case-ending u of the nom. ace. pi. is often weakened 
to o or a. Monosyllabic themes may also have prefixes : gebed, 
prayer; s^f eoht, Jjght ; gewrit, writing; bebod, command. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. 



XXV 



26. (S) Dissyllabic themes : heafod, head; nieten 
[nyteii), animal; wsepen, weapon; wseter, water. 



S. N.A. 


heafod 


nieten 


wsepen 


■vraBter 


G. 


heafdes 


nietenes 


w^epnes 


waeteres 


D.I. 


heafde 


nietene 


wsepne 


\v8etere 


P.N.A. 


heaf(o)du 


nietenu 


Ti^sepnu, -en 


wseter, -u 


G. 


heafda 


nietena 


wapna 


wsetera 


D.I. 


heafdum 


nietenum 


wgepnum 


wieterum 



27. The middle vowel is generally syncopated after 
\ long radical syllable (heafdes, wsepnes); it is retained 
ifter a short radical syllable (waeteres), and in some 
words in -en having a long radical syllable (nietenes). 
The case-ending ii (o, a) of the nom. ace. pi. gener- 
ally remains after a long radical syllable (heaf(o)du, 
nietenu), deoflu (-o, -a), and disappears when the 
radical syllable is short (wseter). 

Note. — Usage is not uniform in the treatment of either the middle 
vowel or the case-ending u. 



Masculine and Neuter ja-SxEMS. 

28. (a) Monosyllabic themes : Masculine, hierde, 
shepherd; li^re, army; hrycg-, ridge. — Neuter, wite, 
punishvieyit ; cynn, hin. 



S.N.A. hierde(13,/) h^re(13,«) hrycg(12) wite 

G. hierdes h^r(i)ges(10,3) hrycges wi^tes 

D.I. hierde h^r(i)ge hrycge wite 

P.N.A. hierdas h^r(i)g(e)as hrycgas -wTtu 

G. hierda h^r(i)g(e)a hrycga v^^ita 



cyn(n)(12j 

cynnes 

cynne 

cyn(n) 
cynna 



D.I. hierdum 



h^r(i)gum 



hrycgum Tvituni cynnum 



29. Nouns in -ja (= ia after a long radical syllable, 
11, Note 2) have umlaut of the radical vowel (if it be 
a vowel that can be affected by umlaut), and gemination 



XXVI AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



of a single consonant (except r) before j when the radical 
vowel is short (11): stem *hrugja-> hrycg, etc. 

30. (5) Dissyllabic themes : Masculine, sefen, even- 
ing ; fiscere, fisher. — Neuter, westen, waste. 



S. N.A. 


sefen 


fiscere 


westen 


G. 


sefen(ii)es 


fisceres 


westen(ii)es 


D.I. 


aefen(n)e 


fiscere 


westen(n)e 


P. N.A. 


gefen(n)as 


fisceras 


Tvesten(n)u 


G. 


£efen(n)a 


fiscera 


westeii(n)a 


D.I. 


£efen(n)oin 


fiscerum 


westen (n)uin 



Note. — A medial gemmated consonant is often simplified before 
an inflectional ending: 2efen(n)es, westen(n)es, etc. 

Masculine and Neuter w^a-SiEMS. 

31. Themes: Masculine, bearu,^ro?;g; tSeow^ servant. 
— Neuter, searu, device; ciieo(w), knee. 



S. N.A. 


beam, -o 


areo(w) 


searu, -o 


cneo(w) 


G. 


bearwes 


safeowes 


searwes 


cneowes 


D.I. 


bearw^e 


iareowe 


searwe 


cneowe 


P. N.A. 


bearwas 


iafeGwas 


searu, -o 


cneo%v(u), eneo 


G. 


bearwa 


(Jeowa 


searw^a 


cneow^a 


D.I. 


bearw^um 


(Jeowum 


searwum 


cneowum 



32. (1) After a short radical syllable the w of the stem 
has become final u (o) of the theme: stem *barwa-> 
*baru ; gen. *barwes > bearwes (9) ; the broken vowel 
ea is transferred to the theme. 

(2) The wa-stems are relatively few in number. Some 
of the more common ones are : masc. siia(w), snoiv ; 
STeaw, custom; — masc. and neut. deaw, dew; hlaw, 
hlgew, mound; hra(w), hrse(w), corpse; — neut. bealu, 
evil; niealu, meal; hleo(w), protection ; treo(w), tree. 

Note, — A parasitic vowel, vi, o, or e, is often developed before w: 
bear(ii)we, bear(o)we ; sear(u)we, sear (e) we ; beal(o)wes, etc, 
(cf. 37, Notei 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. 



XXVU 



THE O-DECLENSION. (S. §§ 251-260.) 

33. All nouns of the o-declension (which includes the 
stems in -jo and -wo) are feminine. (Latin and Greek 
a-declension.) 

o-St£ms, 

34. Themes: giefu, gift; lar, lore; frofor, consola- 
tion; firen, sin; costung", temptation. 



S.N. 


giefu, -o lar 




frofor 


firen 


costiing 


G. 


giefe lare 




frofre 


firene 


costunga, -e 


D.I. 


giefe lare 




frofre 


firene 


costunga, -e 


A. 


giefe lare 




frofre 


firene 


costunga, -e 


P. N.A. 


giefa, -e lara, 


-e 


frofra, -e 


firena, -e 


costunga, -e 


G. 


glefa, -ena lara, 


-ena 


frofra 


firena 


costunga 



D.I. giefum larum 



frofrum firenum costungum 



35. The case-ending u of the nom. sg. is retained only 
in words like giefu (with short radical syllable) . In the 
gen. pi. some use is made of the case-ending -ena, which 
is taken from the n-declension (44). Nouns in -ung 
have commonly the case-ending -a in the gen. dat. ace. sg. 
After a long radical syllable the middle vowel is synco- 
pated (frofre) ; it is retained when the radical syllable 
is short (firene). 

j6-Stems. 

36. Themes: wylf, she-wolf; sib(b), peace; byriSren, 
burden; halignes, holiness. 



S.N. 


wylf 


sib(b) (12) 


b3rr9'en 


halignes 


G. 


wylfe 


slbbe 


byr(5'en(n)e 


halignesse 


D.I. 


wylfe 


sibbe 


byr)aren(n)e 


halignesse 


A. 


wylfe 


sibbe 


byr3'en(n)e 


halignesse 


V. N.A. 


wylfa, -e 


sibba, -e 


byrafen(n)a, -e 


hallgnessa, -e 


G. 


wylfa 


sibba 


byr9'en(n)a 


halignessa 


D.I. 


wylfum 


sibbum. 


byr3'en(n)um 


halignessum 



XXVlll AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 

Some of the more common ja-stems are : b^n(u), 
luoimd; bliSTs, bliss, hliss ; brycg-, bridge; byrg-en, tomb; 
CQndel, candle; ^cg-, edge; g-iemen, care; g-ydeii, god- 
dess; li^U, hell; bild, battle; liars, liss, favor; milds, 
milts ^ mercy ; sciell, scyll, shell; synn, sin; wyun, jog; 
yd", wave. 

wo-Stems. 

37. Themes: stow, place; beadu, battle; Ises, pas- 
ture; nised, meadow. 



S.N. 


stow 


beadu 


Ises 


maed 


G. 


stowe 


beadwe 


li5s(w)e 


insed(w)e 


D.I. 


stowe 


beadw^e 


l£es(w)e 


in8ed(w)e 


A. 


stowe 


beadwe 


lles(w)e 


in£ed(w)e, (meed) 


P.N.A. 


stowa, -e 


beadwa, -e 


l£es(w)a, -e 


in£ed(w^)a, -e 


G. 


stow^a 


beadwa 


l8es(w)a 


in8ed(w)a 


D.I. 


stowum 


beadwum 


l£es(w)um 


in^dCw:)um 



Here belong also hreow, repentance ; treow, faithful- 
ness; nearu, distress; the plurals frsetwa, -e, g-eatwa, 
-e, g-etawa, -e, ornaments^ arms; and ea, ivater (<*ahu, 
IS, Note 2 ; Goth, ahwa), gen. sg. ea (eas, ie), dat. sg. 
ea (ie, ei), ace. sg. ea ; nom. ace. pi. ea (ean) ; dat. pi. 
eauni (earn). There is also a trace of this declension 
in the nom. ace. pi. clea, cleo, dat. pi. cleani (clam), 
claws. 

Note. — A parasitic vowel, u, o, or e, may be developed before w: 
bead(u)we, bead(o)we, near(o)we, geat(e)we, etc, (cf, 32, Note), 



THE i-DECLENSION. (S. §§ 261-269,) 

38. The i-declension includes nouns of all genders, 
bat it has been much affected by the adoption of case- 
endings of the a-declension. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION, XXIX 

Masculine and Neuter I-Stems. 

39. Themes : Masculine, hryre, fall; freondscipe, 

friendship ; pi. r>^ne, the Danes ; f ^nj?, grasp ; pi. 
Engle, the Angles. — Neuter, sife, sieve. 

S. N.A, hryre freondscipe f<?ng sife • 

G. hryres freondscipes f^nges sifes 

D.I. hryre freondscipe f^nge sife 

P. N.A. hryras D^ne l^ngle sifu 

G. hryra D^n(ige)a ]gngla sifa 

D.I. hryruin D^num jgnglum sifum 

40. The original i of the stem has produced umlaut 
of the radical vowel, and survives as e in the nom. ace. 
s,8^. when the radical syllable is short : *liruri > hryre. 
The proper case-ending of the nom. ace. pi. masc. is 
e (<i), but it has been almost totally superseded by 
-as of the a-declension, except in proper nouns like 
D^ne, Eng-le, etc. 

Note, — Traces of the original inflection of the plural are wine, 
friends; gen. pi. winigea ; st^de, places, etc., occurring by the side 
of the usual forms winas, gen. wina, st^das, etc. The permanent 
trace of the original declension is the umlaut of the radical vowel. 

Feminine i-Stems. 

41. Themes: deed, deed; cwen, woman; scjld, guilt. 



S.N. 


daed 


cwen 


scyld 


G. 


dsede 


ewe lie 


scylde 


D.I. 


d£ede 


cwene 


scylde 


A. 


d^d (-e) 


CTven (e) 


scyld 


\ N.A. 


dsede (-a) 


cwene (-a) 


scylde (-a) 


G. 


deeda 


cwena 


scylda 


D.I. 


dsedum 


cw^enum 


scyldum 



42. The case-endings ace. sg. -e, nom. ace. pi. -a are 
often employed; they are adopted from the o-declension. 



XXX AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

The nouns here represented have the radical syllable 
long; those with a short radical syllable have conformed 
to the o-declension. 



THE U-DECLENSION. (S. §§ 270-275.) 

43. Themes : Masculine, sunu, son. — Feminine, 
hQnd, hand. 

S. N.A. sunu, -o, -a hQnd 

G. suna hQnda 

D.I. suna, -u, -o hQnda 

P. N.A. suna, -u, -o hgnda 

G. suna hgnda 

D.I. sunum hQndum 

This declension has been reduced to comparatively 
few surviving forms, such as : masc. wudu (< wiodu 
19), gen. dat. sg. wuda ; sidu (siodu, 14), custom 
ace. pi. siodo ; medu (meodu, 14), mead^ dat. sg 
meodu, -o ; feld, fields dat. sg. felda ; ford, ford^ dat 
sg. forda ; winter, winter., dat. sg. wintra ; sumor 
summer^ dat. sg. sumera ; — fem. duru, door^ dat. sg 
durn, -a; — neut. fela (feola, 14), much. 



THE WEAK DECLENSION (n-DECLENSION) . (S. §§ 276-278, 280.) 

44. Themes : masc, n^ma, name; fem., tunge, tongue; 
neut., eage, eye; masc, gefea, joy. 



gefea 

gefean 

gefean 

gefean 
gefeana 
gefea (u)m 



S.N. 


nQma 


tunge 


cage 


G.D.I. 


nQman 


tuDgan 


eagan 


A. 


UQman 


tungan 


cage 


P. N.A. 


nQman 


tungan 


eagan 


G. 


nQmena 


tuogena 


eagena 


D.I. 


nQmum 


tungum 


eagum 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. XXXI 

45. The case-ending of the gen. pi. -ena (which may 
also occur as -ana, -ona, -una) is sometimes reduced to 
-na, or even to -a (in agreement with other declensions). 
-an often becomes -on. 

gefea represents a small class of stems ending in a 
vowel, which is contracted with the case-endings. Other 
words of this form are : masc. frea, lord; leo, lion, gen. 
leon, etc.; tweo, doubt; STrea, threat; — fern, fla, arrow. 

eage and eare, ear, almost exhaust the neuter nouns 
of this declension. 



FEMININE ABSTRACT NOUNS IN -U, -O. (S. § 279.) 

46. Themes : wl^acu, pride ; str^ngu (str^ngffu, 
str^ng-ar), strength. 

S. N. wl^ncu, -o str^ngu, -o str^ngS'u, -o, string?? 

G.l 
D.I. rwl^nce; -u,-o strange; -u,-o str^ngiffe; -u, -o 

A. J 

P. N. A, wl^nc (e) a, -u, -o strange, -a ; -u, -o strings' e, -a ; -u, -o 
G. wl^nc(e)a str^nga str^nggfa 

D.I. wl^ncum str^ngum str^ngS'uin 

47. These nouns represent primarily an original 
weak declension in i(n) (e.g., brsedu, brsed = Goth. 
braidei; ei = i); and secondarily abstracts of the 
a-declension in *-i3'u, (Goth. -iSTa) : str^ngSTu < 
^str^ngiiara. The -u of the nom. sg. has been obtained 
from the 6-declension, and extended to other cases so 
as to produce often an uninflected singular. There 
is always more or less conformity to the o-declension, 
especially by nouns in *-iiaru. (S. § 255, 3.) 



XXXll AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR, 



MINOR DECLENSIONS. 

THE r-DECLENSION. (S. § 285.) 

48. Themes (nouns of relationship) : feeder, father; 
modor, mother; broQ'or, brother; sweostor, sister; deb- 
tor, daughter, 

S. N.A. feeder modor, -ur, -er broQ'or, -ur, -er 

G. f seder, -(e) res inodor (meder) broffor 

D.I. fseder meder (13, cZ) breffer (13, tZ) 

P. N.A. f8ed(e)ras modru, -a broafor, -i5'ru 

G. f8ed(e)ra modra brolSra 

D.I. f8ed(e)rum modrum broffrum 



S. N.A. sweostor, -ur, -er 

G. sweostor 

D.I. sweostor 

P. N.A. sAveostor, -tru, -tra 

G. sw^eostra 

D.I. sw^eostrum 



dohtor, -ur, -er 
dohtor (dehter) 
dohtor, dehter (13, d) 
dohtor, -tru, -tra 
dohtra 
dohtrum 



The datives meder, dehter (which are sometimes 
transferred into the genitive) exhibit umlaut of the 
radical vowel (meder < *modri ; dehter < *dohtri). 
sweostor also becomes swoster, swuster (19), swyster. 

Here belong also the collective plurals gebroaFor, 
brethren^ gesweostor, sisters. 



THE nd-DECLENSION. (S. §286.) 

49. Themes: freond, friend ; h^ttend, enemi/. 



S. N.A. freond 

G. freondes 

D.I. friend (13,/), freonde 

P. N.A. friend, freond, freondas 

G. freouda 

D.I. freondum 



h^ttend 

h^ttendes 

h^ttende 

h^ttend, -das, -de 

h^ttendra 

hQttendun» 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION, xxxill 

50. This declension comprises masculine nouns of 
agency derived from present participles. Like freond 
are declined feond, foe; the collective plurals gefriend, 
friends; gefiend, foes. Like h^tteiid are declined 
agend, owner; demend, judge; ehtend, persecutor; 
fultuin(i)end, helper; g-oddond (pi. goddend), hene^ 
factor; liealdend, keeper; liselend, D^rgend, saviour^ 
wealdend, ruler; wigend, warrior; etc. The case- 
endings gen. sg. -es, dat. sg. -e, nom. pi. -as show 
conformity to the a-declension, and nom. pi. -e, gen. 
pi. -ra are in accordance with the regular strong 
adjective inflection of present participles (62). 

THE er-DECLENSiON (Gotli. is-, Indogcrm. OS- 
es- declension). (S. §§ 280-299.) 

51. Themes: Neuter, iQinb, lamb; cealf, calf; segy 
^99- 

S. N.A. iQmb 

G. iQiTibes 

D.I. iQmbe 

P. N.A. iQmbru, iQinber, iQmb 
G. iQmbra iQmba 

D.I. iQmbrum iQinbum 

The plurals in r, given in the paradigms, to which 
may be added the occasional pi. cildru, children^ conserve 
notable traces of the primitive stem-formation. 

52. The original stem-endings are also to be 
recognized in themes like dogor, day ; sigor, victory; 
hrySTer, cattle ; but these have adopted the a-declension, 
and often a change of gender. Sometimes -er is reduced 
to -e, as in sige (< *siger; Goth, sigis), victory ; ^ge 



cealf 


Seg 


cealfes 


geges 


cealfe 


£ege 


cealf ru 


gegru 


cealfra 


£egra 


cealfrum 


segrum 



XXXlV AN OUTLINE OF ANCfLO-SATON GRAMMAR. 

(Goth, agis), fear^ and such words have generally 
become masculine and follow the i-declension. Other- 
wise the total loss of the stem-ending (as in the sing, 
of the paradigms) has resulted in a theme like sael, 
hall (by the side of salor). 



THE RADICAL CONSONANT DECLENSION. (S. §§281-284.) 

63. Themes: Masculine, mQnn, wan; fot, foot; totJ, 
tooth. — Feminine, boc, hook; burg, borough. 

S. N.A. mQn(n) fot toff boc burg 

G. mQniLes fotes toffes bec,boce byr(i)g(13,e) 

D.L m^ii(n)(13,6)fet(13,d) teff bee byr(l)g 

P.N.A. m^n(n) fet teff bee byr(i)g 

G. mgnna fota toffa boca burga 

D.I. mQimum fotum toffum bocum burgum 

54. (1) A weak aco. sg. mQnnan, and the pi. fotas, 

to9as sometimes occur. Other masculine forms of thia 
declension survive in hsele (haeleiff), hero^ pi. hsele, 
hseled' (by the side of liseletyas); mona^T, months pi. 
monaST (by the side of mon(e)3'as). There are also 
the neuter forms : scrud, garment^ d^t. sg. scryd ; ealu, 
.«?e, gen. dat. sg. ealod", -aST. 

(2) Like boc are also declined the feminines broc, 
breeches, pi. brec ; gat, goat, pi. get ; gos, goose, pi. ges ; 
lus, louse, pi. lys ^ mus, mouse, pi. mys ; cu, cow (gen. 
cu(e), cy, cus ; dat. cy ; pi. nom. ace. cy(e), gen. 
cu(n)a, cyna ; dat. cuum, cum). — niht, night, pre- 
serves a trace of this declension in dat. sg., nom. ace. 
pi. nibt (the adverbial gen. nibtes (70) is due to asso- 
ciation with dgjges) ; and maegety, maegST, maid, m 



INFLECTION: DECLENSION. xxxv 

undergoing no change in the sing, and the nom. ace. pi. 
— burg- sometimes shows departure from this declension 
by the gen. dat. sg. burge, nom. ace. pi. burge, -a. 



ADJECTIVES. 

DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. (S. §§ 291-304.) 

65. Adjectives have a double inflection : (1) the 
Strong (or Indefinite), and (2) the Weak (or Definite) 
declension. 

(1) The Strong declension is used whenever none of 
the conditions for the use of the Weak declension are 
present. It has some special case-endings, which are of 
pronominal origin : masc. neut. dat. sg. -um ; masc. ace. 
sg. -ne; fem. gen. dat. sg. -re; masc. nom. ace. pi. -e ; 
gen. pi. -ra; with these exceptions this declension agrees 
with that of a- (ja-, wa-) stems for the masc. and neut., 
and with that of o- (jo-, wo-) stems for the fem. forms. 
A few traces are all that is left to represent the declen- 
sion of i- and u-stems (59, 2, 3). 

(2) The Weak declension is used when the adjective 
is preceded by a demonstrative (sometimes a possessive) 
pronoun ; in direct address (vocative) ; and in poetry 
sometimes in place of the Strong declension. More- 
over, the comparatives always follow this declension, 
and usually the superlatives ; and all the ordinals (ex- 
cept serest, fyrmest, fyrest, fyrst, first; and oSTor, 
second. 74, 7). 

This declension agrees throughout with the n-declen- 
sion of nouns (44), except that the gen. pi. often ends 
in -ra. 



XXXVl AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GEAMMAB, 

STRONG DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

(a) a- (o-) Stems. 
66. Themes: hraed, r«2pzc?; ^bd^ good. 





MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE. 


S.N. 


hraed 


hraed 


hradu, -o 


G. 


hraedes 


hraedes 


hrcedre (7) 


D. 


hradum (7) 


hradum 


hrcedre 


A. 


hrcedne 


hraed 


hraede 


I. 


hrsede 


hraede 




P. N.A. 


hrcede 


hradu, -o ; -e hrada, -e 


G. 


hrcEdra 


hrcEdra 


hrcedra 


D.L 


hradum 


hradum 


hradum 




MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE. 


S.N. 


god 


god 


god 


G. 


godes 


godes 


godre 


D. 


godum 


godum 


godre 


A. 


godne 


god 


gode 


I. 


gode 


gode 




P.N.A. 


gode 


god ; -e 


goda, -e 


G. 


godra 


godra 


godra 


D.L 


godum 


godum 


godum 



Note. — The special case-endings, of pronominal origin (55, 1), are 
marked by difference of type in the paradigm of hraed. 



57. (1) In LWS the nom. ace. pi. neut. generally 
ends in -e (in conformity to the masc); the cases in 
-um sometimes appear in -on, -an ; and -re, -ra may 
become -ere, -era. 

Note. — The nom. ace. pi. masc. feawe, few, and manege, many, 
because of association with the noun fela, much (which is also used 
as an adjective), frequently become feawa and manega ; so too 
may occur f em. maniga ; ealla for ealle, all ; and ana for Sue, alone. 

(2) Adjectives in -li: heah, high^ fem. heah, hea ; 
gen. heas (18), LWS also heages ; fem. gen. dat. 



INFLECTION: DECLENSION. 



xxxvil 



heare, heahre, hearre ; clat. heaum, heam, heagum ; 
ace. masc. lieanne, heaue, lieahne, etc. — lireoli, rough; 
dat. hreoum ; ace. masc. lireone ; gen. pi. lireora ; etc. 
— ruli, rough, gen. rtiwes, ruges ; ace. masc. ruhne ; 
etc. — iSTweorh, transverse, gen. ^Tweores ; etc. — woh, 
wrong, gen. tvos, wog-es ; etc. 

(3) In the declension of dissyllabic themes the same 
principles generally prevail in the retention and the loss 
of the middle vowels which have been observed in the 
corresponding declensions of nouns. 

(6) ja- (jo-) AND wa- (wo-) Stems. 

58. Themes : ja- (jo-) theme, grene, green; wo- 
(wo-) theme, gearu, ready. 





MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE, 


S.N. 


grene 


grene 


grenu, -o 


G. 


grenes 


grenes 


grenre 


D. 


grennm 


grenum 


grenre 


A. 


grenne 


grene 


grene 


I. 


grene 


grene 




P.N.A. 


grene 


grenu, -o; -e 


grena, -e 


G. 


grenra 


grenra 


grenra 


D.I. 


grenum 


grenum 


grenum 




MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE. 


S.N. 


gearu, -o 


gearu, -o 


gearu, -o 


G. 


gearwes 


gear (o) re 


D. 


gearwum 


gear(o)re 


A. 


gearone 


gearu, -o 


gearwe 


I. 


gearwe 




P.N.A. 


gearwe 


gearu; -we 


gearwa, -e 


G. 




gear(o)ra 




D.I. 




gearwum 





59. (1) frio (freo, frioh, freoli), free (stem *frija~), 
gen. frig-es; dat. frigum; pi. frige, etc., has also con- 



xxxvill AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAB. 

tracted forms : dat. frioum ; gen. dat. fern, friore ; ace. 
masc. f rione ; pi. frio ; gen. friora, etc. 

Note. — The wa-stems often exhibit a parasitic vowel before w: 
gear(o)wes, gear(e)wes, gear(u)we, etc. (cf. 32, Note). 

(2) Adjective i-stems follow the declension of grene 
(ja-stem). Thus, bryce (stem *bruci; 13, e), frag- 
ile; gemyne, mindful; swice, deceitful. — With long 
radical syllable: bryce, useful; bliare, hlithe; swete, 
sweet, 

(3) Adjective u-stems have adopted either the a- or 
the ja-declension. c(w)icu, c(w)ucu (< cwiocu : 
19), alive., and wlacu, tepid., have the appearance ( i' 
relics of the u-declension, but strictly belong to tho 
wa-stems. 

WEAK DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

60. Theme : god, good. 



MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. FEMININE. 


S.N.V. 


goda 


gode gode 


G. 


godan 


godan godan 


D.I. 


godan 


godan godan 


A. 


godan 


gode godan 

ALL GENDERS. 


P.N.V.A. 




godan 


G. 




godena, -ra (55, 2) 


D.I. 




godum 



Note 1. — The gen. pi. sometimes occurs in -ana, -an (conforming 
to the other cases); or in -na, and -a (conforming to nouns). The 
case-ending -an sometimes appears as -on ; and -um may become 
-an, -on. 

Note 2. — Adjectives in h are contracted: heah, high; hea, hean 
(18), etc. — ^weovh., transverse : ffweora, -e, etc. ; ^oh., wrong : gen. 
pi. wona, etc. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. XXXIX 



DECLENSION OF PARTICIPLES. (S. §§ 305, 306.) 

61. Participles admit of the double inflection of ad- 
jectives. When the strong inflection is employed, the 
present participle is declined like a ja-(jo) stem (68, 
grene) ; the past participles (of both Strong and Weak 
verbs) are declined like a-(o-) stems (56). 



STRONG DECLENSION OF THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE. 

62. Theme : Present Participle, singende, singing. 



MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE. 


• S. N. singende 


singende 


singendu, -o 


G. singendes 


singendes 


singendre 


D. singendum 


singendum 


singendre 


A. singendne 


singende 


singende 


I. singende 


singende 




P. N.A. singende 


singendu,-o; -e 


singenda, -e 


G. singendra 


singendra 


singendra 


D.I. singendum 


singendum 


singendum 


Note. — The ace. sg. masc 


. is often uninflected 


(having the ending 


-e, instead of -ne). When a 


present participle is 


5 used as a noun of 


agency, it follows the declension of nd-stems (49, h^ttend). 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. (S. §§ 307-314.) 

63. (1) An adjective forms its Comparative in the 
ending -ra (< *-ira and *-ora = Goth, -iza and -oza) ; 
its Superlative in -est, or -ost (= Goth, -ist, -ost). 
There may be umlaut of the radical vowel, but in 
most instances umlaut does not occur. 

Thus, («) with umlaut: 

eald, old ieldra ieldest 

ealS'e, easy ieiafra ieSS'est 



xl 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 



geong, young giengra giengest 

great, great grietra grietest 

heah, high hiehra (liierra) hieh(e)st 

iQng, lo)ig l^ngra longest 

sceort, short sciertra sciertest 



(6) Without umlaut : 



ceald, cold 
earm, poor 
heard, hard 
Mud, loud 
leof, dear 
rice, powerful 
swii5', strong 
swift, swift 



cealdra 

earinra 

heardra 

hludra 

leofra 

ricra 

swiS'ra 

swiftra 



cealdost 

earmost 

heardost 

Madost 

leofost 

ricost 

swiiS'ost 

swiftest 



(2) In the limited class of umlauted forms the 
original endings were -ira, -ist ; while the more 
common absence of umlaut proves the preference for 
-ora, -ost. 

Note 1. — It is because comparatives follow the weak declen- 
sion (55, 2) that the masculine theme (in -a) is adopted as the 
theme of the comparative ; superlatives admit of double inflection 
therefore the strong theme is here employed (in -ist, -ost, not -ista, 
-osta) . / 

Note 2. — The ending -ost (which is often represented by -u^t, 
-ast) is occasionally c-ransferred to umlauted forms ; and -est is 
often found with the unumlauted forms, particularly when these are 
inflected: heardesta, ricestan, etc. 



64. Some few comparatives and superlatives have 
no positive, but are based on corresponding adverbs or 
prepositions : 



(feorr, far) 


fierra 


fierrest 


(neah, near) 


nearra 


niehst 


(ger, earlier) 


aerra 


serest 


(fore, before) 


furiafra 


fyCojst 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION, 



xli 



ni 



65. A trace of superlatives in -m survives in forma 
the first, and liindema, tJie hindmost. But to this 
the regular ending -est has been joined ; the result is a 
(double) superlative ending -mest (-maest ; = Goth. 
-m-ist-), which appears in the following list. These 
adjectives are, in the greater number of instances, also 
based upon adverbs or prepositions, and usually have 
the comparative in -erra. 



(sis', late) 
laet, late 
(inne, withi.i.) 
(ute, withe at) 
(nfan, above) 
(niafan, below) 
(fore, before) 
(asfter, after) 
inid(d), mid 
(noriy, 7iorthward) 
(sntf, southward) 
(east, eastward) 
(west, westward) 



silSfra 

Isetra 

iun(er)ra 

ut(er)ra, ytrra 

uferra, yfer(r)a 

niS'erra 

furafra 

aefterra 

nor9'(er)ra, nyrS'ra 
snS'(er)ra, sy9'erra 
east(er)ra 

(west(er)ra) 



siSCemest, si9'est 

laetemest, laetest 

innemest 

ytemest, utemest 

yf(e)mest, ufemest 

niiSemest 

fyrmest, forma 

aeftemest 

mid (e) mest 

norSTmest 

suffmest 

eastmest 

westDiest 



66. In the following list the root of the comparative 
and superlative differs from that of the positive. 



god, good 
yfel, evil 
micel, great 
lytel (lyt), littU 



l)^t(e)ra, b^ttra 
wiersa 
mara, mserra 
l«ssa 



b<jt(e)st 

■wierrest, wierst 

m^st 

Ices (e) St, Iserest 



Note. — With god is to be associated (in meaning) tlie adv. sel, 
better, comp, adj. sella, selra, superl. adj. selost, selest; and the adv. 
and subst. ma (mse), morey belongs to mara. 



xlii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



ADVERBS. 

CLASSIFICATION AND FORMATION OF ADVERBS. 

(S. §§ 315-321.) 

67. Some of the more important adverbs of place are 
the following : — 



hwger (LWS hwar), where 


hwider, whither 


hwQnan, whence 


9ser(LWS9'ar),«/iere 


iSPider, afidres, thither 


i^Qnan, thence 


her, here 


hider, hidres, hither 


heonan, hence 


inne, innan, within 


in(n) 


innan 


ate, utan, without 


ut 


ntan 


uppe, nppan, up, above 


up(p) 


uppan 


ufan, above 




ufan 


neoiffan, below, beneath 


niaror 


neod'an 


foran, before 


forff 


foran 


hindan, behind 


hinder 


hindan 




east, east 


eastan 




west, west 


westan 




norS", north 


norS'an 




suS", south 


suSTan 


feorran, far 


feor(r) 


feorran 


neah (neh), near 


near 


nean 



ADVERBS FORMED FROM ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS. 

68. (1) Many adverbs in their formation have a 
definite relation either to adjectives or to nouns. The 
largest class is derived from adjectives by the addi- 
tion of the adverbial ending -e. Adjectives in -e 
remain unchanged. 

Thus, adj. g-eorn, eager ^ — adv. georne; hlud, loud^ 
-^hlude ; lilutor, clear ^ — hlutre ; iQng, long^ — l<?nge ; 
deop, deoplic, deep^ — deope, deoplice ; glsed, glsedlic, 
glad^ etc. — glaedlice. — From adjectives in -e : adj. 
bli^fe, joyful^ — adv. bliare ; clsene, clean, — clsene. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. xliii 

Note 1. — In consequence of a marked preference for the termi- 
nation -lice, these adverbs come to exceed in number adjectives in -lie. 

Note 2. — The adverbs softe, swote are without the umlaut of the 
corresponding adjectives sefte, soft, swete, sweet. 

69. Other adverbial endings are -a and -unga (-euga, 
-inga). 

Thus : geara, of yore ( = gen. pi. of gear, year) ; sona, 
%oon; tela (teola, teala, tala), properly ; tuwa (twu- 
wa, twiwa), twice; afriwa, thrice. — seninga (aniiiga, 
anunga), entirely; eallunga (eallinga), altogether ; 
gruiidlunga (grundlinga), completely; SQmnunga 
(s^mniuga), suddenly ; weninga, perhaps. 

70. Oblique cases of nouns and adjectives are used 
adverbially, and from these, as well as from prepo- 
sitional phrases, have sprung more or less permanent 
adverbial forms : 

Thus (a) genitive adverbs: daeges, hy day; nihtes, 
hy night; ealles, altogether; nealles (= na + ealles ; 
nalles, nalas, nalaes, nals), not at all; ^lles, otherwise; 
micles, very ; neades, needs; simMes, singales, always; 
willes, gewealdes, willingly; self-willes, voluntarily; 
up-weardes, upwards; togegnes, against; ungewisses, 
unconsciously ; hu geares, at what time of year. 

(5) Accusative adverbs: fym^ geiyrn, fo7'merly ; full, 
fully; genog, enough; hwon, somewhat; lytel, lyt, little; 
ungem^t, immoderately ; upweard, upivard. 

(c) Dative (Instr.) adverbs : hwene (instr.), some- 
what ; ham (hanie), home; sare, sorely; hwilum, 
sometimes; stundmselum, time after time; lytlum, 
little; miclum, very. 



xliv AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR, 

COMPARISON OF ADVERBS. (S. §§ 322, 323.) 

71. Adverbs (chiefly those which are derived from 
adjectives) adopt the comparative and superlative end- 
iiigs -or, -ost (-ust, -ast) : georne, eagerly ; geornor, 
geornost. 

72. Certain monosyllabic comparatives are without the 
comparative ending ; these were originally in -iz (= Goth, 
-is), and have therefore umlaut : ser, earlier (< *ariz < 
*airiz, Goth, airis) ; b^t, better (< *batiz, Goth. Tbatis) ; 
^nd, formerly ; fierr, farther ; leST (eaS"), easier ; Ises, 
less; l^ng, longer; mge (ma), more; nyr (near), 
nearer; seft, softer; sel, better; siST, later; tylg, more 
willingly. 

NUMERALS. 
CARDINAL AND ORDINAL NUMERALS. (S. §§ 324-331.) 

73. The cardinal and the ordinal numerals are as 
follows : — 





Cardinal. 


Ordinal. 


1 

2 
3 


an 

twegen, tu, twa 
fSrle, a-rio (ffreo) 


forma, formesta, fyrmest 
f yrest, f yrst ; merest 
o9'er, aef terra 
Q-ridda 


4 
5 


flower (feower) 
fif 


f eowerS-a, f eorija 
fifta 


6 


siex, six 


siexta 


7 
8 


siofon (seofon) 
eahta 


seofoafa, -ea^a 
eahtoiara, -effa, -eoafa 


9 


nigon 
tien, tyn 


nigoafa, -eSfa, -eoSTa 
teoffa 


LI 
L2 


^ndlefan, -leofan, -lufan, etc. 
tw^lf 


^ndlef ta, ^Uef ta, etc. 
tw^lfta 



INFLECTION: DECLENSION, 



xlv 



Cardinal. 

13 l^reotiene, -tene, -tyne 

14 fecwertiene 

15 fiftiene 

16 siextiene 

17 seofontiene 

18 eahtatiene 

19 nigontiene 

20 twentig 

21 an Qnd twentig 
30 IJritig 

40 feowertig 

50 fiftig 

60 siextig 

70 (hund)seofontig 

80 (hund)ealitatig 

90 (hund)nigontig 

100 hundteontig, hand, hundred 

f hund^ndlefantig 

I hundselleftig, etc. 

120 hundtw^lftig 

200 twa (tu) hund 

1000 arfisend 



Ordinal. 
i5'reoteo9'a 
feowerteoiafa 
fifteoffa 
siexteoffa 
seofonteolSra 
ealitateoS'a 
nigonteoSTa 

twentigoiara, -tigiafa, -tiga, etc. 
an Qnd twentigoffa 
S'ritigoQ'a 
feowertigoUa 
fiftigoSa 
siextigoSfa 
(hiind) seofontigoiafa 
(hund) eahtigoiara 
(hund)nigontigo9'a 
(hundteontigoSCa) 

(hund) ^ndlef tigolfira 
(hund) tw^lf tigoff a 



DECLENSION OF NUMERALS. 

74. (1) The cardinal an, one^ is generally declined 
like a strong adjective, with the ace. sg. masc. senne, 
anne, and the instr. sg. sene, ane. When it signifies 
alone^ it is often declined weak. (See also the Indefinite 
Pronouns.) 

(2) Themes: twegen, twain, two; Sfrie, three. 



MASCULINE. 

N. A. twegen 
G. 
D. 



NEUTER. 

tu, tw^a 

tweg(e)a, twegra 
twsem, twam 



FEMININE. 

twa 



xlvi AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 





MASCULINE. 


NEUTER. 


FEMININE. 


A. 
G. 
D. 


arrie, S-ri (ffry) 


afrio, ffreo 
iSfriora, !5reora 
9riin 


iffrio, ffreo 



(3) Like twegen is declined begen (beggen), both; 
neut. bti ; fern, ba; gen. beg(r)a; dat. bsem, bam. 

Note. — There is more or less disregard of gender in the use of the 
above forms. The fern, twa, which has been extended to the neut., 
is sometimes used for twegen ; and ba and ba for begen, and SFreo 
for (gTrie, occur. When nouns of different gender are referred to, the 
neut. form of the numeral is generally employed. There is a tendency 
to use conjointly the monosyllabic forms of twegen and begen, with 
some freedom as to gender: masc. fem. ba twa ; neut. (also masc. fern.) 
batn, buta, both. 

(4) The cardinals from 4 to 19 are, as a rule, not 
inflected, except when they are used absolutely (i.e. 
without a noun); they then take the case-endings 
nom. ace. -e, gen. -a, dat. -urn. 

(5) The cardinals in -tig are often not inflected; 
when inflected, the case-endings are gen. -a, -ra, dat. 
-una, and sometimes gen. sg. -es. 

(6) hund, usually uninflected, has the dat. sg. hunde, 
and the nom. ace. pi. hunde, dat. pi. hundum. When 
inflected, hundred has the following case-endings : gen. 
sg. -es, dat. sg. -e ; nom. ace. pi. -u, -o ; gen. pi. -a, dat. 
pi. -um. The same case-endings with the addition of 
gen. pi. -ra occur with SFusend. 

(7) The ordinals are all declined like weak adjectives, 
except serest, fyrmest, fyrest, fyrst, which conform to 
both the strong and the weak declension, and oarer which 
conforms to the strong declension only. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. xlvii 

PRONOUNS. 

PERSONAL PRONOUNS. (S. §§ 332-334.) 

75. Themes : First Person, ic, /; Second Person, S'ti- 
thou; Third Person, he, he^ hit, it^ heo, she. 





Sing. N. 


ic 




fSn 




G. 


min 




mn 




D. 


me 




Q-e 




A. 


mec, me 




a-ec, ffe 




Dual N. 


wit 




git 




G. 


uncer 




incer 




D. 


unc 




ine 




A. 


uncit, unc 


incit, inc 




Plur. N. 


we 




ge 




G. 


user, fire 




eower (iow^er) 




D. 


as 




eow (iow^) 




A. 


usic, us 




eowlc, eow (iow^) 


S.N. 


he 




hit 


heo (hio), hie, hi 


G. 


his 




his 


hiere, hire, hyre 


D. 


him 




him 


hiere, hire, hyre 


A. 


hiene, hine 




hit 


hie, hi (hig), heo 


P.N.A. 


hie, hi (hig) 


,hy, 


heo (hio) 


G. 


hiera, hira, hyra, heora (hiora) 


D. 


him, heom 







Note. — The Personal Pronouns are also used as Reflexives. 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. (S. §§ 335, 336.) 

76. The Possessive Pronouns min, mine ; 9"in, thine; 
ure, our ; eower, your; sin, Azs, Aer, its; uncer, of us 
two; incer, of you two, are declined like adjectives 
(strong declension). 

Note. — The genitives of the Third Personal Pronouns are often 
used as Possessives. 



xlviii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. (S. §§ 337-339.) 

77. Themes: masc, se, neufc., araet, fern., seo, the^ 
that; — masc, ares, neut., aris, fem., STeos, this. 



■ S.N. 


se laraet 


seo (sio) 


G. 


S-aes ig-aes 


afaere 


D. 


fSsem, lafam tSs&m, "Sam. 


areere 


A. 


afone (9'ane, iSTaene) ffaet 


aPa 


I. 


ffy, tSe, •Son. 9"y, fSe, •Son 




P. N.A. 


Ssi 




G. 


afar a, 9" sera 




D.I. 


Ssdm, Ssim 




S.N. 


ffes ffis 


ai'eos (arios) 


G. 


I5'is(s)es,l5'ys(s)es 


afisse, 9eosse (ffisre) 


D. 


I5is(s)um, ffys(s)um, areosum 


arisse, ffeosse (ffisre) 


A. 


a^isne, ffysne ffis 


Sas 


I. 


iS-ys, iSis 




P. N.A. 


afas 




G. 


arissa, areossa (arissera) 




D.L 


afis(s)uin, 9'ys(s)um, areos(s)uin 



The Demonstrative ilea, the same, is generally declined 
like a weak adjective ; self (seolf, silf, sylf), self, con- 
forms to both declensions of the adjective. 



RELATIVE PRONOUNS. (S. § 340.) 

78. There is no inflected Relative Pronoun. This 
want is supplied by the use of the Relative Particle tfe, 
used either alone or in combination with the weaker 
demonstrative se, cTaet, seo (and sometimes in combina- 
tion with a Personal Pronoun), and by the relative use 
of this demonstrative. 



INFLECTION : DECLENSION. xliai 

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. (S. §§ 341, 342.) 

79. Theme: masc, hwa, whoP neut., hwset, what? 

S. N. h^ra hwaet 

G. hwaes hvraes 

D. liw£eni, hwam hw£em, hwam 

A. hTTone (hwane, hwaene) hwaet 

I. hwi, hwy, hwon (hwan) hwi, hwy, hwon (hwan) 

Note. — There are no special feminine forms. The instrumental 
case has also yielded the adverb hu, how ? 

liwaeSTer, which of two? hwilc (hwylc, hwelc), which? 
hulic, what sort? are declined like strong adjectives. 

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. (S. §§ 343-349.) 

80. (1) The Indefinites selc, each ; an, a, an ; genig-, 
any ; nsenig* (< ne + genig-), none; oSTer, other ; sum, 
certain ; swilc, %uch^ are declined like strong adjectires. 
The nom. sg. m^n {man) is used as an indefinite, one. 

(2) The Interrogatives hwa, hwseSTer and hwilc are 
often used as Indefinites. They are also made indefinite 
by the use of swa, so : swa hwa swa, who(8o)ever ; swa 
hwae^fer swa, whichQso^ever of two, etc. Moreover, the 
Interrogatives in composition yield many Indefinites : 
ahwa, any one; ahwset, anything; seghwa, aethwa, 
gehwa, each, every; ahwaeSTer (ohweearer, awiOTer, 
ovviarer, a3'er, oiS'er) ; seghwaeSTer (segSTer, aS'er), either, 
each. nahwaeSTer, neither; seghwilc, gehwilc, each; 
s<?mhwylc, some one; with the indeclinable -hwega 
(-hwegu, -hwuga, -u, etc.): hwsethwega, something; 
hwilchwega, any one; and gethwega, somewhat. 

(3) Other substantival indefinites are : awiht (awuht, 
auht, aht ; owiht, owuht, oht), anything; iiawiht 
(uauht, naht. noht, etc.) and nanwuht, nothing. 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 



CONJUGATIOK 
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF VERBS. 

81. (1) The two comprehensive classes of verbs are : 

(1) Strong Verbs, (a) those which form the Principal 
Parts with a variation of the radical vowel QAhlauf)^ 
and (5) those which have Reduplicating Preterits ; and 

(2) Weak Verbs, those which (without ablaut) form the 
Preterit and Past Participle in d (t). 

(2) The Principal Parts of a verb are the Infinitive 
(which contains that form of the radical vowel which is 
employed in the entire system of the present tense), the 
Preterit Singular (and, in the case of Strong Verbs, the 
Preterit Plural), and the Past Participle. Thus, 

drifan, ^o (?me ; draf, drifon; (ge)drifen. 

Aeiask,n, to judge ; demde ; (ge)demed. 

CLASSIFICATION OF STRONG VERBS. 
(a) ABLAUT VERBS. (S. §§ 379-392.) 

82. Ablaut verbs are divided into six classes, in 
accordance with the principal variations in ablaut 
(which are due in part to differences in character of 
the final consonants of the radical syllable). 

83. (1) Class I. — Vowels : i ; a, i ; i. — (Germanic 
ei>i; ai, i; i). Thus, 

(a) bidan, tide; bad, bidon; (ge)biden. ; 

bitan, 6ife; bat, biton; (ge)biten. 



INFLECTION : CONJUGATION. 





glidan, glide ; 




glad, 


glidon ; 


(ge)gliden. 




ridan, ride ; 




rad, 


ridon ; 


(ge)riden. 




risan, rise ; 




ras, 


rison ; 


(ge) risen. 




writan, write ; 




wrat, 


writon ; 


(ge)writeii. 


(6) 


snid'an, cut ; 




snaS", 


snidon ; 


(ge)siiiden. 


(c) 


ffeon (18, N. 2), 


thrive ; 


ffah, 


arigon; 


(ge)9'igen. 



(2) In sniSran and areon (< ^arihan, 18, Note 2) 

medial 9" and h of the first two parts are changed 
into d and g in the pret. pi. and pp. (past participle). 
This change from 9* to d, h to g, also (in other classes 
of verbs) from li to w (g) (< hw — g-w) and s to r, is 
called Grammatical Change (S. §§ 233-234). 

Note 1. — Grammatical Change (only partially preserved) is due to 
an original (proto-Germanic) difference of accent, according to which 
the pret. pi. and the pp. were accented on the final syllable (Verner's 
Law). 

Note 2. — The weak verb rignan > rinan (16), to rain, pret. rinde, 
has also a preterit ran (cf. f rignan > f rinan, 85, Note 3). 

(3) To the contract verb ^eon are to be added leon, 
to lend; seon, to strain, sift; teon, to ceiisure ; wreoii, 
to cover. The accidental agreement in the present 
between these verbs and the contract verbs of Class II 
has resulted in the production of double forms in the 
other tenses. Thus, 

teon; tah (teah), tigon (tugon); tigen (togen). 

IffeGn ; iJah, ffigon (afugon) ; Sfigen (lafogen). 

Trreon; w^rah (wreah), wrigon (wrugon); wTigen ( wrogen) , 

Note 3. — 9'eon has also forms according to Class III, such as 
pret. pi. ofer-3'ungon ; pp. ofer-S'ungen ; pp. (adj.) ge-Sfungen, 
grown, excellent, heah-SPungen, highly prosperous, etc. These are 
traces of the original form *9'enhan > ^laCihan (18, Note 2). 

Note 4. — The prefix ge- is not always used with the past parti- 
ciple. Hereafter it will be omitted in giving principal parts, 



Hi 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



84. Class II. — Vowels: eo(u); ea, u; o. — (Germ. 
eu (u); au, u; u). Thus, 



(a) beodan, command; 


bead, 


budon ; 


boden. 


cleofan, cleave ; 


cleaf, 


clufon ; 


clofen. 


creopan, creep ; 


creap, 


crupon ; 


cropen. 


dreogan, endure; 


dreag, 


drugon ; 


drogen. 


fleogan, fly ; 


fleag, 


flugon ; 


flogen. 


(h) brncan, enjoy; 


breac, 


brucon ; 


brocen. 


bagan, how ; 


beag, 


bugon ; 


bogen. 


dufan, dive ; 


deaf, 


dufon ; 


dofen. 


(c) ceosan, choose ; 


ceas. 


curon(83,2); 


coren. 


f reosan, freeze ; 


freas, 


f rurou ; 


froren. 


hreosan, fall ; 


hreas, 


hruron ; 


hroren. 


(for)leosan, lose ; 


leas, 


luron ; 


loren. 


seoS'an, seethe ; 


seaS". 


sudon ; 


soden. 


(d) fleon(18,N.2),J?ee; 


fleah, 


flugon ; 


flogen. 


teon, draw ; 


teah, 


tugon ; 


togen. 



85. Class III. — Vowels : e (i, eo) ; se (9, ea), u ; 

u (o). — (Germ, e (> i before nasal -f cons.) ; a, u ; 
u (o)). The verbs of this class are best considered 
in four divisions. 

(1) Verbs with a nasal + consonant after the radical 
vowel. Thus, 



bindan, hind; 


bQnd (8), 


bundon ; 


bunden. 


drincan, drink ; 


drQnc, 


druncon ; 


druncen. 


findan, find ; 


fgnd. 


fundon ; 


funden. 


(on)ginnan, begin ; 


gQn(n), 


gunnon ; 


gunnen. 


grindan, gfriud; 


grqnd, 


grundon ; 


grunden. 


singan, sing ; 


SQng, 


sungon ; 


sungen. 


STvimman, swim; 


swQm(ni), 


swummon ; 


swummen, 



Note 1. — The verb rinnan, to run^ rQn(n), runnon, runnen, is 
more commonly used with metathesis in the first two parts : irnan 
(iernan, yrnan), Qrn (arn). — There is also metathesis in beornan 
(= Goth, brinnan), to burn, brQn(n) (bQrn, barn, beam), burnon, 
burnen. 



INFLECTION : CON JUG A TION. 



liii 



(2) Verbs with 1 4- consonant after the radical voweL 
Thus, 



(«) helpan (9, &), help ; 


healp (9, 


a), hulpon ; 


holpen. 


belgan, be angry ; 


bealg, 


bulgoii ; 


bolgen. 


delfan, delve; 


dealf, 


dulfoii ; 


dolfen. 


meltan, melt ; 


mealt, 


tniilton ; 


molten. 


swelgan, swallow; 


swealg, 


swulgon ; 


swolgen. 


swellau, swell ; 


sweal(l), 


swullon ; 


swollen. 


sweltan, die ; 


swealt, 


swulton ; 


swolten. 


(Z>) gieldun (10, c),2jield; 


geald, 


guidon ; 


golden. 


giellan, yell ; 


geal(l), 


gallon ; 


goUen. 


gielpan, boast ; 


gealp, 


gulpon ; 


golpen. 


(c) f eolan, reach ; 


feam, 


fnlgon(83,2) 


; folgen. 



Note 2. — f eolan < *feollian (9, b) (= Goth, filhan) ; there is 
also a pret. pi. f selon and a pp. folen according to Class IV. 

(3) Verbs with r or li -1- consonant after the radical 
vowel. Thus, 



(a) feohtan (9, b), fight ; 
beorgan, protect ; 
ceorfan, carve ; 
deorfan, labor; 
smeortan, smart ; 

(&) hweorfan ) . 

(liwurfiin,19)i' ' 

weorpan \ ,^,^ . 
(wvirpan) ) 

(c) weorffan Xf^ecome, 

(wurffan, 19) i 



feaht(9, a), fuhton ; 
bearg, burgon ; 



cearf, 
dearf, 
smeart, 

hwearf, 



curfon ; 
dui-fon ; 
smurton ; 

liwurfon : 



wearp, wurpon 
f wurdon 



wearQ", 



I (83,2); 



fohten. 
borgen. 
corfen. 
dorfen. 
smorten. 

hworfen. 
tvorpen. 

worden. 



(4) Certain remaining verbs of this class are best 
considered together. 

( brsegd f brugdon / brogden 



bregdMn 

(bredau,l6) 
stregdan ) 

(stredan) i ' 
berstan, burst ; 



, brandish 



strew : 



{ (brSd), I (brudon); I (broden) 
straegd ( strugdon ( strogden 

(stried),\ (strudon);! .stroden) 
bairst, bur!*ton; borsten. 



liv AI^ OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAR. 



Serscan, thresh ; 

friftnau 1 . 

>, inquire 



(frinaii,16) 
murnan, mourn; 
spurnan ) 



(spornan) J ' 



spurn 



ffsersc, (STurscon ; 
f raegn f f rugnon 

(fran), I (frunon); 
mearn, murnon. 

spearn, spurnon. 



(cForscen. 
frugnen 
(franen). 



Note 3. — stregdan has also become a weak verb. — By the loss 
of g and the compensatory lengthening of the radical vowel f rignan 
becomes frinan (16), and being thus attracted to Class I, yields the 
preterit fran. There is also occasionally assimilation of g to n result- 
ing in frinnan, pret. pi. frunnon, etc. The metathesis of n appears 
in pret. sg. freng, pret. pi. frungon. Other forms are : pret. pi. 
frugon; pp. gefrugen, gefregen, gefraegen and gefrigen (cf. 87, 
Note). 



86. Class IV. — Vowels: e; se, se; o (u). — (Germ. 
e; a, e; o (u)). In this class the radical vowel is fol- 
lowed by a single liquid or nasal (1, r, m). Thus, 

(a) beran, hear ; 
cwelan, die ; 
helan, conceal; 
stelan, steal ; 
teran, tear ; 

(&) brecan, break; 

(c) scieran (10), shear ; 

(d) niman, take ; \ 

^ s- / \- f cumen 

cuman, come; c(w)om, c(w)oinon:K , 

' V / ' V / > ^ (cymen). 

Note. — In brecan the r precedes the radical vowel; it should 
therefore be found in Class V (cf. sprecan). — niman has changed 
e to 1 before m, and the u of cuman is exceptional. The preterits of 
these two verbs are also exceptional in having o (< S before a nasal) 
in the pL, which has also been transferred into the sing. The LW9 
forms are usually nam, namon, com, comou. 



baer (7) 


, bseron; 


boren. 


CTvael, 


cw^lon ; 


cwolen. 


hael, 


h^lon ; 


holen. 


stael, 


st^elon ; 


stolen. 


taer. 


tSron ; 


toren. 


braec, 


breecon ; 


brocen. 


scear, 


scearon ; 


scoren. 


nom 

(nam), 


j nomon 
, I (namon) ; 


numen. 



INFLECTION : CON JUG A TION. 



Iv 



87. Class V. — Vowels: e (i); ae, se; e. — (Germ, 
e (i); a, e; e). The radical vowel is followed by a 
single consonant (except a liquid or nasal; cf. Class 
IV). Thus, 



(a) metan, measure ; 


maet(7 


),m8eton; 


metcn. 


drepan, strike; 


draep, 


drsepon ; 


' drepen 
>. (dropen). 


lesan, collect; 


laes, 


l£eson ; 


lesen. 


(ge)iiesan, recover; 


naes, 


nseson ; 


nesen. 


J sprecan, speak ; 
\specan(LWS); 


spraec, 


sprsecon ; 


sprecen. 


spaec, 


spaecon ; 


specen. 


tredan, tread; 


traed, 


tr^edon ; 


treden. 


wegan, carry; 


waeg, 


r wsegon 
I (wagon); 


wegen. 


(&) etan, eat; 


set, 


aeton; 


eten. 


fretan, devour ; 


frset, 


f r£eton ; 


freten. 


(c) cweffan, say ; 


cwaeS", 


cwsedon (83, 2] 


I; cweden. 


(d) gief an (10), give; 


geaf, 


geafon ; 


giefen. 


gietan, get; 


geat, 


geaton ; 


gieten. 


(e> (ge)feon ) . . 
(18,^.2) P'^'^'^'''' 


. / gefeah 

•I (9,«), 


gefsegon (83, 2); (adj.) gefaegen. 


pleon, risk ; 


pleah. 






seon, see ; 


seah, 


rsawon(83,2); 
1 ssegon ; 


rsewen(sawen) 
I segen .• 







(/) Several presents are formed in -jan. In Ger- 
manic the radical vowel e, when thus followed by -j, 
became i (cf. 13, Note); and the final radical conso- 
nant is geminated (11). Thus, 



biddan (= Goth.) 
bidjan), bid; J 
licg(e)an, lie; 
sittan, sit ; 


bsed, 

laeg, 
saet, 


bsedon .; 

Isegon (lagon); 
ssetou ; 


beden. 

legen. 
seten. 


fricg(e)an, inquire 
aricg(e)an, take ; 


9'eah(9'ah). 


frigen. 



Note. — The quantity of aet and frtet is exceptional. — Verbs in 
g may have a in the pret. pi. (lagou, wagon). — fricg(e)an does 



Ivi AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAB. 

not occur in the pret. The pp. frigen may belong to frignan (cf. 85, 
Note 3), — 9'icg(e)an has also weak preterits tfigede and lafigde. 



88. Class VL — Vowels : a ; o, o ; a. — (Germ, a ; 
o, 6; a). Thus, 



(a) faran, go ; for, 

bacan, hake; boc, 

dragan, draw ; drog, 

galan, sing ; gol, 

grafan, grave ; grof, 

hladan, load; hlod, 

sacan, contend ; soc, 

stQndan, stand ; stod, 

wadan, go ; wod, 

[waecnan], awja^e; woe, 

(6) sc(e)acan | shake, \ ^^^^' 
(10, N. 1) j ' hasten; 1 sceoc, 

sc(e)afan, s/iave; scof, 



f oron ; 
bocon ; 
drogon ; 
golon ; 
grofon ; 
hlodon ; 
socon ; 
stodon ; 
wodon ; 
wocon. 

scocon. 

sceocon; 

scofon : 



(c) spQnan, entice; 
weaxan (9), grow 



j spon r sponon 

I (speon), I (speonon); 
r (woxon) 



f (wox) 

1 weox, I. weoxon 

(d) flean(18,N.2),^ay; flog (flob), flogon 

lean, blame ; 



slean, strike ; 
ffwean, 



log (loh) , logon ; 
slog (slob), slogon 



ffwog 

(Q-woh), 



Q'TTOgon ; 



faren (faeren). 

bacen. 

dragen. 

galen. 

grafen. 

hladen. 

sacen (ssecen). 

stQnden, 

waden. 



rsc(e)acen 

\ (scaecen). 

sc(e)afen. 

spanen. 

weaxen. 

flagen. 
/ lagen (l^gen, 
I Isegen). 
/ slagen (sl^gen, 
1 slaegen). 

iaPw^agen 
(afw^gen, 
(jTraegen, 
sac wogen) . 



(e) Presents in -jan (cf. 87, /) : 



h^bban (11), heave ; hof, 

hliehhan, laugh; blob, 

r sc^S'S'an, injure, seod, 

t scealffS'an (10, N. 1) ; sceod, 



bofon ; hafen (haefen). 

blogon (83, 2). 

scodon. 

sceodon. 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION, 



Ivii 



scieppan (11), create; 

st^ppan \ 
(staeppan) /' ' 

sw^ri(ge)anl „^,_ . 
(10, N. 3) /'^^^«^' 



scop, 



scopon 



sceop(10,^^^ 

N. 1), 

stop, stopon; 



STToron : 



serpen 
(sceapen) . 

stapen. 

STvaren 
. (sworen). 



Note 1. — In the pp. the vowel a is often changed to ^ or ae. — 
waecnan is a weak present, which, in the absence of a strong form, is 
associated with the pret. woe. — spQnan (LWS also spQnnan) has 
the additional pret. speon, which is due to association with redupli- 
cating verbs (cf. sp^nnan, to span). — weaxan (i^eahsan) has 
adopted commonly the pret. of a reduplicating verb. 

Note 2. — In flog, log, slog, etc. (for floh, etc.), grammatical 
change (83, 2) has yielded to the influence of the pi. ; the return to 
floh, etc., is due to the change of final g to h (16, Note). 

Note 3. — Some of these verbs have also weak fol*ms : h^bban, 
pret. h^fde, pp. h^fod; sc^9'S'an, pret. sc^S'ede; sw^rlan, sw^- 
rede, etc. 



(6) REDUPLICATING VERBS. (S. §§ 393-397.) 

89. (1) Reduplicating verbs originally formed the 
preterit by prefixing to the radical syllable a syllable 
of reduplication, which consisted of the initial radical 
consonant + e, the vowel of reduplication. A fusion 
of these two syllables resulted in the surviving pret- 
erits. In a few instances there are indications of the 
mode of that fusion ; e.g., pret. of hatan : *he-hat 
(= Gofch. haihait) > *h^-hat > heht > het ; similarly 
leolc, leort, reord, ondreord, occasional (Anglian) 
preterits of lacan, Isetan, Tsedan, ondrsedan. 

(2) Reduplicating verbs have the same resultant 
radical vowel in the entire preterit; and the radical 
vowel of the past participle is the same as that of the 
present. 



Iviii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 



90. Reduplicating verbs may be considered as form- 
ing two classes: (1) the e-preterit class, and (2) the 
eo-preterit class. The radical vowels of the present are 
regarded in subdivisions of these classes. 

(1) e-Preterit Class. 



(a) hlqndan (S), blend; 


blend, 


blendon ; 


blQnden, 


(h) loAtsm, call ; 


heht, het, 


heton; 


haten. 


lacan, leap ; 


(leolc) lee, 


lecon ; 


lacen. 


f scadan, separate, 
lsceadan(10,N.l); 


seed, 


scedon ; 


scaden. 


seead, 


sceadon ; 


sceaden. 



Note 1. — The verb hatan has other forms of special importance : 
(ic) hatte, I ajn called (named, ^highf) is the sole relic of a medio- 
passive conjugation, and corresponds to Goth, haitada ; the corre- 
sponding pi. hatton has the common weak pret. form. As to tense 
hatte, hatton are used both as presents and as preterits, and the 
infinitive hatan is also used with this passive sense. 



(o) (on) draedan, fear ; 

Igetan, let; 
rgedan, counsel ; 
slSpan \ J 

(slapan)/'*^'^^' 



dredon ; 



f (dreord) 
I dred, 

(leort) let, leton ; 

(reord) red, redon ; 



slep, 



slepon ; 



drseden. 

Iseten. 
reeden. 
sleepen. 
(slapen). 



Note 2. — (on)dr£edan and sleepan occasionally have the pret. 
weak : ondreedde, slepte, slapte, etc. — raedan, on the other hand, 
is commonly conjugated as a weak verb : pret. rsedde. 



(d) fon (IS, ^.2), seize; 


feng. 


f engon ; 


fQngen. 


hon, hang ; 


heng, 


hengon ; 


hQngen. 


(2) eo-Preterit Class. 






(a) fealdan (9, a) , fold ; 


feold, 


f eoldon ; 


fealden. 


feallan, fall ; 


feoU, 


f eollon ; 


feallen. 


healdan, hold; 


heold, 


heoldon ; 


healden. 


wealcan, roll ; 


weolc, 


weolcon ; 


wealcen. 


wealdan, wield; 


weold, 


weoldon ; 


wealden, 


weallan, well ; 


weoll, 


weollon ; 


weallen. 


weaxan ) ^^^„„ . 
(88,N.1)I'^^"^' 


weox, 


weoxon; 


w«axen. 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION. 



lix 



(6) bQnnan, summon ; 
spQnnan, attack ; 
gQngan, go ; 



(benn) beonn, -on; bQnnen. 

(spenn) speonn, -on; spQnnen. 

(geng)geong, -on; gQngen. 



Note 3. — gQngan is very irregular ; there is an inf. gengan, pret. 
geng and gengde ; also gang. The most commonly used pret. eode 
belongs to gan (107, 4). 

(c) beatan, heat; 
heawan, hew ; 
Meapan, leap ; 
(a)hneapan, pluck ; 

((f) 'blotsin., sacrifice ; 
hropan, shout ; 
hwopan, threaten ; 
blowan, bloom ; 
flowan, flow ; 
groTvan, grow ; 
rowan, row ; 
spoTvan, succeed; 



beot. 


beoton ; 


beaten. 


heow, 


heowon ; 


heawen. 


hleop. 


hleopon; 


hleapen, 


hneop, 


bneopon ; 


hneapen 


bleot, 


bleoton ; 


blot fin. 


hreop, 


hreopon; 


hropen. 


hweop, 


hweopon; 


hwopen. 


bleow, 


bleowon ; 


blowen. 


fleow, 


fleowon ; 


flowen. 


greow, 


greowon ; 


growen. 


reow, 


reowon ; 


rowen. 


speow, 


speowon ; 


spowen. 



(e) jan-presents (cf. 87,/) 



hwesan, loheeze ; 


bweos. 


hweoson ; 


hwosen. 


wepan, iveep ; 


weop, 


weopon ; 


w^open. 


if) blawan, blow; 


bleow. 


bleowon ; 


blawen. 


cnawan, know ; 


cneow, 


cneow^on ; 


cnawen. 


craivan, crow ; 


creow, 


creowon ; 


crawen. 


sawan, sow ; 


seow, 


seowon; 


sawen. 


swapan, sweep; 


sw^eop, 


s weopon ; 


swapen. 



Ix 



AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 



CONJUGATION OF STRONG VERBS. (S. §§ 350-378.) 

91. Themes: Ablaut verbs, singan, to sing; beran, 
to hear, — Reduplicating verb, heaidan, to hold. 







Present. 








Indicative. 




Sing. 1. 
2. 
3. 


singe 

singest 

singeS^ 


bere 
bir(e)st 

bir(e)af 


healde 

hieltst, healdest 

Melt, healt, healdea? 


Plur. 1-3. 


singaS' 


beraa? 

Optative. 


healdaS" 


Sing. 1-3. 


singe 


bere 


healde 


Plur. 1-3. 


singen 


beren 

Imperative. 


healden 


Sing. 2. 


sing 


ber 


heald 


Plur. 2. 


slngaff 


beraff 


healdaSC 


Infinitive. 


singan 


beran 


heaidan 


Gerund. 


f to singanne 
I (-enne, -onne 


^ beranne 




healdanne 


Fres. Part. 


singende 


berende 

Preterit. 
Indicative. 


healdende 


Sing. 1. 
2. 
3. 


sgng 

sunge 

SQng 


baer 

bsere 

baer 


heold 

heolde 

heold 


Plur. 1-3. 


sungon 


bseron 

Optative. 


heoldon 


Sing. 1-3.' 


sunge 


bsere 


heolde 


Plur. 1-3. 


sungen 


bseren 


heolden 


Past Part. 


(ge)sungen 


(ge)boren 


(ge) healden 



INFLECTION : CON J UGA TION. 



Ixi 



92. Themes: Contracted presents (18, Note 2), seon, 
to see; fon, to seize (reduplicating verb). — Presents in 
-jan, biddau, to hid; licgan, to lie. 







Present. 










Indicative. 






Sing. 1. 


seo 


fo 


bidde 


liege 


2. 


siehst 


fehst 


fbid(e)st 
\ bitst 


}ug(e)st 


3. 


siehigP 


fehfS 


r bideiar 

Ibit(t) 


/lig(e)af 


Plur. 1-3. 


seotS 


foff 

Optative. 


biddaff 


licgaar 


Sing. 1-3. 


seo 


fo 


bidde 


liege 


Plur. 1-3. 


seon 


fon 

Imperative. 


bidden 


licgen 


Sing. 2. 


seoh 


foh 


bide 


lige 


Plur. 2. 


seoff 


fofS 


biddaaf 


llcgaaF 


Infinitive. 


seon 


fon 


biddan 


licgan 


Gerund. 


to seonne 


fonne 


biddanne 


licganne 


Pres. Part. 


seonde 


fonde 

Preterit. 

Indicative. 


biddende 


licgende 


Sing. 1. 


seah 


feng 


bsed 


laeg 


2. 


sawe 


fenge 


bsede 


Igege 


3. 


seah 


feng 


bsed 


l«g 


Plur. 1-3. 


sSwon 


fengon 

Optative. 


b£edon 


Isegon 


Sing. 1-3. 


sawe 


fenge 


bade 


lage 


Plur. 1-3. 


sawen 


fengen 


beeden 


llegen 


Past Part. 


(ge)8ewen 


(ge)fQngeii 


(ge)bedei 


I (ge)Iegei 



Ixii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAR. 

93. (1) The personal endings of the verb exhibit 
some variations. The older ending of the 1 sg. pres. 
indie, is -u (-o), but its use is restricted even in EWS ; 
the prevailing ending is -e (conforming to -est, -ear). 

The 2 sg. pres. indie, originally ended in -es (< *-is) ; 
the subjoined pronoun t^u contributed the added t. In 
EWS -es is occasionally found, and sometimes the inter- 
mediate form -esST, but the common form is -est. 

The older ending of the pret. indie, pi. -un is used in 
EWS, but not as frequently as -on (-an). In LWS the 
regular ending -on is often weakened to -an, -un, etc. 

For the opt. pi. ending -en, pres. and pret., -on and 
-an sometimes occur in EWS ; but in LWS this ending 
-en is very commonly disguised under the weakened 
forms -on, -an, -un, etc. 

(2) When the pronominal subjects we, we, ge, j/e, are 
placed immediately after the verb, the verbal ending is 
often (not uniformly) reduced to -e. Originally this 
form was in all probability restricted to the adhortative 
optative ; the -e would therefore represent a reduction 
of -en. But in the historic periods of West-Saxon the 
indie, pres. and pret. and the imperative (-aSr and -on also 
giving way to -e) are found attracted into this usage. 

Thus, we (g-e) cwetfatf, but cweSTe we (ge); we 
(ge) magon, but mage we (ge); we (ge) nimen, but 
nime we (ge) ; we (ge) conion (sohton), but come 
(solite) we (ge). 

(3) The 2 sg. imperative of presents in -jan with 
short radical vowel has the ending -e, and is without 
gemination of the radical consonant (bide, lige). 

Note. — The 2 sg. pret. of ablaut verbs has that form of the radical 
vowel which belongs to the pret. pi. and optative ; it is, presumr-bly, an 
optative form transferred into the indicative (cf. 105, 2). 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION. Ixiii 

(4) The 2 and 3 sg. pres. indie, have three special fea--^ 
tures: (1) the radical consonant of presents in -jan is 
not geminated : Mdest, bide^T; ligest, lig-etJ". (2) The 
radical vowel is changed in a manner corresponding to 
the operation of umlaut. This process is therefore called 
umlaut, although it is older than the ordinary umlaut 
and includes the change of e into i. This umlaut is 
not uniformly operative; it is most regular in EWS. 
(3) The personal endings may be syncopated, that is, 
the e of -est, -eSr may disappear ; the consequent combi- 
nation of the final radical consonant and -st, -9* produces 
results the more common of which are the following : 

(«) d -f st becomes tst : biddan, STu bitst ; st^ndan, 
tSvL st^ntst. This coincides with t + st : bitan, arfi 
bitst ; g-ietan, STu g-i(e)tst. 

(5) ?r + st becomes tst or st : sniS'an, 9'u snitst ; 
weoriaran, tSu. wi(e)rst; cwearan, 9'u cwist. 

(^) ^ + st becomes (less frequently) hst : leogan, STu 
li(e)hst; stigan, tSvL stigst, stihst. And occasionally 
c + st becomes list : secan, STu secst, sehst ; but brucaii, 
Sfti brycst, etc. 

(d) d and t -f- ST become t or tt: biddan, be bidt, 
bit(t) ; bebeodan, he bebiet(t) ; etan, be it(t) ; 
feohtan, he fieht; hatan, he hset. 

(e) tS -\- tS becomes tS : cwe2Fan, he cwiST : sniaran, 
he sniar ; weorafan, he wier3". 

(/) s -f 9" becomes st : ceosan, he ciest ; g-ehreosan, 
he gehri(e)st ; forleosan, he forli(e)st. 

(^) g" 4- Q" becomes (less frequently) hS": dreogan, 
he dri(e)g3', dri(e)h9' ; leogan, he li(e)g3', li(e)har. 
Occasionally c -f- 9" becomes h9 : secan, he secar, seh9 1 
but iffyncan, tSynctS^ etc. 



Ixiv AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB, 



CLASSIFICATIOlSr OF WEAK VERBS. (S. § 398.) 

94. There are three classes of Weak Verbs : (1) the 
" ja-class, (2) the o-class, and (3) the ai-class. The Pret- 
erit and the Past Participle of all classes are formed in 

d (t). 

Note 1. — The formative and derivative -ja- (more strictly, -eja-) 
is the same element which is employed in the presents of strong verbs 
in -Jan. The verbs of the First Class may, therefore, with equal pro- 
priety, be called verbs in -jan. 

Note 2. — Most weak verbs are derivative. Thus, dom, judgment, > 
deman (<*doraian), to judge ; ens', adj., known, > cy9'an (<*cuS'- 
iau), to make known ; feorr, adv., far, > a-fierran (< *-feorrian), to 
remove ; tac(e)n, token, > tacnian (<*tacnojan), to betoken. 

Some weak verbs are the transitive (or causative) complements of 
corresponding intransitive strong verbs, the radical syllable of the weak 
verb corresponding to that of the pret. sg. of the strong verb. Thus, 
licgaii, to lie, pret. sg. laeg, — l^cgan, to lay (< *laegjaii) ; sittan, to 
sit, pret. sg. saet, — sittan, to set (< ^saetjan) ; cwelan, to die, pret. 
sg. cwael, — cw^llan, to kill (< *cwseljan) ; risan, to rise, pret. sg. 
ras, — rieran, to rear, raise (< *rarian ; r < s) ; drincan, to drink, 
pret. sg. drgnc, — dr^ncau, to drench « Mrgncian). 



CONJUGATION OF THE FIRST CLASS OF WEAK VEEBS. 

(S. §§ 409, 410.) 

95. Themes: tr^miai^Ti, to perform; li^TisLU^to praise^ 
deinau, to judge ; Isedan, to lead. 







Present. 








Indicative. 




Sing. 1. 


fr^mine 


h^rie 


deme 


2. 


fr^mest 


barest 


dem(e)st 


3. 


fr^ineSf 


h^reSC 


dem(e)ar 


Plur. 1-3. 


fr^mmal^ 


h^riaff 


demaff 



llede 

riaed(e)st 
I l^tst 

f IsedeS', Isedt, 
t l£et 

l^edaiar 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION, 



Ixv 



Sing. 1-3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


fr^mme 
fr^mmen 


Optative, 
h^rien 


deme 
demen 


Isede 
l£eden 


Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 


fr^me 


Imperative. 
h^riaiy 


dem 
demaac 


laed 
leedaa? 


Infinitive. 
Gerund. 
Fres. Fart. 


fr^mman 
/ to fr^mmanne 
I (-enne, -onne) 
. fr^mmeude 


h^rian 

h^rianne 

h^riende 

Peeterit. 

Indicative. 


deman 

derxanne 

demende 


l^dan 

leedanne 

l^dende 


Sing. 1. 

2. 

3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


fr^mede 
fr^medest 
fr^mede 
fr^medon 


h^rede 
h^redest 
h^rede 
h^redon 


demde 
demdest 
demde 
demdon 


Isedde 
laeddest 
ISdde 
Iseddon 


Sing. 1-3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


fr^mede 
fr^meden 


Optative. 

h^rede 

h^reden 


demde 
demden 


leedde 
leedden 


Fast Fart. 


(ge) framed 


(ge)h^red 


(ge)demed 


. r(ge)laeded 

I (ge)laed(d) 



96. (1) The j (i) of the element -ja (which became 
-ia- after a long radical syllable; cf. 11, Note 2) pro- 
duces umlaut of the radical vowel, and gemination of 
the final radical consonant, when single (except r), after 
a short radical vowel (11)- 

Thus, fr^mman (< *frQmjan); h^rian (<*h£erjan); 
deman (< *d6niiaii). 

(2) The radical consonant is not geminated in the 2 
and 3 sg. pres. indie, and in the 2 sg. imperative (cf. 
93, 3, 4); fr^mest, fr<^ine3>, fr^nie. 



Ixvi AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 

Verbs in r exhibit the various graphic substitutions 
for i (j) -f- a vowel (10, Note 3). Thus, h^rian, 
h^rgan, h^rigean, etc. ; 1 sg. pres. indie, herie, h^rge, 
berige, etc. 

Note 1. — In the 2 and 3 sg. pres. indie, syncope of the vowel of 
the personal ending is most frequent with verbs having a long radical 
syllable: dem(e)st, dem(e)9', etc. 

(3) The 2 sg. imperative ends in -e (without gemi- 
nation of the radical consonant), but when the radical 
svllable is long this ending disappears : fr^me, dem 
(of. 93, 3). 

Note 2. — In a few instances in EWS and somewhat oftener in 
LWS, the 2 sg. imperative ending -e is found after a long radical 
syllable: laere, teach; s^nde, send; Mere, hear 

(4) An external agreement in some forms between 
v^erbs in r (like h^rian ; n^rian, to save; dorian, to 
i7ijure) and verbs of the Second Class, has gradually 
brought these verbs in r into more or less frequent and 
complete conformity with the conjugation of the Second 
Class. Thus, 3 sg. pres. indie, d^rear and d^raaf; pret. 
sg. n^rede and n^rode ; styrian, to stir, pret. sg. styrede 
and styrode. 

This resultant double mode of conjugation has also been 
extended to other verbs. Thus, fr^mman and fr^mian, 
3 sg. pres. indie, frames' and fr^mad", pret. sg. fr^niede 
and fr^mode, pp. framed and fr^mod; dw^llan (98) 
and dw^lian, to deceive; trymman and trymian, to eon- 
firm, etc. 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION, Ixvii 

FORMATION OF THE PRETERIT TENSE AND OF THE 
PAST PARTICIPLE. (S. §§401-408.) 

97. (1) Verbs with an originally short radical sylla- 
ble (i.e. those which admit of gemination of the final 
radical consonant and those in r; 11) have the pret. 
(sg.) in -ede and the pp. in -ed, without gemination 
of the radical consonant and with umlaut of the radical 
vowel : fr^mede, (g-e)fr^med ; h^rede, (ge)h^red. 

Note. — l^cgan, to lay, is exceptional in having syncope of the 
middle vowel : pret. l^gde (lede, 16), pp. I^gd (led). 

Note 2. — Verbs in d or t syncopate the middle vowel and t + d 
becomes tt : hr^ddan, to liberate, pret. hr^dde, pp. hr^d(d); tr^d- 
dan, to tread, pret. tr^dde, pp.-tr^d(d); l^ttan, to hinder, pret. I^tte, 
pp. l^t(t); saltan, to set, pret. s^tte, pp. s^t(t). In the uninflected 
form these participles sometimes retain the middle vowel : traded, 
s^ted, etc. 

So also verbs in the derivative -ettan (= -^ttan; Goth, -atjan), 
like bliccettan, to lighten, Qndettan, to confess, onettan, to hasten, 
halettan, to salute, and licettan, to pretend, pret. licette, pp. licet(t). 

(2) Verbs with an originally long radical syllable 
syncopate the middle vowel in the preterit (-ede > -de) , 
and usually in the inflected forms of the past participle 
that have a vocalic case-ending. The radical vowel is 
umlauted : pret. demde, pp. demed, pi. demde. 

Note 3. — The pp. of verbs in d or t (cf. 97, Note 2) often synco- 
pate the middle vowel: l^eded, Iged(d); hydan, to hide, pret. hydde, 
pp. hyded, hyd(d) ; metan, to meet, pret. mette, pp. in«ted, met(t). 

When preceded by a consonant, d + d and tt (< t + d) are simpli- 
fied : s^ndan, to send, pret. s^nde, pp. sanded, s^nd ; w^ndan, to turn, 
pret. w^nde, pp. winded, w^nd ; haef tan, to seize, pret. haef te, pp. 
haefted, liaeft; westan, to lay loaste, pret. weste, pp. -wested, west. 
Note 4. — Other phonetic changes resulting from the combination 
of a final radical consonant and the d of the pret. and pp. are the 
following : 

(a) After a voiceless consonant (c, p, t, ff, ss, x (= cs)), d becomes 
t: drfncan, to drench, pret, dr^ncte, pp, dr^nced, pi. dr^ncte; hjs- 



Ixviii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

pan, to revile, pret. hyspte; clyppan, to embrace, pret. clypte, pp. 
clypt ; for verbs in t see the preceding Note ; cyssan, to kiss, pret. 
cyste, pp. cyssed ; lixan, to shine, pret. lixte. 

Verbs in the derivative -l£ec(e)an have the pret. and pp. in ct or 
lit: nealeecan, to approach, pret. neal^ecte, nealsehte, pp. neaiSct, 
nealeeht. This change of ct into ht is found occasionally in other 
verbs: lecan, to increase, pret. iecte, iehte, pp. ieced, iect, ieht; 
afryccan, to oppress, pret. ^vycte, 9'ryhte, pp. laTrycced. 

(6) 9" + d remains, or becomes dd : cy9'an, to make known, pret. 
cy9'de, cydde, pp. cyigfed, cyd(d); neiffan, to venture, pret. lies' de, 
nedde. 

(c) The usual pret. of n^mnan, to name, is n^mde, and of ^fnan, 
raefnan, to perform, ^fnde, rsefnde; but verbs in a consonant + n, 1, 
r generally retain the n, I, or r in the form of a syllable (ne ; el, le ; 
er, re) , and are thus attracted, particularly in LWS, into the Second 
Conjugation : pret. n^mnode, ^fnede ; pp. n^mned, n^mnod, pi. 
n^mde, n^mnede, n^mnode ; timbran (timbrian), to build, prtt. 
timberde, timbrede, timbrode, pp. timbred, titnbrod ; dieglan, 
to conceal, pret. diegelde, dieglede, dieglode, etc. 

(d) In the pret. and pp. of verbs in rw and Iw the w sometimes 
disappears : gierwan, to prepare, pret. gierede, pp. gierwed, giered ; 
wielwan, to roll, pret. wielede, pp. wiel-wed. Many of these verbs 
(with or without the w in all forms) are attracted in LWS into the 
Second Conjugation : smierwan, ^o a?iomf, smyrlan; pret. smyrode, 
pp. smyrod; wielwan (w^ylw^ian, wylian). 



VERBS WITHOUT THE MIDDLE VOWEL. (S. § 407.) 

98. The verbs of the following group form the pre- 
terit and past participle without the middle vowel e (<i). 
These verbs have therefore two special features : (1) The 
lack of umlaut in the preterit and past participle; and 
(2) the (Germanic) change of original c and g + d into ht. 

Thus, cw^cc(e)an (10. Note 2), to shake^ <*cwsecjan 
(11), pret. cweahte < *cw£ehte (9, a); sec(e)aii, to 
seek, < *socian, pret. sohte; 3'^nc(e)an, to think, < 
*2fQncian (8), pret. tfohte < ^S^^nlite ; 0^ync(e)an, to 
deenh prtjt. (jrfilit© < *CFmihte. 



INFLECTION : CON JUG A TION. 



Ixix 



Note 1. — iSfohte and 9'uhte illustrate the Germanic disappearance 
of n before the voiceless spirant h, with compensatory lengthening of 
the preceding vowel (cf. 8, Note). 

The group is as follows : 

cw^Uan, kill ; 
dw^Uan, deceive ; 
s^Uan, give; 
st^llan, place ; 
t^llan, count; 

cw^cc(e)an, shake; 

dr^oe(e)an, vex; 
l^cc(e)aii, moisten; 
r^cc(e)an, expound; 
str^cc(e)an, stretch; 
S'^cc(e)an, cover ; 
■w^cc(e)an, ivake ; 
l8eoc(e)an, seize; 
bep£ec(e)aii, deceive; 
rSc(e)an, reach; 
t£ec(e)aii, teach ; 
recCe)an | .^^^ . 
r^cc(e)anJ 
sec(e)an, seek ; 
9'^nc(e)an, think ; 
9'ync(e)an, seem; 
wjTc(e)an, ivork ; 
t»ycg-(e)an, buy; 
bringan 



br^ 



nofan J 



cvrealde ; 


(ge) c weald. 


dwealde; 


(ge)d weald. 


sealde ; 


(ge)seald. 


stealde ; 


(ge)steald. 


tealde ; 


(ge)teald. 


cwealite ; 


(ge)cwealit. 


cw^hte ; 


(ge)ew^ht. 


dreahte, (^) ; 


(ge)drealit, (^). 


leahte, (^) ; 


(ge)leaht, (^). 


i-eahte, (^) ; 


(ge)reaht, (^). 


streahte, (^) ; 


(ge)streaht, (^) 


afeahte, (^) ; 


(ge)8realit, (^) 


weahte, (^) ; 


(ge)weaht, (^). 


Isehte ; 


(ge)lseht. 


bepgehte ; 


bepaeht. 


rsehte ; 


(ge)rgeht. 


teehte ; 


(ge)t£elit. 


rohte. 




sohte ; 


(ge)soht. 


afohte ; 


(ge)afolit. 


leruhte ; 


(ge)afulit. 


worhte ; 


(ge)w^orlit. 


bohte ; 


(ge)boht. 


brohte ; 


gebroht. 



Note 2. — In LWS dw^llan has also the forms dw^lian, pret, 
dw^lede, dw^lode, pp. dw^led, dw^lod (96, 4), A trace of an 
ablaut verb dwelan is found in the pret. d(w)8el. The pp. of t^Uan 
also appears as t^led, and s^llan is in LWS usually syllan. 

Note 3. — In LWS w^^cc(e)an often becomes wr^cc(e)an. A 
difference of origin, apparently, underlies rec(e)an «*rocian) and 
r^cc(e)an (<*r8ecjan); so, too, bringan and br^ngan. A trace of 
an ablaut verb. is the pp. brungen. 

Note 4. — In bep£ec(e)an, r£ec(e)an, and t8ec(e)an the umlauted 
vowel of the present has been transferred to the pret. and pp. The 



Ixx AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAB. 

more correct forms, raht(e) and taht(e), occur occasionally in botli 
EWS and LWS. 

Note 5. — In LWS metathesis occasionally takes place in the pret. 
and pp. of wyrc(e)an : wrohte, wroht ; and forwyrhte, forwyrht 
(with the vowel of the present) occur. 

Note 6. — Occasionally in EWS and almost always in LWS the 
ea before ht in the pret. and pp. of verbs in c becomes ^; this is 
either by transference of the vowel of the present, or (less proba- 
bly) by palatal-umlaut (15, Note 1): cw^hte, (ge)cw^ht; dr^hte, 
(ge)dr^ht, etc. 

THE SECOND CLASS OF WEAK VERBS. (S. §§ 411-414.) 

99. The class-suffix of verbs of the Second Con- 
jugation is -6 (94); by the addition of -jan the full 
(infinitive) ending became *-ojaii, and this became -ian. 
Because of the original 6, the class-suffix in the form i 
does not occasion umlaut or any other change that might 
be wrought by an original i (cf . 7, Note) ; on the other 
hand, the class-suffix may cause u-o-umlaut (14) : clip- 
ian, cliopian, to cry out; hlinian, lilioniaii, to lean^ etc. 

Note 1. — Umlaut appearing in a verb of this class is due either to 
transference from the Eirst Class (96, 4; 97, Note 4, c), or to the 
word from which the verb is derived: ^ndian, to end [^nde, end]; 
cl^nsian, to cleanse [clsene, adj. jo-stem, clean']. 

Note 2. — In metrical usage the class-suffix has a secondary stress 
(5, Note). 

CONJUGATION OF THE SECOND CLASS OF WEAK VERBS. 

100. Themes: bodian, to proclaim; snieag-(e)an, to 

consider. 

Present. 

Indicative. 

Sing, 1. bodie, (-ige) smeage 

2. bodast smeast 

3. bodad* smead* 
Plur. 1-3. bodiaff, (-ig(e)a3") smeag(e)aff 



INFLECTION : CON JUG A TION. 



Ixxi 



Optative. 
Sing. 1-3. bodie, (-ige) 
Plur. 1-3. bodien, (-igen) 

Impei'ative. 
Sing. 2. boda 

Plur. 2. bodiaS", (-ig(e)a9') 



Infinitive 
Gerund. 



bodian, (-ig(e)an) 
f bodianne, (-ig(e)anne, 
\ -enne, -onne) 
Pres. Fart, bodiende, (-igende) 



smeage 
smeagen 

smea 
siTieag(e)a8' 

smeag(e)aii, (smean) 

8meag(e)anne 

smeagende 



Sing. 1. 

2. 

3. 
Plur. 1-3. 



Sing. 1-3. 
Plur. 1-3. 



Preterit. 

Indicative. 

bodode, (-ade, -ude) 
bododest 
bodode 
bododon, (-edon) 

Optative. 
bodode, (-ade, -ude) 
bododen (-edon) 



Past Part, (ge)bodod, (-ad, -ud) 



smeade 
smeadest 
smeade 
smeadon 



smeade 
smeaden 

(ge)smead 



Note 1. — In these verbs the graphic substitutions for ie, ia are 
common (10, Note 3). 

Note 2. — The variant forms of the class-vowel o of the pret. are 
a, u ; less frequently e, except in the pi., where e shares the preference 
equally with o. 

Note 3. — trawiau, to trust (originally of the Third Class), and 
iffeowian, to serve, sometimes syncopate the middle vowel in the 
preterit: trawde, ijeowde; with loss of the w, ffeode (ffeodde). 



101. smeag(e)an (< *snieah6jan < *smauh6jan) 

represents a small number of contract verbs : feog-(e)an 
(< *fiojaii), to hate; freog(e)an (< *fri6jan), to love, 



Ixxii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR. 

to free; scog-(e)aii (< *scohojan), to sJioe; tweog(e)aii 
(< *tweli6jan), to doubt; 9'reag'(e)an, to rebuke; *teo- 
g-(e)an (pret. teode), to arrange; and apparently bo- 
g(e)aii (3 sg. boa?), to boast. 

THE THIRD CLASS OF WEAK VERBS. (S. §§ 415, 416.) 

102. Weak verbs of the Third Class, of which tht> 
original class-suffix was -ai (94), are few in number, 
and these retain only in part the features of the original 
conjugation. 



CONJUGATION OF THE THIRD CLASS OF WEAK VERBS. 

103. Themes: hablban, to have; libban, to live; 
s^cg(e)aii, to say. 

Present. 

Indicative. 

Sing. 1. hsebbe libbe, lifge 

2. hafast, haefst liofast (14;, lifast 

3. hafaS", heefa? liofaaf, lifagT 

Plur. 1-3. habbaar, h^bbaS" libbaa*, lif(i)g(e)a9', lifia!^ 



Sing. 1-3. 
Plur, 1-3. 



haebbe 
haebben 



Optative. 



libbe, lifi(g)e 
libben, lifi(g)en 



Imperative. 



Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 

Infinitive. 

Gerund. 

Pres. Fart. 



hafa 
habbalSr 



liofa 

libbaar, lif(i)g(e)aaP 

libban, lif(i)g(e}an, lifian, 
llofian 



habban 

habbanne, (-enne, -onne) libbanne, lif( i)(g)enne 

hsebbende libbende, lif(iXg)ende 



INFLECTION : CON J UGA TION. 



Ixxiii 







Preterit. 






Indicative. 


Sing. 1. 


haefde 




2. 


haefdest 




3. 


haefde 




Plur. 1-3. 


haefdon 




Sing. 1-3. 


haefde 


Optative. 


Plur. 1-3. 


haefden 





Past Part, (ge)haefd 



lifde, liofode 
lifdest, llofodest 
Ufde, liofode 
lifdon, liofdon 

llfde, liofode 
lifden, liofoden 

(ge)lifd, (ge)liofod 



Note. — habban with the negative adverb ne prefixed becomes 
naebban. 

Present. Preterit. 

Indicative. 

Sing. 1. s^cge saegde, ssede (16) 

2. sagast, saegst, s^gst saegdest, s^edest 

3. sagaS", saeg(e)9', s^gCe)'^ saegde, saede 
Plur. 1-3. s^eg(e)a9' saegdon, ssedon 

Optative. 



Sing. 1-3. 
Plur. 1-3. 



Sing. 2. 
Plur. 2. 



s^cge 
s^cgen 

Imperative. 
saga, s^ge 

s^cg(e)a3' 



saegde, saede 
saegden, saeden 



Infinitive 
Gerund. 



s^cg(e)aii Past Part, (ge)saegd, (ge)saed 

j s^cg(e)anne, (-onne, 
I s^cgenne) 
Pres. Part, s^egende 



104. Traces of this conjugation are left in fylg'(e)aii, 
to follow, pret. fylgde, and hycg'(e)an, to thinks pret. 
liog"de ; but these verbs have besides conformed com- 
pletely to the Second Conjugation: folg-ian, folgode; 
liogian, hogode. 



Ixxiv AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAB. 
PKETERITIVE PRESENT VERBS. (S. §§ 417-425.) 

105. (1) There are some verbs which, in all the 
Germanic languages, employ in the present exclusively 
(Indicative and Optative) forms of original ablaut pret-. 
erits (the original presents being lost). Accordingly 
they are called preteritive present verbs. 

The other parts of the system of present forms, 
namely, the Imperative, the Infinitive, the Gerund, and 
the Present Participle, are based upon the indicative 
plural of these preteritive presents. Upon the basis 
of the same form of the radical syllable, the conjuga- 
tion of the tenses is made complete by weak preterits 
iri d (t); whereas the Past Participles (so far as they 
occur) are in -en, as with Strong verbs. 

(2) These verbs are special in retaining some feat- 
ures of the more primitive conjugation of ablaut verbs : 
(a) the 2 sg. of the preteritive present is in t or st, 
without change of the radical syllable (cf. 93, Note) ; 
(5) there is a partial survival of the umlauted optative : 
dyge, dug-e ; STyrfe, STiirfe. On the other hand, the 
influence of the regular conjugation has occasioned such 
forms as pi. (ge)muna9' ; 2 pi. imperative witaSr. 

106. The preteritive present verbs are classified in 
accordance with their relation to the ablaut verbs: 

(1) Class I. — (a) Infinitive, witan (wietan; wiotan, 
weotan ; 14), to know. 

Present. Preterit. 

Indicative sg. 1. wat wi(e)ste, wisse 

2. wast 

3. -wat wi(e)ste. wisse 
pi. 1-3. w^i(e)ton, wioton (14) wi(e)ston, wisson 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION. Ixxv 

Present. Preterit. 

Optative sg. wi(e)te; pi. -en wi(e)ste, wisse; pi. -en 

Imperative sg. 2. wite Past Fart. (ge)wi(e)teii 

pi. 2. witalSf 

Gerund. i wi(e)tanne, wiotonne. 

I (-enne, etc.) 

Pres. Part, witende 

Note 1. — nytan « ne + witan), not to know, pres. indie, sg. nat, 
nast, nat, pi. nyton, has uniformly y, for i (ie, io, eo), in the radical 
syllable, 

(5) Infinitive^ agan, to possess. 

Pres. Part., agende. 

Indicative., pres., sg. 1. 3. all (ag), 2. ahst; pi. agon. 

Optative, pres., age, etc. Imperative, age. 

Preterit, ahte, etc. Past Part., adj., agen, segen, own. 

Note 2. — In the present the radical vowei of the singular has been 
transferred to the plural (agon, for *igon), hence the uniformity of 
the radical vowel (infinitive agan, pret. ahte, etc.). The negative 
theme is nagan « ne -f agan), not to possess. 

(2) Class II. — Lifinitive, clugan, to avail, 

Pres. Part., dugeude. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 8. deah (deag); pi. dugon. 
Optative, pres., dyge (105, 2), duge, etc. 
Preterit, dohte, etc. 



(3) Class III. — (a) Infinitive^ unnan, to grant. 

Pres. Part., unnende. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. Qn(n), an(n); pi. unnon. 
Optative, pres., unne, etc. Imperative, unne. 
Preterit, uffe, etc. Past Part., (ge)unnen 



Ixxvi AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAR. 

(5) Infinitive^ cunnan, to hnow^ can. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. CQn(n), can(n), 2. cQnst; pi, cunnon. 

Optative, pres., cunne, etc. 

Preterit, cuUe, etc. Past Part., (ge)cuiineii ; adj., cuff, known. 

Co) Infinitive^ afurfan, to need, 

Pres. Part., ffearfende. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. ffearf, 2. ffearft; pi. ffurfon. 
Optative, pres., ffyrfe (105, 2), ffurfe, etc. 
Preterit, fforfte, etc. 

(c?) Infinitive^ durraii, to dare. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. dear(r), 2. dearst ; pi. durron. 
Optative, pres., dyiTe (105, 2), durre, etc. 
Preterit, dorste, etc. 

(4) Class IV. — (a) Infinitive^ sculan, sceolan, shalh 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. sceal, 2. scealt ; pi. sculon, sceolon. 
Optative, pres., scyle, sci(e)le (105, 2), scule, sceole, etc. 
Pretent, sceolde, scolde, etc. 

(5) Infinitive.) munan, to he mindful of, 
Pres. Part., niunende. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. mQn, man, 2. mQnst; < ^ ' "*"^^°^' 

Optative, pres., myne (105, 2), mune, etc. 

Imperative, inyii(e), inuii(e); pi. munalS'. 

Preterit, munde, etc. Past Part., (ge)iiiuiien. 

(5) Class y. — (a) Infinitive^ magan, may.^ to he ahle. 

Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. maeg, 2. meaht, miht : ^ ^ " ^^Son? 

Optative^ pres., maege, mage, etc. 

Preterit, meahte (maehte, mehte), mihte, etc. 

Note 3. — The preteritive present sg. maeg, pi. magon, belonged, 
ia its primitive form, *m6g, *magume, to Class VI. In this instance 



INFLECTION : CONJUGATION. 



Ixxvii 



the radical vowel of the plural was extended to the singular ; associa- 
tion with cann may also have favored the transformation of *mog. 

(5) Infinitive^ (ge-, l)e-)nugan, to suffice. 
Indicative, pres., sg. 3. neah (impersonal) ; pi. nugon. 
Optative, pres., nuge, etc. 

Preterit, nohte, etc. 

(6) Class VI. — Infinitive^ niotan, mat/. 
Indicative, pres., sg. 1. 3. mot, 2. most; pi. mSton. 
Optative, pres., mote, etc. 

Preterit, moste, etc. 



CONJUGATION OF SPECIAL VERBS. (S. §§ 426-430.) 

107. Themes: (1) beon (wesan), ^o 5e; (2) willan, 
to will; (3) don, to do; (4) gan, to go. 



(1) Present. 

Indicative. 
Sing. 1. eom 

2. eart 

3. is 

isind, si(e)nt 
si(e)ndon, -un 
siondon, -un 



Preterit. 

beom^ (biom) waes 

bist waere 

biS" waes 



beoS" (bioSr) 



Optative. 
Sing. 1-3. sie (si, sig, sy), sio (seo) beo (bio) 
Plur. 1-3. sien (sin, syn) beon (bion) 



waeron 



waBre 
Tvseren 



Imperative. 2 sg. beo, wes ; 2 pi. beoS", wesaia? 

Infinitive. beon (bion), wesan 

Gerund. beonne (bionne) 

Pres. Part, beonde, wesende 

Note 1. — Negative forms are neom « ne -f- eom), nis (< ne-f- is)', 
naes « ne 4- waes), nsere, neeroo, etc, — was, nas appear to b§ 
unaccented forms. 



Ixxviii AN OUTLINE OF ANGLO-SAXON GBAMMAB. 

Note 2. — Some of the special features of the substantive verb are -. 
(a) the employment of different radicals; (5) traces of non-thematic 
conjugation, such as m for the ending of the 1 sg. pres. indie, (eom, 
beom); (c) the ending -on (-un) of the pres. indie, pi. (siadon, etc.), 
which is due to the influence of the preteritive presents. 



(2) 





Present. 

Indicative. 


Preterit. 


Sing. 1. 

2. 

3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


wiUe (wielle), wUe 

wilt 

wUle (wielle), wile 

willaff (wieUaff) 

Optative. 


wolde 
woldest 
wolde 
woldon 


Sing. 1-3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


wille (wielle), wile 
willen (wiellen) 


wolde 
wolden 



Imperative, (only with negative) 2 pi. nyllaS", nellaff 
Infinitive. w^illan (wiellan) 
Pres. Part, willende (wiellende) 

Note 3. — The negative nyllan (< ne + willan), pret. nolde, etc., 
has usually the vowel y or e in the radical syllable of the present: 
nylle, nelle, etc. 

Note 4. — willan is special in having derived its Present Indicative 
from the Optative. The 2 sg. wilt is in conformity with the preteritive 
presents, and the pi. willaff is the result of the influence of the regular 
conjugation. 

(3) 



Sing. 1. 

2. 

3. 
Plur. 1-3. 


Present. 

do 
dest 

dear 
doia? 




Preterit. 
Indicative. 

dyde 
dydest 
dyde 
dydon 


Sing. 1-3. 
Flur. 1-3. 


do 
don 




Optative. 

dyde 
dyden 


Imperative. 


2 sg. do ; 


2 pi. 


doff Past Part, i^^^^lf.'' 
l(ge)den 
und, donne 


Infinitive. 


don 


Ger 


Pres. Part, 


donde (dSende) 



INFLECTION: CONJUGATION, 



Ixxix 



Note 5. — don is a non-thematic verb (dialectal 1 sg. pres. indie. 
dom) , and has in the preterit a reduplicated form of the radical. 



(4) 





Present. 


Indicative. 


Pketekit. 


Sing. 1. 


ga 




code 


2. 


gsest 




eodest 


3. 


gsa? 




code 


Plur. 1-3. 


gaa? 


Optative, 


eodon 


Sing. 1-3. 


ga 




code 


Plur. 1-3. 


gan 




eoden 



Past Part, (ge)gaii 



Imperative. 2 sg. ga ; 2 pi. gaS* 

Infinitive. gan 

Gerund. gaune 

Pres. Part, gande 



Note 6. — The non-thematic verb gan has a special feature in the 
preterit code, which in use is also associated with the present gQngan 
(90, Note 3). 



PART I. 
I. 

FEOM THE GOSPELS. 

St. Mark, Chapter IV. 

[The text is based on the Corpus MS. 140 (Corp.) In the library 
of Corpus Christ! College, Cambridge, Variants are taken from 
A {= MS. li. 2. 11. of the Camb. Univ. Lib.), and from B (= MS. 
Bodl. 441).] 

(1) And eft he ongan hi set ])8ere see Iseran. And him 
wses mycel m^negu to gegaderod, swa feet he on scip 
eode, and on J)£ere sse waes ; and eall seo m^negu ymbe 
pa s£e ^ waes ^ on lande. (2) And he hi f ela on bigspel- 
lum laerde, and him to cwseS on his lare, (3) GehyracS : 5 
Ut eode se ssedere his ssed to sawenne. (4) And pa he 
seow,^ sum feoll wi6 pone weg, and fugelas comon and 
hit frseton. (5) Sum feoll ofer stanscyligean/ par hit 
nsefde mycele eorSan, and sona up eode ; and for pam hit 
nsefde eorSan piccnesse, (6) pa hit tip eode, seo sunne 10 
hit forswselde, and hit forscranc, for pam hit wyrtruman 
nsefde. (7) And sum feoll on pornas ; pa stigon Sa 
pornas and fort5rysmodon pset, and hit wsestm ne baer. 
(8) And sum feoll on god land, and hit sealde uppstlg- 
endne and wexendne ^ wsestm ; and an brohte pritig- 15 

1 Only in A, 2 Corp., B, waeron. ^ Corp., B, sew. 

* A, stanscyUan. ^ MSS., -stigende and wexende. 

I 



2 I. FROM THE GOSPELS. 

fealdne/ sum syxtigfealdne, sum hundfealdne. (9) And 
he cw8et5, Gehyre, se Se earan hsebbe to gehyranne. 

(10) And pa he ana wses, hine axodon ]?8et bigspell J?a 
tw^lfe }^e mid him w£eron. (11) And he ssede him, Eow 
5 is geseald to witanne Godes rices gerynu ; fam pe tite synt 
ealle }nng on bigspellum gewurpaS^: (12") feet hi geseonde 
geseon, and na ne geseon ; and gehyrende gehyren, and 
ne ongyten ; fe Ises hi hwsenne syn geeyrrede/ and 
him sin hyra synna forgyfene. (13) Da S£ede he him, 

10 Ge nyton J)is bigspell? and \m mage ge ealle bigspell 
witan? (14) Se fe ssewS, word he ssew^. (15) So6- 
lice }?a synt wi'S pone weg par pget word is gesawen; 
and ponne hi hit gehyrat5, sona cymt5 Satanas, and afyrS 
pset word pe on heora heortan asawen ys. (16) And 
5 ])a synt gelice pe synt ofer pa stanscyligean^ gesawen; 
sona psenne^ hi pset word gehyraS, and paet mid blisse 
onfoS; (17) and hi nabbaS wyrtruman on him, ac beo6 
unstaMfseste ; and syppan tip cymS deofles costnung^ 
and his ehtnys for pam worde, [and hraedlice hi beoS 

•Jo geuntreowsode]. (18) Hi synd on pornum gesawen, pset 
synd pa t5e pset word gehyraS ; (19) and of yrmSe 
and swTcdome woroldivelena'^ and oSra gewilnunga pset 
word ofprysmia^,-' and synt buton wsestme gewordene. 
(20) And pa Se gesawene synt ofer pset gode land, pa 

«i5 synd pe pset word gehyraS and onfoS, and wsestm bringaS, 
sum pritigfealdne, sum syxtigfealdne, and sum hund- 
fealdne. 

1 A, J?ryttyg-fealdne waestm. 2 a, geweor^aS. 

8 Corp., B, gescyrede (error). * MSS., stanscylian. 

fi A, Jjonne. ^ A, costung, B, costnunge. 

"^ Corp., woroldwelene, A, worldwelena, B, woroldewelene. 

8 Corp., B, of^rysma'5, A, ofbrysmia-g. 



/. FROM THE GOSPELS. 3 

(21) He s^de him, Cwyst J^a cyraS pset leohtfset ]?set hit 
bgo under bydene as^tt, 0(5(5e under b^dde ? wite geare ^ 
|?8et hit sy ofer candelstaef as^tt. (22) SoSllce nis nan 
t5ing behydd j^e ne sy geswutelod ; ne nis digle geworden, 
ac paet hit openllce cume. (23) Gehyre, gif hwa earan 
haebbe to gehyranne. (24) And he cwaeS to him, War- 
niaS hwset ge gehyran ^ ; and on }>am gemete J^e ge meta(5, 
eow bi(5 gemeten, and eow biS geict.^ (25) pam bi(5 
geseald fe hsefS ; and )7am Se nsefS, eac feet he haefS him 
bis aetbroden. 

(26) And he cw8et5, Godes rice ys swylce man wurpe '* 
god seed on his land; (27) and slape^ and arise daeges 
and nihtes, and J^aet seed growe and wexe, J)onne he nat. 

(28) SoSlice sylfwilles seo eorSe waestm hereto®; £erest 
gaers, syt5^an ear, sy]7]?an fullne hwaete on ]7am eare. 

(29) And ]:)onne se waestm hine fort5 bringS, sona he s^nt 
his sicol, for J:)am J^aet rip aet is. 

(30) And eft he cwae^, For hwam geanlicie we heofena 
rice ? o5Se hwylcum bigspelle wi^mete we hit ? (31) Swa 
swa senepes saed, fonne hit bi^ on eorSan gesawen, hit is 
ealra s^da laest \)Q on eortJan synt ; (32) and ponne hit 
asawen bi^, hit astiht), and hv6 ealra wyrta meest, and 
haefS swa mycele bogas j^aet heofenes fugelas eardian 
magon under his sceade. (33) And manegum swylcum 
bigspellum he spraec to him J^aet hi mihton gehyran. 
(34) Xe spaec ^ he na butan bigspelle ; eall he his leorn- 
ingcnihtum asundron r^hte. 

(35) And [he] saede him }?onne aefen ivms,^ Uton 
faran agen.^ (36) And }>a ^° m^nigu forlaetende/^ hi on- 

1 Corp., B, gere. 2 x, gehyron. 3 x, yht. 

* A, worpe. s mSS., sawe. 6 Corp., B, bera'5. 

' A, spraec. 8 ]\£SS., bi^. 9 A, ongean. 

w Corp., B, )>as, 11 Corp., B, forlaetau 



4 I. FROM THE GOSPELS. 

fengon hine swa lie on scipe wees. And ofre scipu 
waeron mid him. (37) And pa wees mycel yst windes 
geworden, and yj?a he awearp on f set scyp, })8et hit gefylled 
W3es.^ (38) And he wses on scipe ofer bolster slapende ; 
and hi aw^hton hine, and cwjaedon, Ne belimpf5 to fe ]>ddt 
we f orwur))at5 ^ ? (39) And he aras, and J?am winde be- 
head, and cwseS to 'Ssere see, Suwa and gestille.^ And se 
wind geswac )?a, and weartS mycel smyltnes. (40) And he 
ssede him, Hwi synt ge f orhte ? gyt nabbe ge ^ geleafan ? 
(41) And hi micclum^ ^ge him ondredon, and cwsedon 
Jelc to o^rum, Hwset wenst ]>u hwset is t5es, j^set him 
windas and^ see hyrsumiat5? 

1 A, B, wses gefylled. 2 ^^ forweorJja'S. ^ a, gestyl. 

* MSS., ge nabba^. ^ A, mycelum; B, myclum. 

6 A, B, wyndas and ; Corp., wanting. 



IL 

OEPHEUS AND EURYDICE. 

[From the Alfredian version of the De Consolatione Philosophiae 
oi Boethius. The text represents MS. C (Cotton, Otho A. 6) ; MS. B 
(Bodl. 180 = NE. C. 3. 11) and Junius's transcript of the same, J 
(Bodl. Jun. 12), supply variants.] 

Hit gelamp gio ^sette an hearpere wses on tSsere ^lode 
6e Dracia ^ hatte, sio wees on Creca rice ; se hearpere 
waes swiSe ungefrsegllce good, Sees nama wses Orfeus ; he 
hsefde an swKe eenlic wif, sio waes haten Eurudice.^ Da 
ongon m^n slogan be t5am hearpere, ]?3et he meahte ^ 
hearpian paet se wudu wagode, ond ])a stanas hi styredon 
for <Sj^ swege, ond wildu dior tS^r woldon to irnan qnd 
stondan swilce hi tamu wseren, swa stille, 6eah him m^n 
o56e hundas wiS eoden, t^set hi hi na'' ne onscunedon. 
Da ssedon hi pset ^ses hearperes wif sceolde acwelan, ond lo 
hire saule ^ mon sceohie l^dan to h^lle. Da sceolde se 
hearpere weorSan swa sarig, ]>aet he ne meahte ongemong 
oSrum monnum bion, ac teah to wuda, ond sset on Ssem 
mnntum, eegSer ge dseges ge nihtes, weop ond hearpode, 
t53et tSa wudas bifedon,^ ond ^a ea stodon, ond nan heort 15 
ne onscunede ^ ngenne ^ leon, ne nan hara ngenne hund, ne 
nan neat nyste nsenne andan ne neenne ^ge to oi^rum, for 

1 B, racia ; J, thracia. * J, Eurydice. » b, hirgedon for >am. 
* B, ]?8et hi na. ^ B, sawle. ^ g^ bifodon. 

^ B, onscunode ; C, -de broken off. ^ C, nsene. 

5 



6 II. ORPHEUS AND EUBYBICE. 

tSsere mergSe^ 'Sees sones. Da t5sem hearpere Sa Sulite 
Sset hine nanes Singes ne lyste on 'Sisse worulde, Sa t^ohte 
he Sset he wolde gesecan h^lle godu,^ ond onginnan him 
ol^ccan mid his hearpan, ond biddan Jjset hi him dgeafen ^ 

5 eft his wif. pa he Sa 6ider com^ Sa sceolde cuman Ssere 
h^lle hund ongean hine, |>8es nama wses Ceruerus,^ se 
sceolde habban frio heafdu, ond onfsegnian^ mid his 
steorte, ond plegian wi6 hine for his hearpunga. Da 
wses Sser eac swi6e ^geslic geatweard, (53es nama sceolde 

10 bion Caron, se hsefde eac frio heafdu, ond wses^ swiSe 
oreald. Da ongon se hearpere hine biddan fset he hine 
gemundbyrde Sa hwile ]>e he Sser wsere, ond hine ge- 
sundne eft 'Sonan brohte. Da gehet he him (58et, for Ssem 
he waes oflyst tSses seldcuSan sones. Da eode he furfur 

15 oS he gemette^ t5a graman gydena^ Se folcisce m^n 
hataS Parcas, Sa hi s^cgaS Saet on nanum m^n nyten^ 
nane are, ac selcum m^n wrecen be his^^ gewyrhtum; 
pa hi s^cgaS Sset ivealden'^^ eelces mannes wyrde. Da 
ongon he biddan heora miltse ; ^^ Sa ongunnon hi wepan 

2G mid him. Da eode he furSur, ond him urnon ealle h^ll- 
waran ongean, ond l^ddon hine to hiora cyninge,^^ ond 
ongunnon ealle sprecan mid him, ond biddan J^ses Se he 
bsed. Qnd pset unstille hweol Se Ixion wses t5 gebunden, 
Leuita^* cyning, for his scylde, Saet oSstod for his hearp- 

25 unga ; ond Tantulus se cyning, Se on Sisse worulde 
ungemetlice gifre wses, ond him Sser Sset ilce yfel filgde ^^ 

1 B, mirhjje ; J, mirhte. 2 3^ gatu. 

8 C, agefen ; B, ageafan. * C, cerueruerus ; B, anierus. 
s B^ ongan fsegenian. 6 b, se waes. 

'' C, mette. ^ C, metena. 

9 B, nyton. 10 C, be his broken off. 
" C, walden; B, wealdan ^^ c, blisse. 

13 C, cininge. i* B, lauita. i^ b, fyligde. 



IT. ORPHEUS AND EUR YD ICE. ^ 

Seere gif ernesse, he gestilde. Qnd se vultor ^ sceolde for- 
l«tan "Sset he ne^ slat ^a lifre Tyties^ Sees cyninges, ^e 
hine ser mid 'Sy witnode ; ond eall h^lhvara witii gestil- 
don, tSa hwile fe he beforan t)am cyninge hearpode. Da 
he 'Sa longe ond longe hearpode, tia cleopode se h^llwara 
cyning, ond cweeS : ^ Wutun agifan 'Sseni ^sne his wif, for 
■ggem he hi hsef^ geearnad mid his hearpnnga.' Bebead 
him Sa 'Sset he geare wisse, tiset [he] * hine nsefre under 
baec ne besawe, sit^'San^ he 'Sonanweard w8ere;ond ssede, 
gif he hine under bsec besawe, ^set he sceolde forlsetan 
■Sset wif. Ac Sa lufe mon maeg swiSe uneaSe o^6e na^ 
forbeodan : wei la wei ! hwset? Orpheus '5a li^dde his wif 
mid him, o'S de he'^ com on l^aet gem^re leohtes ond 
t5iostro ; t5a eode ]i8et wif eef ter him. Da he f orS on ^ ^set 
leoht com, 'Sa beseah he hine under^baec wiS 'Sses wifes : 
6a losade hio him sona. Das leasan spell ^ Isera^ ge- 
hwylcne mon Sara 'Se wilna6 h^lle Siostro to fiionne, 
ond to Sses soSan Godes liohte to cumanne, Sset he hine 
ne besTo to his ealduin ^^ yflum, swa Sset he hi eft sw^ 
fullice fullfr^mme swa he hi ^r dyde; for Seem swa hwa 
swa mid fulle ^^ willan his mod w^nt to Ssem yflum Se he 
ger forlet, ond hi Sonne fullfr^meS, ond hi him Sonne 
fullice liciaS, and he hi n^fre forl^tan ne p^nceS,^^ Sonne 
forlyst he eall his serran good, buton he hit eft gebete. 

1 MSS., altor ; J, Uultor. 2 g, wanting. 

^ C, sticces ; B, ticcies changed to tyccies ; J., Tyties. 
* Sweet. 5 B^ for }jam. 6 g^ o^Se na wanting, 

■^ B, o'?)e he ; C, oS he. ^ C, f ar^um. ^ q^ wanting. 

"> C, ealdan. ^ B - fullon. 12 b, )peiicS. 



ACCOUNT OF THE POET C^DMON. 

[From the Anglo-Saxon version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History. 
The text follows the Tanner MS. (= Tanner 10, Bodl. Lib.); the 
variants are from C (= MS. Cotton, Otho B. xi.), (= MS. 27S 
Corp. C. C. Camb.), and Ca (= MS. Kk. 3. 18, Camb. Univ. Lib.).] 

In t5eosse abbudissan mynstre wses sum broSor syndrig- 
lice mid godcundre gife gemaered ^ ond geweort^ad, for ]7on 
lie gewunade gerisenllce leot5 wyrcan, ])a t5e to eef^stnisse 
ond to arfsestnlsse 'belumpon ; swa Ssette swa bwaet swa 

5 lie of godcundum stafnm purh. boceras geleornode, J^set lie 
sefter medmiclum fsece in scopgereorde mid fa maestan 
swetnisse ond inbryrdnisse geglemgde,^ ond in lEnglisc- 
gereorde wel geworhf* for]? brohte. Qnd for his leo)?- 
songum monigra monna mod oft to worulde f orhogdnisse * 

10 ond to ge]7eodnisse J^ses heofonlican lifes onbsBrnde weeron. 
Qnd eac swelce monige 66re sefter liim in Qngelj^eode 
ongunnon sef^ste leoS wyrcan, ac nsenig liwseSre him Jjget 
gelice don ne^ meahte; for ]?on he nalaes from mgnnum 
ne |)urh mon gelsered wses ])8et he fone leot5cr£ef t leornade, 

15 ac he waes godcundlice gefultumod/ ond j>urh Godes gife 
J70ne songcrseft onfeng ; ond he for ^on nsefre noht leas- 
unge,* ne idles leoJ>es wyrcan ne ^ meahte, ac efne pa avi 

1 Ca, gemaersad. 2 t, belumpen ; 0, -on. 

* T, geglaengde ; 0, Ca, geglencde. * 0, Ca, gehwser. 

6 O, forhohnesse. *^ Ca "^ O ; T, -med ; Ca, -mad. 

8 Ca, leasunga. ^ Ca. 
S 



III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET C.EDMON. 9 

Sa Se to gef^stnisse belumpon, ^nd his ))a^ sef^stau tungan 
gedeof anade ^ singan. 

Wses he se mon in weoruldhade ges^ted oS ]?a tide j^e 
he wses gelyfdre ylde, ond neefre nsenig leo^ geleornade. 
Qnd he for ])on oft in gebeorscipe, fonne Jjser wses blisse 5 
intinga gedemed, ))9et heo ealle sceolden ^ |)urh ^ndebyrd- 
nesse be hearpan singan, J^onne he geseah fa hearpan him 
nealecan, })onne aras he for scome^ from J^sem sym^ble, 
ond ham eode to his huse. pa he paet pa sumre tide 
dyde, )>3et he forlet j^set htis pses gebeorscipes, ond ut wses 10 
gongende to neata scipene, fara heord him wses J^aere 
>ieahte beboden; fa he ^a feer in gelimpllce^ tide his 
leomu on r^ste ges^tte ond onslepte, |?a stod him sum 
mon aet Jjurh swefn, ond hine h alette ond grette, ond hine 
be his noman n^mnde : ^Cedmon, sing me hwsethwugu.' 15 
pa ondswarede he, ond cwseS : ' Ne con ic noht singan ; 
ond ic for fon of feossum gebeorscipe ut eode ond hider 
gewat, for fon ic naht singan ne cu6e.' Eft he cwaeS se '5e 
wi(5 hine^ sprecende wses : 'HwsetSre fu meaht me^ singan.' 
pa cwaeS he : 'Hwset sceal ic singan ? ' Cw8e6 he : ' Sing me 20 
frumsceaft.' pa he tSa fas andsware onfeng, fa ongon he 
sona singan, in h^renesse Godes Scyppendes, fa fers ond fa 
word f e he ngefre ne '' gehyrde, f ara ^ ^ndebyrdnes ^ f is is : 

Nu we ^° sculon h^rigean heofonrices Weard, 25 

Meotodes meahte ond his modgefanc, 
weorc ^^ Wuldorfseder, swa he wundra gehwaes, 
ece Drihten, or ^ onstealde. 

1 Sweet, \>^re. 2 q, Ca, gedafenode. 

3 T, sealde ; O, sceolde^ ; Ca, -an ; B, -on. 

* T, for forscome. ^ Ca, on gelimplicre. 

* C, O, mid him ; Ca, wi^ him. ^ T, wanting. 

8 T, >8ere. ^ ; T, Ca, -nesse. 

1^ T, wanting ; 0, above the line ; Ca. " 0, Ca, wera. 12 Ca, ord. 



lO III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET C^BMON, 

He serest sceop eorSan bearnum 
heofon to hrofe, halig Scyppend ; 
pa middangeard monncynnes Weard, 
ece Drihten, aefter teode 
5 firum foldan, Frea selmihtig. 

pa aras lie from ])£eni sleepe, ond eal fa ])e he slsepende 
song fseste in gemynde hgefde; ond ]?£em wordum sona 
monig word in J>8et ilce gemet Gode wyrSes ^ songes to- 
ge]?eodde. pa com he on morgenne ^ to fsem tungerefan, 

10 se ^ ]?e his ealdormon wees : ssegde him hwylc gife he on- 
f eng ; ond he hine sona to )?gere abbudissan gelsedde, ond 
hire peet^ cyt5de ond saegde. pa heht heo gesomnian 
ealle ))a gelseredestan m^n ond )?a leorneras, Qnd him 
ondweardum het slogan ])set swefn, ond ]?3et leo^ singan, 

15 ])8et ealra heora dome gecoren wsere, hwset ot5t5e hwonan 
])ddt cumen w^re. pa wses him eallum gesegen, swa swa 
hit W8es, pddt him wgere from Drihtne sylfum heofonlic 
gifu forgifen. pa r^hton heo him ond ssegdon sum halig 
spell ond godcundre lare word : bebudon him ]?a, gif he 

20 meahte, j^set he in swinsunge leo]isonges j^aet gehwyrfde. 
pa he Sa hsefde j^a wisan onfongne/ ]>sl eode he ham to 
his huse, ond cwom eft on morgenne, ond ]^y b^tstan 
leoSe gegl^nged him asong ond ageaf ]78et him beboden 
waes. 

25 Da ongan seo abbudisse clyppan ond lufigean |?a Godes 
gife in ]78em m^n, Qnd heo hine ]^si monade ond l^rde |>get 
he woruldhad anforlete ^ ond munuchad onfenge : ond 
he ])8dt wel l^afode. Qnd heo hine in j^set mynster cnfeng 
mid his godum, ond hine ge))eodde to gesomnunge j^ara 

1 T, godes wordes. 2 q^, -ene ; 0, marne. 

3 T, wanting. * T, )?a. 

* 0, onfangene ; Ca, onfangenne. ^ q, forlete ; Ca, forlfete. 



III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET CjEBMON. II 

Godes feowa, ond heht hine l£eran jiset getsel ])8es halgan 
stgeres ond spelles. Qnd lie eal pa [pe] he in gehyrnesse 
geleornian meahte, mid hine gemyndgade,^ ond swa swa 
cl«ne neten eodorcende- in paet sweteste leo6 gehwyrfde.^ 
Qnd his song ond his leoS wseron swa wynsumu* to gehyr- 5 
aime, ]?3ette seolfan pa^ his lareowas set his muSe wreot- 
on^ ond leornodon. Song he serest be middangeardes 
gesceape, ond b! fruman moncynnes, ond eal ]>ddt steer 
Genesis, J^set is seo ^reste Moyses booc ; ond eft bi ut- 
gonge Israhela folces of ^gypta londe, ond bi ingonge 10 
paes gehatlandes ; ond bi oSrum monegum spellum ]?8es 
halgan gewrites canones boca; ond bi Cristes m^nnisc- 
nesse, ond bi his ]>rowunge, ond bi his upastignesse in 
heofonas ; ond bi j^ses Halgan Gastes cyme, ond ])ara 
apostola lare; ond eft bi |>£em dsege'' ))3es toweardan 15 
domes, ond bi fyrhtu paes tintreglican wiites, ond bi swet- 
nesse J^ses heofonlecan rices, he monig leo$ geworhte; 
ond swelce eac oSer monig be fgem godcundan fr^msum- 
nessum ond domum he geworhte. In eallum J^aem he 
geornlice gemde^ fset he m^n atuge from synna lufan t^ 
ond mandseda, ond to lufan ond to geornfulnesse aw^hte 
godra dseda; for fon he wees se mon swipe ^f^st ond 
regollecum peodscipum eat5modlice nnderpeoded ; ond wiS 
]>£em pa Se in oSre wisan don woldon, he waes mid welme^ 
micelre ^llenwodnisse onbserned. Qnd he for Son faegre 25 
(^nde ^" his lif betynde ond ge^ndade. 

For pon pa Ssere tide nealeecte his gewitenesse ond forS- 
fore, pa waes he feowertynum dagum aer, paet he waes 
lichomlicre untrymnesse ]?rycced ond h^fgad," hwaeSre to 

1 0, gemyngade ; Ca, gemynegode. 2 Ca, o^ercende. 

3 0, Ca ; T, gehwerfde. * 0, wynsum ; Ca, wynsume. 

5 0, ba sylfan. « O, writon. '^ 0, ege. ^ q, gymda 

9 0, wylme. w T, aende. 11 0, hefigad. 



12 III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET C^EBMON. 

I^on gemetlice ]?8et he ealle ]?a tid nieahte ge sprecan ga 
gongan. Wees far in neaweste untruinra monna hus, in 
f ^m heora ]^eaw wges ptet heo ))a imtninian ^ ond pa Se set 
for$fore w^ron in Isdan- sceoldon, ond him p^r setsomne 
5 ])egnian. pa b^ed he his J>egn on afenne j^ffire neahte fe 
he of woridde gongende wses J^set he in ])^ni huse him 
sto".\'e gegearwode, J^aet he ger^stan meahte. pa wund- 
rode se ]7egn for hwon he ^tes bSde, for J^on him puhte 
p£et his forSfor swa neah ne wSre : dyde hwse^re swa 

lo swa he cwte^ ond bibead. Qnd mid ]>j he $a pter on 
r^ste eode, ond he gefeonde mode sumu }nng mid him 
sprecende setgaedere" ond gleowiende Tvses ]ie j^Sr ar inne 
w*ron, ])a wees ofer middeneaht pset he frsegn, hwse^er 
heo ^nig husl ione hasfdon. pa ondswarodon heo ond 

v5 cw^don: ^Hwylc pearf is Se busies? Xe pinre for|)fore 
swa neah is, nu ]>u ]7ns rotllce ond pns glaedlice to us 
sprecende eart/' CwseS he eft: 'Berat5 me"* husl to.' 
pa he hit ])a on honda hsefde. |>a frsegn he, hw8S]^er heo 
ealle smolt^ mod ond buton eallum incan blKe to him 

20 hgefdon. pa ondswaredon hy ealle, ond cw^don ]>ddt 
heo nSnigne incan to him wiston, ac heo ealle him swiSe 
bliSemode w^ron; ond heo wrixendlice hine b^don J^set 
he him eallum bliSe w^re, pa Qndswarade he ond cw8ef5: 
' Mine broSor.*^ mine |)a leofan, ic eom swiSe bliSemod to 

23 eow ond to eallum Godes monnum.' Qnd he" swa waes 
hine getrymmende mid ]^y heofonlecan wegneste, ond 
him oSres lifes ingong gegearwode. pa gyt he frsegn, 
hu neah ]?sere tide wgere )?£ette ] a bro6or arisan sceolden,^ 
ond Godes lof r^ran^ ond heora uhtsong singan. pa 

1 O ; T, untrumran. - ; T, -on. 

3 0, setgaedere is placed before mid him. •* 0. me liwae>ere. 

5 O, smylte. <^ 0, bro>ro. ' T, icanting. 

8 T, scolden ; O, sceoldon. ^ O, folc laeraiL- 



III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET C^DMON. 1 3 

^ndswaredon heo : 'ISTis hit feor to J^on.' CwsetS he: 
'Teala,^ wuton we wel feere tide bidan;' ond J)a him 
gebaed, ond hine gesegnode mid Cristes rodetacne, ond 
his heafod oiihylde^ to pam bolstre, ond medmicel faec 
onslepte,^ ond swa mid stilnesse his lif ge^ndade. Qnd 
swa wses geworden jisette swa swa he ^ hluttre mode ond 
bilwitre ond smyltre wilsiimnesse Drihtne ]?eode, ]78et he 
eac swylce swa smjlte deat^e middangeard wees forlset- 
ende, ond to his gesihSe becwom. Qnd seo tunge ])e 
swa monig halw^nde word in pses Scyppendes lof ges^tte, 
he t^a swelce eac ]7a ytmsestan word in his h^renisse, hine 
seolfne segniende ond his gast in his honda bebeodende, 
betynde. Eac swelce J^set is gesegen ^ fset he wgere gewis 
his seolf es forSfore of feem fe ® we nu s^cgan hyrdon. 

1 0, tela. 2 T, oh- ; O, Ca, B, -on. « q, onslsepte. 

* T, wanting. ^ O, gesewen. ^ t, wanting. 



PART li 

IV. 

CYKEWULF AND CYNEHEARD. 

[From the Parker MS. of the Chronicle (A) in the library oi 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge.] 

755. Her Cynewulf benam Sigebryht his rices ond 
Westseaxna wiotan for unrylitum dsedum, biiton Ham 
tunscire; ond he heefde fa o|) he ofslog ]?one aldormon ]>e 
him longest wunode. Qnd hiene |?a Cynewulf on Andred 

3 adrgefde ; qnd he ]?ser wunade, oJ> ]?8et hiene an swan 
ofstang set Pryfetes flodan, — ond he wrsec ]7one aldor- 
mon Cumbran. Qnd se Cynewulf oft miclum gefeohtum 
feaht uui]9 Bretwalum ; ond ymb xxxi wintra ^ pses fe he 
rice hsefde, he wolde adr^fan anne sej^eling, se waes Cyne- 

lo heard haten, — ond se Cyneheard wses pdds Sigebryhtes 
brojmr. Qnd ]?a geascode he j^one cymng lytle werode 
on wifcy|7}:'e on M^rantune, ond hine ])8er berad, ond Jjone 
bur iatan beeode, £er hine ]:>a m^n onfunden ])Q mid fam 
kyninge wserun. 

15 Qnd ])3i ongeat se cyning ])8et, ond he on ))a duru eode, 
ond fa unheanlice hine w^rede^ o]? he on fone sepeling 
locude, ond fa tit rgesde on hine, ond hine miclum gewund- 
ode; ond hie alle on fone cyning wserun feohtende, of 
fedt hie hine ofslsegenne haefdon. Qnd fa on f aes wifes 

1 wifife 
14 



IV. CTNEWULF AND CYNEHEABD. 1 5 

geb^riim onfundon J^ses cyninges pegnas j^a unstilnesse, 
ond ] a ])ider urnon swa hwelc swa ponne gearo wearj> ond 
radost. Qnd Mera se 8e|?eling geliwelcum feoh. ond feorh. 
gebead, ond hiera nsenig hit ge|?icgean nolde; ac hie 
simle feohtende wseran, op hie alle l^egon butan anum 5 
Bryttiseum gisle, ond se swipe gewundad waes. 

pa on morgenne gehierdun pset paes cyninges pegnas, pe 
him beseftan weerun, paet se cyning ofslsegen wses. pa 
ridon hie pider, ond his aldormon Osric, ond Wiferp his 
pegn, ond pa m^n pe he beseftan him Isefde £er, ond pone 10 
sepeling on psere byrig metton, pSr se cyning ofslaegen 
l^g (ond pa gatu him to belocen haefdon) ond pa peer to 
eodon. Qnd pa gebead he him hiera agenne dom feos 
ond londes, gif hie him pees rices upon ; ond him cySde * 
pset hiera msegas him mid wseron, pa pe him from noldon. 15 
Qnd pa cueedon hie pset him neenig m^g leofra n^re 
ponne hiera hlaford, ond h!e n^fre his banan folgian 
noldon. Qnd pa budon hie hiera mgegum pset hie gesunde 
from eodon ; ond hie cusedon pset tset ilce hiera geferum 
geboden w^re pe ^r mid pam cyninge w^run. pa cu^d- 20 
on hie pset hie hie pses ne onmunden 'pon ma pe eowre 
geferan pe mid pam cyninge ofslsegene wserun/ Qnd hie 
pa ymb pa gatu feohtende w^ron op pset hie pser inne 
fulgon, ond pone sepeling ofslogon, ond pa m^n pe him 
mid wserun, alle butan anum, se wses pses aldormonnes 25 
godsunu; ond he his feorh gen^rede, ond peah he wses 
oft orewundad. 



1 B, D ; E, cydde ; A, C, cyHon. 



WAES OF ALFEED THE GEEAT. 

[Erom the Parker MS. of the Chronicle (A) in the library oi' 
Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; other MSS. supply variants.] 

871. Her cuom se h^re to Eeadingum on Westseaxe, 
ond ])ses ymb iii niht ridon ii eorlas up. pa gemette hie 
.^pelwulf aldorman on Englafelda, ond Mm J)£er wif ge- 
feaht, ond sige nam. pses ymb iiii niht M])eied cyning 
5 ond Alfred his brofur jyger micle fierd to Eeadingum 
gelgeddoUj ond wi]? fone h^re gefuhton; ond J>8er wtes 
micel wsel geslsegen on gehwse])re hond, ond ^J>elwulf 
aldormon wear]> of slsegen ; ond fa D^niscan ahton wsel- 
stowe gewald. 

lo Qnd ])8es ymb iiii niht gefeaht ^pered cyning ond 
Alfred his bro]>ur wi]? alne ])one h^re on ^scesdune. 
Qnd hie wserun on tw£em gefylcum : on oprum wses 
Bachs^cg. ond Halfd^ne ]>a h8e)?nan cyningas, ond on 
o|>rum wseron ))a eorlas. Ond J>a gefeaht se cyning 

35 ^pered wij? J>ara cyninga getruman, ond pser wear]> se 
cyning Bags^cg ofslaegen; ond iElfred his bro}>ur wi}) 
])ara eorla getruman, ond ]7ger wear}? Sidroc eorl ofslsegen 
se alda, ond Sidroc eorl se gioncga, ond Osbearn eorl, 
ond Er£ena eorl, ond Hareld eorl; ond pa h^rgas begen 

20 geflierade, ond fela ]>usenda ofslsegenra, ond onfeohtende 
wseron o]> niht. 

Qnd ]?8es ymb xiiii niht gefeaht ^pered cj^ning ond 
Alfred his bro^ur wip ))one h^re set Basengum, Qnd ]?£er 
\>Si D^niscan sige nam on, 
16 



F. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 1/ , 

Qnd pses ynib ii niona]? gefealit ^pered cyning ond 
Alfred his br6)mr wi]? ]>one h^re set M^retune, ond hie 
wserun on tusem gefylcium, ond hie butu gefliemdon, ond 
longe on dseg sige ahton ; ond ]?eer wear]? micel wselsliht 
on gehw3ej)ere hond ; ond pa D^niscan ahton wselstowe 5 
gewald; ond ])ser wearj? Heahmund bisceop^ ofslsegen, 
ond fela godra monna. Qnd sefter ]nssum gefeohte cuom 
micel sumorlida. 

Qnd pses ofer Eastron gefor ^pered cyning; ond he 
ricsode v gear ; ond his lie lij? set Winburnan. 10 

pa feng Alfred ^pelwulfing his bropur to Wesseaxna 
rice. Qnd pses ymb anne monap gefeaht Alfred cyning 
wip alne pone h^re lytle ■\\erede set Wiltune, ond hine 
longe on dseg gefiiemde, ond pa D^niscan ahton wselstowe 
gewald. i; 

Qnd pses geares wurdon viiii folcgefeoht gefohten wip 
pone h^re on py cyneiice be supan T^mese, butaii^ papa ]>e 
him Alfred pses cyninges bropur ond anlipig aldormjDn 
ond cyninges pegnas oft rade onridon pe moii na ne . 
rimde ; ond pses geares w^run ofslsegene viiii eorlas ond 2c 
an cyning. Qnd py geare namon Westseaxe frip wip pone 
h^re. 

* * * * * * * 

893. Her on pysum geare for se micla h^re, pe we 
gefyrn ymbe sprsecon, eft of piSm eastrice westweard to 
Bunnan, ond pser wurdon gescipode swa pset hie as^ttan 25 
him on anne sip ofer mid horsum mid ealle ; ^nd pa 
comon up on Limene niupan mid ccl hunde scipa. Se 
mupa is on easteweardre C^nt, set pses m.idan ^ wudsi east- 
^nde pe we Andred hataS. Se wudu is eastlang ^nd 

1 A, bisc. ^ A, W, ond butan. 

' A, miclam ; E, mycdan ; F, mucelan ; B, C, D, ilcan. 



1 8 F. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 

westlang hundtw^lftiges raila lang, o))])e l^ngra, ond ])n- 
tiges mila brad. Seo ea, ]?e we ^r ymbe spraecon, li6 ul. 
of peein wealda. On ]m ea hi tugon up hiora scipu o}> 
Jjone weald, iiii mila fram |?gem muj^an uteweardum, ond 
5 f ^r abraecon an geweorc : inne on ]?aem fsestenne ^ sseton 
feawa cirlisce m^n on, ond wses samworht. 

pa sona sefter |?8em com Hsesten mid lxxx scipa up on 
T^mese mu^an, ond worlite him geweorc set Middeltune, 
ond se oper h^re set Apuldre. 

lo 894. On ])js geare, pset wses ymb tw^lf mona'S J^ses ]>e 
hie on ]?gem eastrice geweorc geworht hsefdon, NorJ)- 
hymbre ond East^ngle hsefdon ^Ifrede cyninge a]?as 
geseald, ond East^ngle foregisla vi : ond ]>eh. ofer ]?a 
treowa, swa oft swa fa olpie h^rgas mid ealle h^rige ut 

15 foron, ])onne foron hie, o])])e mid o]?])e on heora healfe.^ 
Qnd |)a gegaderade Alfred cyning his fierd, ond for fset 
he gewTcode betwuh j^eem twam h^rgnm, ])'ddY |?8er he niehst 
rymet hsefde for wudufsestenne ond for wseterfsestenne, 
swa }>set he m^hte gegperne geraecan, gif hie ^nigne feld 

20 secan wolden. pa foron hie si]>|)an sefter j)^m wealda 
hlopum ond flocradum, bi swa hwa|)erre efes^ swa hit 
}3onne fierdleas wses. Qnd him mon eac mid oprum floc- 
cum sohte m^stra daga selce, o]>])e on dseg * o]?]?e on niht, 
ge of ]yd^ve fierde ge eac of ])sem burgum. Hsefde se cyn- 

25 ing his fierd on tu tonumen, swa |)8e(. Lie wseron simle 
healfe set ham, healfe ute, butan ^gem monnum ]>e }& 
burga healdan scolden. Ne com sC h^re oftor call ute of 
J)^m setum j^onne tuwwa : 6]>re> sipe ])a hie serest to 
londe comon, ^r sio fierd gesamnod waer^j ofre sife fa 

1 A, W, r, fenne ; E, fsenne ; B, la^stenne ; C, D, fsestene. 

2 After healfe A, on {originally a*i?); B, W, on; C, D, ond ^a; 
Eds., an or on. 

3 D, healfe- •* C, D, oppe on daeg; A. B. wanting. 



F. WAES OF ALFEEB THE GREAT, 1 9 

hie of l^gem setum faran woldon. pa hie gefengon niicle 
h^rehyS, ond ])a woldon f^rian norpweardes ofer T^mese 
in on Eastseaxe ongean ]m scipu. pa forrad sio Herd liie 
foran, ond him wi$ gefeaht set Fearnhamme, ond J^one 
h^re gefliemde, ond pa h^rehyj^a ahr^ddon •, Qnd hie flugon s 
ofer T^mese buton eelcum f orda ; pa up be Colne on anne 
iggat5. pa besset sio fierd hie peer utan pa hwile pe hie 
pger longest m^te hsefdon ; ac hi hsef don pa heora stemn ^ 
gesetenne ond hiora ni^te genotudne^; ond waes se cyng 
pa piderweardes on fsere, mid psere scire pe mid him her- 10 
dedon. pa he pa wees piderweardes, ^nd sio operu fierd 
wses hamweardes ; ond {5a D^niscan saeton peer behindan, 
for psem hiora cyning waes gewundod on paem gefeohte, 
pset hi hiiie ne m^hton f ^rian. 

pa gegaderedon pa pe in Norphymbrum bugea^ ond on li 
East^nglum sum hund scipa, ond foron su$ ymbutan, ond 
sum feowertig scipa norp ymbutan, ond ymbsaeton an 
geweorc on Defnascire be peere Norpsee ; ond pa pe suS 
ymbutan foron, ymbsseton Exancester. pa se cyng paet 
hierde, pa w^nde he hine west wiS Exanceastres mid aj 
ealre psere fierde, buton swipe gewaldenum daele easte- 
weardes paes folces. pa foron fortS op pe hie comon to 
Lundenbyrg, ond pa mid paem burgwarum ond peem ful- 
tume pe him westan com, foron east to Beamfleote. Waes 
Haesten pa paer cumen mid his h^rge pe aer aet Middel- 23 
tune saet ; ond eac se micla h^re waes pa paer to cumen pe 
ser on Limene mupan saet aet Apuldre. Haefde Haesten 
aer geworht paet geweorc aet Beamfleote, ond waes pa ut 
afaren on h^rgap, ond waes se micla h^re aet ham. ,pa 
foron hie to, ond gefliemdon pone h^re, ond paet geweorc 30 
abraecon, .^nd genamon eal paet paer binnan waes, ge on 

1 B, C, stemninge > D, steminge. ^ B, beuotodae. 



20 V. WARS OF ALFRUn THE GREAT. 

feo, ge on wifum, ge eac on bearnum^ ond brohton eall in 
to Lundenbyrig ; ond J>a scipu eall ot5j>e tobrsecou, o|)))e 
forbserndon, op])e to Lundenbyrig brohton, o]>])e to Hro- 
fesceastre ; ond Hsestenes wif ond bis suna twegen mon 
5 brohte to peem cyninge, ond be hi him eft ageaf, for fsem 
J?e hiora wses o|)er his godsunu, o|7er ^Seredes ealdor- 
monnes. Haefdon hi hiora onfangen ser Hsesten to Beam- 
fleote come, ond he him hsefde geseald gislas ond a^as ; 
ond se cyng him eac wel feoh sealde, ond eac swa fa he 
20 ])one cniht agef ond pset wif. Ac sona swa hie to Beam- 
f. eote^ comoii, ond pset geweorc geworct wyes, swa h^rgode 
he on his rice, J:'one ilcan ^nde pe ^l^ered his cumpseder 
healdan sceolde ; Qnd eft c)]?re sipe he wses on h^rga^ 
gel^nd on feet ilce rice, J^a pa mon his geweorc abrsec. 
15 pa se cyning bine ]?a west w^nde mid ]?eere fierde wi^ 
Exanc^stres, swa ic aer ssede, ond se h^re pa burg beseten 
hsefde, pa he y^v to gefaren wees, pa eodon hie to hiora 
scipum. 

pa he pa wi(5 pone h^re p«r west^ abisgod wses, ond 
20 pa h^rgas wgeron pa gegad erode begen to Sceobyrig^on 
Eastseaxum, ond peer geweorc ivorhtun,^ foron begen set- 
gsedere up be T^mese ; ond him com micel eaca to segper 
ge of East^nglum ge of Norphymbrum. Eoron pa up be 
T^mese op pset hie gedydon set Seeferne ; pa up be See- 
as ferne.^ pa gegaderode ^pered ealdormon, ond ^pelm 
ealdorman, ond j^pelnop ealdorman, ond pa cinges pegnas 
pe pa eet ham eet peem geweorcum weeron, of eelcre byrig 
be eastan Pedredan, ge be westan Sealwuda ge be eastan, 
ge eac be norpan T^mese, ond be westan Seefern, ge eac 
30 sum deel pees ISTorSweal-cynnes. pa hie pa ealle gegade- 

1 Sweet ; A, Bleamfleote- 2 a, wsest. 

^ C, Sceabyrig ; D, Sceore byrig. * A, worhtum. 

^ D, foron t^a up be Temese ond be Saefeme ; B, C, wanting. 



r. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 21 

rode wgeron, ] a offoron hie jione h^re liindan set Butting- 
tune, on S^ferne staj^e, ond hine fger utan beseeton on selce^ 
healfe, on anum fsestenne. pa hie Sa fela wucena sseton 
on twa healfe ]>cJere^ e, ond se cyng wses west on Defnum 
wi]? |)one sciph^re, pa wgeron hie mid m^telieste gew^gde, 5 
ond hsefdon miclne deel l^ara horsa freten, ond ]>&, opre 
wSron hungre acwolen. pa eodon hie ut to Ssem mon- 
num ])e on easthealfe j^iSre e wicodon, ond him wij? ge- 
fuhton; ond pa Cristnan hsefdon sige. Qnd pser wear8 
Ordheh cyninges pegn ofslaegen, ond eac monige opre 10 
cyninges pegnas ; ond para D^niscra peer wearS swipe 
mycel wsel gesl^gen^; Qnd se dsel pe peer aweg com wur- 
don on fleame gen^rede. 

pa hie on Eastseaxe eomon to hiora geweorce ond to 
hiora scipum, pa gegaderade sio laf eft of East^nglum 15 
ond of ISTorShymbrum micelne h^re onforan winter, ond 
befseston hira wif ond hira scipu ond hira feoh on East- 
^nglnm, ond foron anstreces dseges ond nihtes, paet hie 
gedydon on anre westre ceastre on Wirhealum, seo is 
Legaceaster '^ gehaten, pa ne m^hte seo fird hie na 20 
hindan offaran, £er hie wgeron inne on p^m geweorce; 
bes^ton peah pset geweorc utan sume twegen dagas, ond 
genamon ceapes eall pset pser buton wses, ond pa m^n 
ofslogon pe hie foran forridan^ m^hton butan geweorce, 
ond pset corn eall forbserndon, ond mid hira horsum fr^t- 25 
ton ^ on selcre efeneht5e. Qnd pset wses ymb tw^lf monatS 
pees pe hie ser hider ofer sse comon. 

895. Qnd pa sona sefter p^m, on 'Sys gere, for se h^re 
of Wirheale in on NorSwealas, for psem hie 6ser sittan ne 

1 D, selcere. 2 a, pasr. 

8 A, Qnd to geslegen wanting ; supplied by B, C ; wsel from D. 
* B, Leg ceaster ; C, Liege cester ; D, Lige ceaster. 
s D, of ridan. 6 p^ frseton. 



22 V. WARS OF ALFBED THE GREAT. 

m^hton : pset waes for Sy ]>e hie wseron benumene seg^er 
ge |78e3 ceapes ge J>3es cornes ^e hie geh^rgod haefdon. 
pa hie Sa eft tit of Nort5wealum w^ndon mid ))^re h^re- 
hySe ]?e hie Sser genumen hsefdon, pa foron hie ofer 

5 jSTorShymbra iond ond East^ngla, swa swa seo fird hie 
ger^can lie m^hte, op pset hie comon on Eastseaxna Iond 
easteweard on an igland pset is ute on psere S£e, pset is 
M^resig haten. 

Qnd pa se h^re eft hamweard w^nde pe Exanceaster 

lo beseten haefde, pa h^rgodon hie up on StiSseaxum neah 
Cisseceastre, ond pa burgware hie gefliemdon, ond hira 
monig hund ofslogon, ond hira scipu sumu genamon. 

Da py ylcan gere onforan ^ winter pa D^niscan pe on 
M^resige sseton tugon hira scipn up on T^mese, ond pa 

15 up on Lygan.^ pset wees ymb twa ger p3es pe hie hider 
ofer see comon. 

896. Qnd py ^ ylcan gere worhte se f oresprecena h^re 
geweorc be Lygan,^ xx mila bufan Lundenbyrig. pa pses 
on sumera foron micel dsel para burgwara, ond eac swa 

20 opres folces, pset hie gedydon aet para D^nisdana ge- 
weorce, ond peer wurdon gefliemde, ond sume feower cyn- 
inges pegnas ofslsegene. pa pses on hserfeste pa wicode 
se cyng on neaweste pare byrig, pa hwile pe hie hira corn 
gerypon, pset pa D^niscan him ne m^hton pses ripes for- 

25 wiernan. pa sume dsege rad se cyng up be p^re ese, ond 
gehawade hwser mon m^hte pa ea forwyrcan, pset hie ne 
m^hton pa scipu ut br^ngan. Qnd hie t5a swa dydon : 
worhton t5a tu geweorc on twa healfe psere eas. pa hie 
^a pset geweorc furpum ongunnen hsefdon, ond p^r to 

30 gewicod hsefdon, pa ong^t se h^re pset hie ne m^hton pa 

1 B, on forewerdne ; C, on fore weardne ; D, on fore weard. 

2 B, Liggean ; C, Ligenan ; D, Ligean, Lygean. 

3 A, On by ; B, On ))0n ; C, Ond i>y ; D, Ond ]>a J>y. 



F. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT, 23 

scipu ut br^ngan. pa forleton hie hie, ond eodon ofer 
land ]>set hie gedydon set Cwatbrycge^ be S^efern, ond pser 
geweorc ^ worhton. pa rad seo fird west sefter ]?^m h^r- 
ige, ond ]^a m^n of Lundenbyrig gef^tedon ])a scipu, ond 
})a ealle J^e hie al^dan ne m^hton tobryecon, ond ]?a pe j^eer 5 
stselwyrSe weeron binnan Lundenbyrig gebrohton. Qnd 
(^a D^niscan hsefdon hira wif befaest innan East^ngle, £er 
hie ut of J?£em geweorce foron. pa s^ton hie pone winter 
set Cwatbrycge.^ pset wees ymb \yqo ger J^ses |)e hie on 
Limene mu^an comon hider ofer sa. ic 

897. Da })8es on sumera on ^ysum gere tofor se h^re, 
sum on East^ngle, sum on Nor^hymbre. Qnd fa fe feoh- 
lease w^ron him ]7£er scipu begeton, ond sut5 ofer see 
foron to Sigene. 

Nsefde se h^re, Godes J^onces, Angelcyn ealles for 15 
swiSe * gebrocod ; ac hie w^ron micle swi}7or gebrocede on 
fgem ))rim gearum mid ceapes cwilde ond monna, ealles 
swi]?ost mid Jjsem ]73et manige ]?ara selestena^ cynges pena 
pe )7£er on londe weeron forSferdon on ]7£em prym gearum. 
para wses sum SwiSulf biscop on Hrofesceastre, ond 20 
Ceolmund ealdormon on C^nt, ond Beorhtulf ealdormon 
on Easts eaxum, ond Wulfred ealdormon on Hamtun- 
scire,® ond Ealhheard biscop set Dorceceastre, ond Eadulf 
cynges pegn on Sut5seaxum, ond Beornulf wicgefera^ on 
Winteceastre, ond Ecgulf cynges horsj^egn, Qnd manige 25 
eac him, peh ic ^a ge^ungnestan ^ ii^mde. 

py ilcan geare dr^hton ])a h^rgas on East^nglum ond 
on NorShymbrum Westseaxna lond swiSe be f^m suS- 

1 D, aet Brj^gce. 2 ^^ gewerc. 

3 B, C, set Bricge ; D, set Brygce. 

^ B, C, D, Angel cyunes ealles fulswi)>e. 

^ B, C, selestra. ^ B, C, D, omit W iilfred 

^ A, W ; B, C, D, gerefa ^ B adds witan. 



24 F. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 

stse^e mid stselli^rgum, eaira swijmst mid Stem eescum 
])e hie fela geara £er timbredon. pa het Alfred cyng 
timbran lang scipu ongen Sa sescas ; ]}a wseron ful neah 
tu swa lange swa ]>si o5ru ; sume hsefdon lx ara/ sume 
5 ma ; fa w£eron segSer ge swiftran, ge unwealtran,^ ge eac 
hierran ^ ponne Jm oSru ; n^ron nawSer ne on Fresisc 
gescsepene ne on D^nisc, bute swa him selfum Suhte pset 
hie nytwyrSoste beon meahten. pa set sumum cirre fses 
ilcan geares comon }:>£er sex scipu to Wiht, ond |)^r mycel 

lo yfel gedydon, gegSer ge on Defenum ge wel hwger be 6^m 
sseriman. pa het se cyng faran mid nigonum to fara 
nlwena scipa; ond forforon him ]?one muSan foran on 
uterm^re. pa foron hie mid J^rTm scipum ut ongen hie, 
ond ]?reo stodon set ufeweardum p^m muSan on drygum ; 

15 wseron ]>si m^n uppe on londe of agane. pa gefengon hie 
|)ara freora scipa tu set Seem muSan uteweardum, ond ])a 
m^n ofslogon, ond Jjset an 06 wand; on ]7£em w^ron eac 
fa m^n of slsegene buton fifum ; ]?a comon for t5y on weg 
Se Sara oferra scipu aseeton. pa wurdon eac swiSe uneS- 

20 elice aseten : freo as^ton on Sa healfe fses deopes ^ Se Sa 
D^niscan scipu aseten wseron, ond fa o6ru call ^ on of re 
healfe, fset hira ne m^hte nan to oSrum. Ac Sa fset 
wseter wses ah^bbad fela furlanga from fsem scipum, fa 
eodan Sa D^niscan from f^m frim scipum to fsem oSrum 

25 frim fe on hira healfe be^bbade wseron, ond hie fa fser 
gefuhton. peer wearS ofslssgen Lucumon cynges gerefa, 
ond Wulfheard Priesa, ond ^bbe Friesa, ond ^Selhere 
Friesa, ond ^SelferS cynges geneat, ond ealra monna, 
Fresiscra ond Engliscra lxii, ond fara D^niscena cxx. 

1 B, arena. 

2 A, C ; D, untealran ; B, unge (end of line) -tran. 

* A, hieran ; B, C, hearran ; D, hearra. 

* B, -Saere dypan. 5 B, C, D, ealle. 



F. WARS OF ALFRED THE GREAT. 25 

pa com*}>^m D^niscum scipum ]eh. ger fiod to, ter ] a Crist- 
nan ni^hten hira ut ascufan,^ gnd hie for 6y ut oc^reowon. 
pa wseron hie to ptem gesargode ^ feet hie ne m^hton SuS- 
seaxna lond fitan berovvan, ac hira f^er tti see on lond 
wearp ; ond |>a ni^n mon l^dde to Winteceastre ^ to ]?sein 
cynge, ond he hie Sser ahon het ; ond }7a m^n comon on 
East^ngle ]>e on J)8em anum scipe w^roii swiSe forwund- 
ode. 

py ilcan sumera forwear^ no l^es J^onne xx scipa mid 
monnum mid ealle be }?am suSriman. py ilcan gere for^- 
ferde Wulfric cynges horsSegn ; se wses eac Wealhgefera.* 

* * * * * * * 

901. Her gefor Alfred A])ulfing, syx nihtum ser ealra 
haligra msessan. Se wges cyning ofer eall Qngelcyn batan 
t58em dsele ]7e under D^na onwalde wses ; ond he heold 

oset rice 6]?rum healfum Ises j^e xxx wintra. Qnd J^a 

leng Eadweard his sunu to rice. 

1 A, changed from ascuton. 2 j)^ gegaderode. 

3 D, Wiltim ceastre. * A, W; B, C, D, gerefa. 



VI. 

ALFKED'S PREFACE TO THE PASTOEAL CAEE. 

[The Preface to the Alfredian version of Gregory's De Cura 
Pastoral!, according to the Hatton MS. (Hatton 20, Bodl. Lib.), 
with variants from C (= C. i = MS. Cotton Tiberius B. xi. Brit. 
Mus.).] 

Alfred kyning hatet^ gretan Wserfer^ biscep his word- 
um luflice ond freondlice ; ond ^e cy6?Ji hate (Ssat me 
com swKe oft on gemynd, hwelce wiotan m wseron giond 
Angelcynn, seg^ev ge godcundra hada ge woruldcundra ; 

5 ond hu gesEeliglica tida t5a w^ron giond Angelcynn ; ond 
lau t5a kyningas Se Sone onwald haefdon ^ses folces on 
t5am dagum Gode ond his serendwrecum hersumedon; 
ond hu^hie gegt5er ge hiora sibbe ge hiora siodo ge hiora 
onvp-eald innanbordes gehioldon, ond eac tit hiora e6eP 

10 gerymdon ; ond hu him 'Sa speow eegSer ge mid wige ge 
mid wisdome; ond eac t5a godcundan hadas hu giorne 
hie wgeron eegSer ge ymb lare ge ymb liornungaj ge ymb 
ealle Sa 'Siowotdomas Se hie Gode don scoldon ; ond hu 
man utanbordes wisdom ond lare hieder on lond sohte, 

15 Qiid hu we hie nu sceoldon ute begietan, gif we hie hab- 
ban sceoldon. Sw£e cl^ne hio wses otSfeallenu on An- 
gelcynne 'Sset swiSe feawa wseron behionan Humbre Se 
hiora ^eninga cu6en understondan on Englisc o^^e fur- 
•gum an gerendgewrit of Lsedene on Englisc ar^ccean ; ond 

20 ic wene 'Ssette noht monige begiondan Humbre naeren. 
Swse feawa hiora wseron ^aet ic furSum anne anlepne ne 

1 H, ivanting. 2 c, oeSel. 

26 



VI. PREFACE TO THE CUBA PASTORALIS. 27 

maeg geS^ncean be sutSan T^mese, ^a ^a ic to rice feng. 
Gode selmihtegum. sie tSonc ^sette we nu ^nigne onstal 
habbatS lareowa. Qnd for ^on ic 'Se bebiode tSset Su do 
sw£e ic geliefe 'Sset Su wille, tSaet ■6u t5e t5issa woruldf5iiiga 
to 6^m geaemetige, swse ^u oftost maege, Sset ^ti t5one 5 
wisdom t5e ^e God sealde Seer tSaer Sti hiene befsestan 
lusege, befseste. GecS^nc hwelc witu us ^a becomoii for 
Sisse worulde, 6a t5a we hit nohwseSer ne selfe ne lufo- 
don, ne eac 6f5rum monnum ne lefdon : 6one naman anne 
we lufddon ^ Ssette we Cristne waeren,^ ond swiSe feawe 10 
6a Seawas. 

Da ic 6a 6is call gemunde, 6a gemunde ic eac hu ic 
geseah, £er 63em 6e hit call forh^rgod wsere ond for- 
baerned, hu 6a ciricean giond eall Angelcynn stodon 
ma6ma ond boca gefylda,^ ond eac micel m^nigeo Godes ic 
6iowa 5 ond 6a swi6e lytle fiorme 6ara boca wiston, for 
6£em 6e hie hiora nanwuht ongietan* ne meahton, for 
6geni 6e hie nseron on hiora agen^ ge6iode awritene. 
Sweloe hie cw£eden: 'Ure ieldran, 6a 6e 6as stowa ser 
hioldon, h!e lufodon wisdom, ond 6urh 6one hie begeaton 120 
welan, ond us Isefdon. Her mon mseg gTet gesion hiora 
sw9e6, ac we him ne cunnon sefter spyrigean, ^nd for 
6aem we habba6 nu £eg6er forlseten ge 6one welan ge 6one 
wisdom, for 6aem 6e we noldon to 6^m spore mid ure 
mode onlutan.' 25 

Da ic 6a 6is eall gemunde, 6a wundrade ic swi6e swT6e 
6ara godena wiotona 6e giu weeron giond Angelcynn, ond 
6a bee ealla^be fullan geliornod hsefdon, 69et hie hiora 6a 
n^enne d^l noldon on hiora agen'' ge6iode w^ndan. Ac 
ic 6a sona eft me selfum andwyrde, ond cw3e6 : ' Hie ne 30 

1 C, hsefdon. 2 c, waeron. 3 jj^ gefyldse. ^ H, ongiotan. 
^ C, segen. ® H, eallse. ' C, segen. 



28 VI. ALFRED THE GEE AT. 

wendon J^gette sefre m^nn sceolden swse reccelease weor. 
San, ond sio lar swee oSfeallan; for 'S^re wilnunga hie 
hit forleton, ond woldon Sset her f>j mara wisdom on 
londe w^re 6y we ma geSeoda cuSon.' 

5 Da gemunde ic hti sio ^ wses ^rest on Ebreisc geSiode 
funden, ond eft, Sa^ hie Creacas geliornodon, Sa wendon 
hie hie on hiora agen ^ geSiode ealle, ond eac ealle o6re 
bee. Qnd eft Lsedenware sw£e same, si6t5an hie hie ge- 
liornodon, hie hie wendon ealla 6urh wise wealhstodas 

io on hiora agen geMode. Qnd eac ealla oSra Ciistena- 
Sioda sumne d^l hiora on hiora agen ge'Siode wendon. 
For 6y me SyncS b^tre, gif low swge t5ynct5, 'Sset we eac 
suma'^bec, t5a Se niedbeSearf osta ^ sien eallum monnum 

, to wiotonne, Sset we 6a on Sset geMode w^nden tSe we 

15 ealle gecnawan mgegen, ond gedon^ swae we svvISe eat5e 
magon mid Godes fultume, gif we 'Sa stilnesse habbats. 
f^sette eall sio giogu6 Se nu is on Angelcjmne friora 
monna, t5ara 6e Sa speda hsebben Sset hie t5^m befeolan 
msegen, sien to liornunga ot^fseste, 'Sa hwile Se hie to 

20 nanre o'Serre note ne meegen, oS Soiie iirst 6e hie wel 
cunnen Englisc gewrit arsedan : Igere mon siSSan furSur 
on L^dengeMode Sa 'Se mon furSor Igeran Aville, ond to 
hierran'' hade don wille. Da ic 6a gemunde hu sio lar 
LeedengeSiodes ^r 6issum afeallen* waes giond Angel- 

25 cynn, ond 6eah monige cu6on Englisc gewrit ar^dan, 6a 
ongan ic ongemang o6rum mislTcum ond manigfealdum 
bisgum 6isses kynerices 6a boc w^ndan on Englisc 6e is 
gen^mned on Leeden ' Pastoralis,' ond on Englisc ' Hier- 
deboc,' hwilum word be worde, hwilum andgit of and- 

30 giete, swse swee ic h!e geliornode eet Plegmnnde minum 

1 C, ^a "Sa. 2 c, aegen. ^ jj, o^rse Cristnse. * H, sumse. 

fi C, nidbe'Syrfesta. ^ MSS., ge don. ' H, hieian. ^ C, o^feallen. 



VI. PREFACE TO THE CUBA PASTORALIS. 29 

sercebiscepe, ond set Assere mlnum biscepe, ond a3t Grim- 
bolde milium mgesseprioste, ond set lohanne mlnum maes- 
sepreoste. Sif56an ic hie t5a geliornod hse.fde, swse swae 
ic hie forstod, ond sw^ ic hie andgitfullicost ar^ccean 
meahte, ic hie ou Englisc aw^nde ; ond to selcum biscep- g 
stole on minum rice wille ane ons^ndan; ond on selcre 
hv6 an sestel, se biti on fiftegum mancessa. Qnd ic be- 
biode on Godes naman Sset nan mon Sone sestol from^ 
■ggere bee ne do/ ne tSa boc from ■5«m raynstre ; uncuS hu 
longe ^^r swae gelserede biscepas sien, swse swse nu, Gode 10 
t5onc, wel hwger siendon. For Sy ic wolde ^sette hie eal- 
neg set t^sere stowe wseren, buton se biscep hie mid him 
habban wille, 0(5t5e hlo hw£er to Isene sie, o'SfSe hwa oSre 
bi write. 

i-C, doe. 



VII. 
FROM THE PASTORAL CARE. 

[According to the Hatton MS. and with variants from C. i.] 

Gregory's Prologue. 

pti leofusta brot^ur, suiSe freondlice ond suitSe fr^m- 
suralice ^u me taeldestS ^ ond mid eaSmode ingeSonce tm 
me ciddesS/ for t5on ic min mat$ ond wolde fleon tSa 
byrt5enne Ssere hirdelecan giemenne. Dara byrSenna 
% h^fignesse, eall Saet ic Ms geman, ic awrite on t5isse 
andweardan bee, tSy Ises hi hwsem leohte ^yncen t5 un- 
derfonne ; ond ic eac l^re ^set hira nan 'Sara ne wilnie 
6e bine unwserlice bega; ond se ^e hi unwserlice Qnd 
unrybtlice gewilnige, ondrsede be Sset he hi sefre under. 

io fenge. Nu ic wihiige tSsette t5eos spreec stigge on tSsefc 
ingetS^nc Sses leorneres, sw£e swge on sume hlsedre, stsep* 
mselum near ond near, 0(5 (5set bio fgestlice gestonde on 
^sem solore t^ses modes Se hi leornige. Qnd for J)y ic hi 
todgele on feower : an is Sara daela, hu he on Sone folgoS 

15 becnme ; oSer, hu he Sser on libbe ; Sridda is, hu he Sser 
on laere ; f eorSa ^ is, hu he his agene unSeawas ongietan 
wille ond hira geSaef bion, Sy Ises he for Sy underf^nge 
his eaSmodnesse forl^te, oSSe eft his lif sie ungelic his 
Senunga, oSSe he to Sriste ond to stiS sie for Sy under- 

20 f^nge his lareowdomes ; ac gemetgige hit se ^ge his 
agenra unSeawa, ond befseste he mid his lifes bisenum Sa 
lare Seem Se his wordum ne geliefen; ond Sonne he god 

^ C, -est. ^ H, feoroe. 

30 



VII. THE PASTORAL CATtE. 3 1 

weorc wyrce, gemjme he Sses yfeles t)e he worhte, f^sette ^ 
sio unrotnes, 6e he for Ssem yflau weorcum hsebbe, ge- 
metgige Sone gefean t5e he for 'Stem godan weorcum 
heefde, t5y l^s he beforan Sees dieglan Deman eagum sie 
ahafen on his mode ond on ofermettum aSunden, ond 5 
tionne ^urh Sset selflice his godan weorc forleose. Ac 
nionige sindon me suiSe onlice on ungelserednesse, t5eah 
tSe hi neefre leorningcnihtas ngeren, wihiiaS t^eah lareowas 
to beonne, ond SyncetS ^ him suKe leoht sio byr^en Sses 
lareowdomes, for t5on t5e hi ne cunnon ^set msegen his la 
micelnesse. From t5£ere dura selfre Sisse bee, tSset is from 
onginne Sisse spreece, sint adrifene ond geteelde t5a un- 
iv^aran 'Se him agniaS ^ Sone crseft tSses lareowdomes 6e hi 
na ne geleornodon. 



I. Daette unlserde ne dyrren underfon lareowdom. 15 

For 'Son ^e nan crseft nis to leeranne 'Sgem $e hine ser 
geornlice ne leornode, for hwon beo6 sefre su£e Sriste Sa 
ungeleeredan t^set hi underfon t5a heorde ^ses lariowdomes, ■ 
^onne se crseft t^ses lareowdomes bi^ crseft ealra craefta ? 
Hua nat 'Sset 6a wunda tSses modes bioS digelran Sonne 6a 2Ci 
wunda Sses lichaman? Qnd Seah Sa woroldlecan Isecas 
scoma]? Seet hi onginnen 6a wunda lacnian 6e hi gesion ne 
magon, ond huru gif hi n6u6er gecnawan ne cunnan ne 
6a medtrymnesse ne eac 6a wyrta 6e 6£er wi6 sculon. 
Qnd hwilon ne scoma6 6a 6e 6863 modes Iseceas beon 2^1 
scoldon, 6eah 6e hi nane wuht ongitan ne cunnon 6ara 
g£estlecena beboda, 68et hie him onteo6 69et hie sien 
heortan Isecas. Ac for 6on 6e nu eall se weor6scipe 6isse 
worolde is gecierred — Gode 6onc — to weor6scipe 6^m 

1 H, -Sette. 2 H, 6yiicet. s H, agniat. 



32 VII. THE FASTORAL CARE, 

fiewfsestum,^ Sset ^a sindon nu weorSoste tSe sewfaestoste' 
sindon, for ^on licet suiSe monig tSset he sewfsesS ^ lareow 
sie, Se he wilnaS micle woroldare habban. Be tSam 
CrIs'S* selfa cleopode ond t$us cwseS : ^Hi secatS tJset hi 
5 mon serest grete ond weorSige on ceapstowum ond on 
gebeorscipum, ond Sset hie fyrmest hlynigen set eefengief- 
lum, ond tddt ieldest^e^ setl on gemetengum ® hi secaS/ 
For Son hie sua on ofermettum Qnd mid upahafenesse 
becumaS to Ssere are tSaere hirdelecan giemenne, hi ne 

lo magon medomllce ■6enian Sa Senunga, ond Ssere eaSmod- 
nesse lareowas bion ; ac sio tunge hv6 gescinded ' on Sam 
lariowdome Sonne h!o oSer laerS, oSer hio ^ liornode. Suel- 
cum monnum Dryhten cidde Surh Sone witgan, ond him 
snelc oSwat, Sa he cwseS : ^ Hie ricsedon, nses Seah mines 

15 Sonces ; ealdorm^n hi waeron, ond ic hie ne cuSe.' Da Se 
sua ricsiaS,^ hi ricsiaS of hira agnum dome, nses of Sses 
hiehstan Deman, Sonne hi ne beoS mid nanre sylle un- 
derscotene Sses godcundlican msegenes, ne for nanum 
crsefte gecorene, ac mid hira agenre gewilnunge hie bioS 

20 onbaernede, Sset hie gereafiaS sua heane lariowdom suiSor 
Sonne hi hine geearnien. Hie Sonne se eca ond se diegla 
Dema upah^feS suelce he hi nyte, ond geSafiende he hit 
forbireS for Sam dome his geSylde. Ac Seah hi on Sam 
hade fela wundra wyrcen, eft Sonne hi to him cumaS, he 

25 cuiS: 'GewitaS from me, ge unryhtwyrhtan ! nat ic hwset 
ge sint/ Eft he hie Sreade Surh Sone witgan for hira 
ungelserednesse, Sa he cuseS : ' Da hierdas n^fdon ondgit : 
hie hsefdon mine se, ond hi me ne gecniowon.' Se Se 
Godes bebodu ne gecnsewS, ne biS he oncnawen from Gode. 

1 H, -am {originally -urn); C, -estan ; C. ii, sewfestum. 

2 C, -os«e. ^ C, jewfsest. * C, Crist. 

6 C, yldeste. « C, -ingum. * C, gescended. 

8 C, wanting. ^ H^ricsieatS. 



VIL THE PASTORAL CABE. 33 

Daet ilce cuseS sanctus Paulus : ' Se Se God ne ongit, ne 
ongit G-od hine/ Unwise lareowas cumaS for Saes folces 
syunum ; for ^on oft for 'Sses lareowes unwisdoine mis- 
fara^ t5a hierem^nn, ond oft for tsQS lareowes wisdome 
unwisum hieremonnum bi^ geborgen. Gif Sonne ^gSer 
bi(5 unwTs, Sonne is to geS^ncanne hwset CrisS ^ self cuseS 
on his godspelle ; he cwgeS : ' Gif se blinda Sone blindan 
Iget^^ hi feallaS begen on genne pytt.' Be Ssem ilcan se 
sealmscop cuseS : ^ Sien hira eagan aSistrode Sset hi ne 
geseon, ond hiora hiycg^ simle gebieged.*' 'Ne cwseS he 
Sset for Sy Se he ^negum m^n Saes wyscte oSSe wilnode, 
ac he witgode sua sua hit geweorSan sceolde. SoSlice Sa 
eagan Sset beoS Sa lareowas, ond se hrycg ^ Saet sint Sa 
hierem^nn ; for San Sa eagan bioS on Sam lichoman fore- 
weardum ond ufeweardum, ond se hrycg faerS aefter ^Icre 
wuhte ; sua gaS Sa lareowas beforan Saeni folce, ond Sset 
folc aefter. Donne Sam lareowum aSTstriaS Sses modes 
eagan, Se beforan gan scoldon mid godum bisenum, 
Sonne gebigS Sset folc hira hrycg to h^fegum byrSenum 
mane gum. 



II. Ke eft Sa gelaeredan, Se swa nyllaS libban swa hie or 
bocum leornodon Sset hi scoldon, ne underfon Sa are 
Sees lareowdomes. 

Monige eac wise lareowas winnaS mid hira Seawum 
wis Sa gaesSlecan bebodu Se hi mid wordum IteraS, Sonne 25 
hie on oSre wisan libbaS, on oSre hi IseraS. Oft Sonne se 
hirde ggeS on frecne wegas, sio hiord, Se unwserre biS, 
gehrist. Be suelcum hirdura cwseS se witga: 'Ge for- 
traedon Godes sceapa gsers, ond ge gedrefdon hiora wseter 

1 C, Crist. 2 c, IsedeS. 3 h, hrygc. * C, gebigged. 



34 VII. THE PASTORAL CARE. 

mid lowrum fotum, Seali ge liit ser undref ed druncen.^ ' 
Sua '6a lareowas, hi drincaS sui6e Muter wseter, 'Sonne hi 
t5one godcundan wisdom leorniafS, ond eac ^onne hie hiene 
Isera'Sj ac hie hit gedrefaS mid hira agnum un^eawum, 

5 6onne ^set f olc bisenaS on hira unSeawum nals ^ on hira 
lare. Deah Sset folc Syrste Ssere lare, hie hie ne magon 
drincan, ac hio bitS gedrefed mid ^am 6e 6a lareowas o6er 
do6 o6er hie l£era.6. Be Saem Dryhten cwaeS eft 6urh 
t5one witgan : ' Ylie preostas bio J? f olces hryre/ Ne 

10 d^reS nan mon suiSor Ssere halgan gesomnunge ^onne 
6a 6e t5one noman underfo6 ond 6a ^ndebyrdnesse Sees 
halgan hades, ond 6onne on woh d66 ; for 'Son hie nan 
m^nn ne dearr ■6reagean 6eah hie agylten, ac mid 6 am 
beo6 synna sui6e gebrsedda 6e hie beo6 sua geweor6ade. 

45 Ac hie woldon selfe fleon ^a byr6enne sua micelre scylde, 
^a 6e his unwier6e weeron, gif hie mid hiora heortan 
earum woldon gehieran ond geornlice ge6^ncan 6one 
Cristes cuide, t5a he cu8e6 : ' Se 6e senigne 6issa ierminga 
besuic6, him wsere b^tere ^set him weere sumu ^sulcweorn 

20 to 68em suiran getiged,^ ond sua aworpen to sges grunde/ 
Durh 6a cweorne is getacnod se ymbhwyrft ^isse worolde 
ond eac monna lifes ond hira gesuinces, ond 6urh 6one 
ssegrund hira ^nde ond se si6emes6a^ d^mm.^ Donne 
bi6 sio cweorn becierred, 6onne se monn bi6 ge^ndod; 

25 6onne bi6 sio micle cweorn becierred, 6onne Seos weorld 
bi6 ge^ndod. Se 6onne J^e ® to halgum hade becym6, ond 
Sonne mid yflum bisnum oS6e worda o66e weorca 66re 
on won gebring6, b^tre him wsere t^set he on l^ssan 
hade ond on eor6lici\nL weorcum his lif ge^ndode; for 

30 tSeem gif he on -Sgem wel de6, he hsefS tSses god lean, gif 

1 C, druncon. * C, nalles. ^ c, getigged. 

* C, -esta. * C, dom. • H, wanting. 



VIL THE PASTORAL CARE. 35 

he yfle deS, l^esse wite he t^rowaS on h^lle gil he ana 
Sider ^ cymS, Sonne he do gif he oSerne mid him Sider * 
brings. 

XXII. Hu swISe se r^ccere sceal beon on his smeaunga 
abisgod ymb Sa^ halgan ge. 5 

Ac eall Sis^ aredaS se r^ccere suiSe ryhte, Sonne he 
for Godes lufum ond for Godes ^ge deS Saet Saet he deS, 
^nd aelce dsege geornfullTce smeaS Sa bebodu halegra ge- 
writa, Ssette on him sie uppargered se crseft Seere giemenne 
ymbe Sa foresceawunga Sees hefonlican lifes, Sone^ sin- ic 
gallice Sisse eorSlican drohtunge gewuna wile toweorpan, 
buton hine sio myndgung Sara haligra gewrita onbryrde. 
For Seem se eorSlica geferscipe hine tiehS on Sa lufe 
his ealdan migewunan, he sceal simle higian Sset he 
weorSe onbryrd ond geedniwad to S^ni hefonlican eSle. 15 
Ac his mod biS suTSe leSegende^ ond suiSe abisgad mid 
eorSlicra monna wordum, for Sam hit is openlice cuS 
Ssette sio uterre abisgung Sissa woroldSinga Saes monnes. 
mod gedrefS, ond hine scofett^ hidres Sidres^ oS Sset he 
afielS of his agnum willan ; ac him biS Searf Sset he hine 20 
genime simle be S^re leornunge haligra gewrita, ond be 
Sam arise. For Siosnm Singum manade ^ Paulus Timo- 
theum his cniht, ond cwseS ; ^ Donne ic cnme, Sonne beo 
Su abisgad ymbe r^dinge.' Qnd eft Dauld^ be Sam ilcan 
sprsec, Sa he cuseS : ^Loca, Dryhten, hu suiSe ic lufige 25 
Sine 88 ; ealne dseg Sset biS mm smeanng.' Eft bi Sys 
ilcan Dryhten behead Moyse hu he scolde beran Sa earce, 
Sa he cwseS : * Wyrc f eower hringas selgyldene, ond ahoh 

1 C, feeder. « C, on «8ere {for ymb "Sa). 8 H, 15iss. 

* H, «onne. ^ C, y^egende. « c, scofe«. 

^ H, 'Ssedres. « c, manoda. ® H, Dauit. 



36 VII. THE PASTORAL CARE. 

liie suiSe fseste on Sa feower hyrnan ^eere earce ; ond 
hat wyrcean twegeii st^ngas of tSsein treowe (5e is haten 
setHim, 'Saet ne wyrS n^fre forrotad, ond befoh utan mid 
golde ; ond sting ut t5urh t5a hringas bl ^sere earce sidan, 
5 ^set hie man maege beran on Sam, ond Iset hi stician 6ger 
on, ne tio hie mon ngefre of.' Hwset mseg t^onne ^lles 
seo earc tacnian buton Sa halgan ciricean,^ on t^sere sculon 
hangian Sa feower hringas on Sam feower hyrnum, Saet 
sint Sa feower hyrnan Sises middangeardes, binnan Seem 

10 is tobrgedd Godes folc, Sset is utan begyrdd mid Sam 
feower godspellum ? Da saglas ^ Sonne, Se mon Sa earce 
big beran sceal, sticiaS eallne weg inn on Sam hringum 
Sa earce mid to beranne, Sa beoS geworht of Ssem treowe 
sethim, Saet ngefre ne rotaS. Sua sindon to seceanne 

15 stronge ond unaSrotene lareowas ond Surhwuniende on 
Ssere lare haligra boca, Sa simle sculon bion bodiende 
ymbe Sa anmodnesse Sgere halgan gesomnunga,^ sua sua 
Sa anbestungnan^ saglas^ Sa earce beraS. Dset is Sonne 
Sset mon Sa earce bere on Ssem saglum/ Saette Sa god an 

20 lareowas Sa halgan gesomnunge Igerende,^ Sa niwan ond 
Sa ungeleaft'ullan mod mid hira lare gelcedd6 ^ to ryhtum 
geleafan. Da saglas 2 is beboden Saet scoldon beon mid 
golde befongne. Deet is, Sonne Sa lareowas mid wordum 
oSre m^nn IgeraS, Saet hi eac selfe on hira agnum weorcum 

25 biorhte scinen.^ Be Sam saglum^ is suiSe gesceadllce 
gecueden Sset hie sculon simle stician on Sam hringum, 
Qnd ngefre n^ inoton him beon of atogene, for Sgem is micel 
niedSearf Ssette Sa Se beoS ges^tte to S^re Senunga Sses 
lareowdomes, Sset hi ngefre ne gewiten^ from Sgere georn- 

30 fulnesse Sgere r^dinge ond leornunge haligra gewrita. 

1 C, cyricean. 2 q^ sahlas. ^ q^ -unge. 

* H, anbestungne, ^ C, sahlum. ^ C, beoS Iserende. 

^ H, C, gelsede, ^ C, scienen. « C, gewieten. 



VII. THE PASTOBAL CABE. 37 

Eor Stem is eac gecueden Ssette simle Sa ofergyldan 
saglas^ sceolden stician on S^m gyldnum hringum, t5y 
Ises hine senig wuht g^lde ungearowes, •Sonne mon 6a 
earce beran scolde. Dset is, t5onne Sonne Sara lareowa 
hlerem^nn hwaethwugu g^sSlices^ to him secaS ond hi 5 
frinaS,^ Sonne is suISe micel scand gif he Sonne fserS 
secende hwset he s^llan scyle, Sonne he 10 wan'* scolde 
Sset him mon to ascaS. Ac Sonne sticiaS Sa saglas^ 
suiSe singallice on Ssem hringum, Sonne Sa lareowas 
simle on hira heortum smeagaS Sa halgan gewritu. ic 
Qnd Sonne hi h^bbaS^ suiSe arodllce Sa earce tip, Sonne 
hi suiSe hrsedlice bioS gearwe to Igeranne Ssette Sonne 
Searf biS. Bi Stem suiSe wel se forma hierde S^re hal- 
gan ciricean, Sset is sanctus Petrus, manode oSre hierdas, 
Sa he cuaeS : ' BioS simle gearwe to Igeranne ond to for- 15 
giefanne gelcum Sara Se low ryhtlice bidde ymbe Sone 
tohopan Se ge habbaS on eow.' Suelce he openlice 
cu£ede: 'Ne bregde ge^ no Sa st^ngas of Seem hringum, 
Sy Ises sio earc si ungearo to beranne.' 

1 C, sahlas. 2 c, gast-. 3 c, frienaS. 

* C, iewan. ^ C, hsebbalS. ^ n^ bregden ge ; C, brede ge. 



VIII. 

THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 

[This narrative is inserted in the Alfredian version of Orosius's 
Compendious History of the World. The text follows the Lauder- 
dale MS. (Helmingham Hall, Suffolk) at the beginning ; after that 
the Cotton MS., Tiberius B. i. Brit. Mus.] 

Ohth^re ssede his hlaforde, ^Ifrede cyninge, ]>ffit he 
ealra NorSmonna norj^mest bude. He cwsetS feet he bude 
on ])^m lande nor]?weardum wi]? ]>sl Westsse. He ssede 
]:eah ]i8et^ ]?8et land sie swij^e lang nor)) ])onan"; ac hit is 

5 eal weste, buton on feawum stowum styccemeelum wicia^ 
Einnas, on hnnto^e on wintra, ond on sumera on fiscaj^e ^ 
be ])£ere sse. He sgede ))8et he set sumum cirre wolde 
fandian hu longe pset land nor|)ryhte leege, o])]>e hwsetSer 
senig mon be norSan j)8em westenne bude. pa for he 

3o nor]}ryhte be )>£em lande : let him ealne weg ]?aet weste 
land on Sset steorbord, ond J)a widsse on Saet bsecbord j^rie 
dagas. pa wses he swa feor nor]? swa pa hwselhuntan 
firrest fara]?. pa for he ja giet norJ?ryhte swa feor ^ swa 
he meahte on ])8em o|)rum Jnim dagum gesiglan.* pa beag 

15 pddt land p£er eastrj^hte, o])]>e seo S£e in on t^set lond, he 
nysse hwse'Ser, buton he wisse t53et he Saer bad westan- 
windes ond hwon nor]>an, ond siglde ^a^ east be lande 
swa swa he meahte on feower dagum gesiglan.'* pa 
sceolde he Sser^ bidan ryhtnor})anwindes/ for Ssem paet 

1 L, wanting. ^ C, fiscoJ?e. 3 q^ g^a feor wanting. 

* C, geseglian. ° C, seglede banon. ^ c, wanting. "^ C, rihte-. 
38 . 



VIII. VOYAGES OF OHTHEBE AND WULFSTAN. 39 

land beag f^r su}>rylite, oJ^J^e seo see in on ^set land, lie 
nysse hw^ej^er. pa siglde^ lie J^onan suSryhte be lande 
swa swa he m^lite on fif dagum gesiglan.^ Da Iseg ])8er 
an micel ea up in on^ ]?8et land, pa cirdon hie tip in on 
{5a ea, for psem hie ne dorston for}) bi fsere ea siglan* for § 
iinfri|)e ; for |?8em tSset land wses eall gebun on 6j>re healfe 
J^eere eas.^ Ne mette he ^r nan gebun land, sifl^an he 
from his agnum ham® for; ac him waes ealne weg weste 
land on ]78et steorbord, butan fiscerum ond fugelerum ond 
huntum, ond ]>ddt w^ron eall !Finnas; ond him wses a le 
widsEe on ^set bsecbord. pa Beormas hsefdon swT]?e wel 
gebud^ hira land: ac hie ne dorston ]i^r on cuman. Ac 
jara Terfinna land wses eal weste, buton ^ser huntan 
gewicodon, o])])^ fisceras, op])e fugeleras. 

Tela spella him s^don ])a Beormas segj^er ge of hiera i; 
agnum lande ge of J^eem landum J^e ymb hie utan wgeron ; 
ac he nyste hwset ))8es sol^ies wses, for feem he hit self ne 
geseah. pa Finnas, him ]7uhte, ond }?a Beormas spr^con 
neah an gej^eode. Swipost he for 'Sider, to eacan pses 
landes sceawunge, for j^sem horshwselum,^ for ^sem ^iie 20 
habbatS swi]7e sej^ele ban on hiora to|mm — pa te^ hie broh- 
ton sume pgem cyninge — ond hiora hyd®bit5 swlt^e god to 
sciprapum. Se hwsel biS micle l^ssa ]?onne o^re hwalas : 
ne bits he l^ngra Sonne syfan ^Ina lang ; ac on his agnum 
lande is se b^tsta hwselhuntaS : pa beoS eahta and feo- 25 
wertiges ^Ina lange, and ]a m^stan fiftiges ^Ina lange ; 
para he seede pset he syxa sum ofsloge syxtig on twam 
dagum. 

He wses swySe spedig man on p^m sehtum pe heora 
speda on beoS, pset is, on wildrum. He hsefde pa gyt, tia 30 

1 C, seglede. 2 q^ geseglian. 3 c, wanting. 

* C, seglian. ^ C, ea. * C, hame. 

' C, gebun. ^ l^ horschwselum. * L ends here. 



40 VIII. VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN 

he pone cyningc sohte, tamra deora unbebohtra sjx bund. 
pa deor hi batata ' branas ; ' J>ara w^ron syx stailbranas ; 
^a beo^ swySe dyre mid FiDiium, for •S^m by fo^ ])Sl 
wildan branas mid. He waes mid J^gem fyrstum mannum 
5 on fsem lande : ngefde be ].eab ma ^onne twentig brySera, 
and twentig sceapa, and twentig swyna; and ]>set lytle 
)78et be ^rede, be ^rede mid borsan. Ac byra ar is msest 
on Ip^m gafole pe M Finnas bim gyldat5. pset gafol bit5 
on deora fellum, and on fugela f et5erum, and bwales bane, 

10 and on psem sciprapum ]>e beot5 of bwseles byde geworbt 
and of seoles. ^gbwilc gylt be bys gebyrdum. Se byrd- 
esta sceall gyldan fiftyne mearSes fell, and fif branes, 
and an beren^ fel, and tyn ambra fe^ra, and berenne kyr- 
tel ot5Se 3'terenne, and twegen sciprapas ; sdg]>eT sy syxtig 

15 ^Ina lang, oJ?er sy of bwseles byde geworbt, o]?er of sioles. 

He sgede Sset ISTorSmanna land waere swyfe lang and 

swySe smsel. Eal ])dst bis man a^er o^^e ^ttan oS^e ^rian 

mseg, |)8et \y6 wr6 M sse; and J^get is ])eab on sumum 

stowum swySe cludig ; and licgaS wilde moras Avit5 eastan 

20 and wis tipp on emnlange ]r^m bynum lande. On ]>£em 
raorum cardial Finnas. And feet byne land is easte- 
weard bradost, and symle swa norSor swa smaelre. Easte- 
w^rd bit mseg bion syxtig mila brad, o])]^e bwene brtedre^; 
and middeweard fritig oSt$e bradre ; and nort5eweard be 

25 cw^seS, ]?8er bit smalost w^re, ]>ddt bit mibte beon freora 
mila brad to ]>^m more ; and se mor sySj^an, on sumum 
stowum, swa brad swa man mseg on twam wucum ofer- 
feran ; and on sumum stowum swa brad swa man mseg 
on syx dagum oferferan. 

30 Donne is toemnes j^Sm lande suSeweardum, on 06 re 
bealfe |>8es mores, Sweoland, op pset land nortSeweard; 

1 C, beran ; Sweet. 2 Sweet, bradre. 



VIIL VOYAGES OF OHTIlEEE AND WULFSTAN. 4I 

and toemnes ]>eem lande norSeweardunij Cwena land, pa 
Cwenas h^rgiaS hwiliim on Sa Nort5m^n ofer Sone mor, 
hwiliun ]ia NorSm^n on hy. And }>8er sint swiSe micle 
m^ras feisce geond \m moras ; and berate ) a Cwenas hyra 
scypu ofer land on t5a m^ras, and ])anon h^rgiat^ on t5a 5 
NorSm^n ; liy habbaS swySe lytle scypa and swySe 
leohte. 

Ohth^re ssede j^aet sio scir hatte Halgoland, pe lie on 
biide. He cwaeS pset nan man ne bude be nor^an him. 
ponne is an port on su^eweardum j^sem lande, J)one^ man 10 
haet Sciringesheal. pyder he cw8et5 J^set man ne mihte 
geseglian on anum monSe, gyf man on niht wicode, and 
ffiliie dsege hsef de ambyrne wind ; and ealle Sa hwile he 
sceal seglian be lande. And on ]7get steorbord him bit5 
serest Iraland, and j^onne '6a igland fe synd betux Ira- 1$ 
lande and pissuni lande. punne is j^is land, o^ he cymS 
to Scirincgesheale, and ealne weg on fset baecbord Norti- 
weg. Wit5 suSan ])one Sciringesheal fylS swySe mycel 
sse up in on 'Saet land ; seo is bradre ]7onne £enig man ofer 
seon msege. And is Gotland on 0(5re healfe ongean, and 20 
siSfian 2 Sill^nde. Seo see li^ msenig hund mila tip in on 
l^aet land. 

And of Sciringesheale he cwaetS ^?et he seglode on fif 
dagan to I'sem porte j^e mon hset set Haej^um ; se st^nt 
betuh Winedum, and Seaxum, and Angle, and hyrt5 in 25 
on D^ne. Da he J^iderweard seglode fram Sciringes- 
heale, psi wfBS him on paet baecbord D^namearc and on 
pddt steorbord widsse pry dagas ; and J)a, twegen dagas sir 
he to Ilsejnira come, him wses on J^aet steorbord Gotland, 
and Sill^nde, and iglanda fela. On |)8em landum eardo- 30 
don Engle, eer hi hider on land coman. And hym waes 

J C, >oime. 2 c, si^tSa. 



42 VIII. VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 

Sa twegen dagas on ^set baecbord ]>& igland \>g in [on] ' 
D^nemearce hyratS. 



Wulfstan s^de J^set he gefore of HgeSum, ])ddt he waere 
on Truso on syfan dagum and nihtum, ]?9et J^set scip wses 

5 ealne weg yrnende under segle. WeonoSlaud him wses on 
steorbord, and on baecbord him wses Langaland, and 
Lseland, and Falster, and Sconeg ; and ]7as land eall 
hyra^ to D^nemearcan. And ponne Burgenda land wses 
us on bsecbord, and pa habba^ him sylf e ^ cyning. ponne 

10 sefter Burgenda lande wseron us pas land, pa synd hatene 
gerest Blecinga-eg, and Meore, and Eowland, and Gotland 
on baecbord; and pas land hyraS to Sweom.^ And Weo- 
nodland waes us ealne weg on steorbord oS WislemuSan. 
Seo Wisle is swySe mycel ea, and hio toliS Witland and 

15 Weonodland ; and peet Witland belimpe^ to Estum ; and 
seo Wisle lv6 tit of Weonodlande, and liS in Estm^re; 
and se Estm^re is huru fiftene mila brad, ponne cymetS 
Ilfing eastan in Estm^re of ^^m m^re, ^e Truso standet5 
in Steele ; and cumatS ut aamod in Estm^re, Ilfing eastan 

20 of Estlande,* and Wisle sut5an of Winodlande. And 
|?onne benimt5 Wisle Ilfing hire naman, and lige^ of paem 
m^re west and nor^ on sae ; for 6y hit man haet Wisle- 
mu8a. 

paet Estland^ is swySe mycel, and peer bi^ swySe manig 

25 burh, and on aelcere byrig bifS cyningc. And peer biS 
swySe mycel hunig, and fiscnaS ; and se cyning and pa 
ricostan m^n drincaS myran meolc, and pa unspedigan 
and pa peowan drincat5 medo, paer bit5 swy6e mycel 
gewinn betweonan him. And ne biS t5Sr naenig ealo 

1 Sweet. 2 c, sylf ; Sweet. » c, Sweon ; Sweet. 

* C, Eastlande ; Sweet. ^ C, Eastland ; Sweet 



VIII. VOYAGES OF OBTBERE AND WVLFSTAN. 43 

gebrowen mid Estum, ac ])£er bit5 medo gcnoh. And j^^r 
is mid Estum tieaw, jionne }i£er biS man dead, \ddt he liS 
inne unforbserned mid his magum and freondum monacS, 
ge hwilum twegen ; and pa kyningas, and |>a oSre heah- 
Sungene nn^n, swa micle l^ncg swa hi maran speda 5 
habbaS, hwilum healf gear pset hi beot) unforbserned, and 
licgaS bufan eorSan on hyra husum. And ealle pa hwlle 
pe p8et lie bis inne, p£er sceal beon gedrync and plega, 
06 gone daeg pe hi hine forbsernaS. ponne \j ylcaii dsege 
[pe] ^ hi hine to piSm ade beran wylla'S, ponne todeelatS hi 10 
his feoh, pset pser to lafe bio setter psem gedrynce and p£em 
plegan, on fif ot^Se syx, hwylum on ma, swa swa pses feos 
andefn biS. Al^cgaS hit t5onne forhwsega on anre mile 
pone msestan d£el fram peem tune, ponne oSerne, Sonne 
\one' priddan, op pe hyt eall aled biS on p^re anre mile; 15 
and sceall beon se Isesta d^l nyhst p£em tune Se se deada 
man on li5. Donne sceolon beon gesamnode ealle Sa 
m^nn Se swyftoste hors habbaS on p^m lande, forhwsega 
on fif milum oSSe on syx milum fram peem feo. ponne 
gernaS hy ealle toweard paem feo : Sonne cymeS se man 20 
se pset swiftoste^ hors hafaS to p^m serestan d^le and to 
psem meestan, and swa selc aefter oSrum, op hit biS eall 
genumen; and se nimS pone leestan dsel se nyhst psem 
tune pset feoh geserneS. And ponne rideS £elc hys weges 
mid 9"cem* feo, and hyt motan habban eall ; and for Sy 25 
pser beoS pa swiftan hors ungefoge dyre. And ponne his 
gestreon beoS pus eall asp^nded, ponne byrS man hine ut, 
and forbgerneS mid his wgepnum and hrgegle ; and swTSost 
ealle hys speda hy forsp^ndaS mid pce?7i^ langan legere 
pees deadan mannes inne, and pses pe hy be pgem wegum 30 
al^cgaS, pe Sa fr^mdan to sernaS, and nimaS. And pset 

1 Sweet. 2 c, >8ene. 3 c, swifte ; Sweet. * C, «an. 



44 VIII. VOYAGES OF OHTIIERE AND WULFSTAN. 

is mid Estum feaw ])8et ])8er sceal selces geSeodes man 
beon forbserned ; and gyf J)ar man an ban finde6 unfor- 
bserned, hi hit sceolan miclum gebetan. And fser is mid 
Estum ^ an meegtS ])8et hi magon cyle gewyrcan ; and ]>j 
fser licgaS fa deadan m^n swa lange, and ne f uliaS, pset 
hy wyrcaS |?one cyle him^ on. And ]?eah man as^tte 
twegen f^etels full eala^S oSSe wseteres, hy gedoS pset 
segj^er^ bitJ oferfroren, sam hit sy sumor sam winter. 

1 C, Eastum ; Sweet. 2 c, hine ; Sweet. ^ c, o>er ; Sweet, 



IX. 



IT IS BETTER TO SUFFER AK INJURY THAN 
TO INFLICT ONE. 

[From the Alfredian version of Boethius's De Consolatione Phi- 
Losophiae, according to MS. C (Cotton, Otho A. 6) ; witli variants 
from MS. B (Bodl. 180, formerly marked NE. C. 3. 11), and from 
J (Bodl. Jim. 12), whicli is Junius' s transcript of B.] 

Ic ]>e wolde giet r^ccan sume switSe rihte race/ ac ic 
wat ]>ddt ))is folc his nele gelyfan^: feet is, pset t5a bio6 
gesseligran ]>e mon witnatS, j^onne fa bion ]>e hi witniat5. 
Da wundrode ic ^ses, ond cwge^, ' Ic wolde ])ddt ])u me ge- 
reahte^ hu hit swa bion '^ meahte.' Da cw8et5 he, 'HwsetSer 
])u. ongite J^set selc yf elwillende mon ond ^ yfelwyrcende 
sTe wites wyr^e ? ' Da cwse^ ic, ' Genog sweotole ic ])8et 
ongite.' Da cw8b^ he, ' Hu ne is se tSonne yfelwillende 
ond yfelwyrcende tSe )?one unscyldigan witnat5?' Da 
cwse^ ic, ^Swa hit is swa ]:u ssegst.^' Da cw9et5 he, 
' HwaetSer ]?u wene ])8et ^a sTen earme ond ungesselige pe 
wites wyrSe bio^ ? ' Da cwseS ic, ' Ne wene ic his no,'^ ac 
wat geare.' Da cwsetS he, ^Gif ]>u nu deman m6ste,^hwae- 
Serne woldes ^ ]m deman wTtes wyrt5ran, ]?e t5one ])e tSone 
unscyldgan^^ witnode, iSe t5one ]>e J^aet wite j^olade?' Da 
cwseS ic, ' Nis J^set gellc ; ic wolde helpan \>dds ^e t^eer 
unscyldig wgere, ond henan |>one J^e hine yflode.' Da 

^ C, raca. 2 g^ ^yie gelefan. ^ g^ gerehtes"^. * B, wanting. 

5 J, and selc. ^ g^ segst. "^ B, na. ^ B, mostost. 

8 B, woldest, i'^ B> wyr^ran ^e none scyldgan. 

45 



46 IX. THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS. 

cw8et5 lie, 'ponne fe 6inc6 se earmra, se [pe] J^aet yfel 
det5, l^OHRe se p»e hit ]?af a'S ? ' Da cwse^ ic, ' pses ic gelef e, 
J>8ette eelc unriht witnung sTe ]73es ^ yfel J)e hit det5, nees 
fses ^ Se hit Saf aS, for Sgem his yfel hine gedet5 earmne. 

, 5 Qnd ic ongite Sset fis is swiSe^ riht racu fset ]m nu r^cst, 
(^rid swiSe anlic |?£em }?e ]m £er reahtes ^ ; ac ic wat J^eah 
pset J?is^ folce swa ne finctS.' 

Da cwseS he, ^Wel fti hit ongitst. Ac t5a fingeras 
]nngiat5 nu hwilum fsein f e Isessan J^earfe ahton ; |)ingia6 

lo ]?£em ])e ^ ])£er man yflaS, ond ne f ingiaS ])£em ]>& j73et yfel 
d6t5. psem w^re mare t^earf J^e ]7a oSre unscyldge yflaS, 
]78et him mon pingode to tJaem ricum, ond beede J^set him 
mon dyde swa micel wite swa hi psem oSrum imscyldgum 
dydon. Swa swa se sioca ah ]?earfe fset hine mon Isede 

15 to fsem Isece feet he his tilige, swa ah se ]je^ Sset yfel 
deS, Ipset hine mon leede to ]7£em ricum, pset mon peer msege 
sniSan ond bsernan his unpeawas. ISTe cweSe ic na j^set 
J)8et,yfel sie faet mon helpe ]?8es unscyldgan, ond him fore- 
)7ingie, ac ic cwet5e pset hit is b^tere^ J^set mon wrege ]7one 

2o scyldgan ; ond ic s^cge poet sio foresprgec ne dyge nauSer 
ne p^m scyldgan ne S^m pe him forepingat^, gif hi pa^s 
wilniaS pset him heora yfel unwrecen sie be Sees gyltes 
andefne. Ac ic wat gif Sa scyldgan senigne spearcan 
wTsdomes hsefden, ond be ceuigum^ deele ongeaten paet 

25 hi meahten heora scylda purh ^ paet wite gebetan pe him 
her on weorulde on become, ponne noldon hi na cweSan 
paet hit w^re wite, ac woldon^^ cweSan pset hit weere 
heora cl^nsung ond heora b^trung; ond noldon n^nne 
pingere gesecan, ac liistlice hi woldon leetan pa rican hi 

30 tucian sefter hiora agnum willan. For ^sem ne scyle nan 



1 B, wanting. 2 b, >as. 


8 B, swa. 


4 B, rehtest. 


^ B, \>J6. 


6 C, loanting. 


7 B, betre. 


s C, aenegnum ; B, sengum. 


' C, >urg. 


10 C, woldan. 



IX. THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS. 47 

WIS man nsenne mannan hatian. Ne liata(5 nan mon |7one 
godan, butan se eallra dysgosta; ne feet nis nan riht 
J)8et mon ])one yflan hatige, ac hit is rihtre faet him mon 
miltsige^: ]?8et is ))onne hiora mildsnng, \ddt mon wrece 
hiora untSeawas be hiora gewyrhtum.^ Ne scyle nan mon 
siocne monnan ond^ gesargodne sw^ncanj ac hine m^n 
sceal^ Igedan to J>8em Isece, pset he his tilige. 

1 B, mildsige. 2 q^ unwyrhtum. 

3 B, wanting, * C, seel j B, sceolde. 



PROVIDEKCE AND FATE. 

[From tlie Alfredian version of Boethius's De Consolatione 
Phliosophiae, according to the Cotton MS.] 

pa ongan he sprecan swl(5e fiorran ymbutan, swelce lie 
na pa sprsece ne m^ende, ond tiohhode hit 'Seah fider- 
weardes, ond cwsetS, ^Ealla gesceafta gesewenlica ond 
ungesewenlica, stillu ond unstillu, onfoS set ])£em stillan, 

5 ond set ]>^m gestseSSegan, ond set J^sem anfealdan Gode 
^ndebyrdnesse^ ond andwlitan^ ond gemetgunge^; ond 
for hwiJbWj hit swa* gesceapen wses, for Ssem he wat hwy^ 
he gesceop eall pset he gesceop : nis him nan wiht^ unnyt 
]?ses Se he gesceop. Se God wuna'S symle on psere hean 

10 ceastre his anfaldnesse^ and bilewitnesse, ponan he deelS 
manega ond misleca^ gemetgunga eallum his gesceaftum, 
ond ponan he welt eallra. Ac tSset tSset^ we hatati Godes 
foregone ond his foresceawung, pset biS pa hwile j^e hit 
tSser mid him bi6 on his mode eer 'S^em pe hit gefr^med 

15 weort5e, pa hwile ^e hit gepoht bi^ ; ac sit$San hit full- 
framed bis, ponne hataS we hit wyrd: be py mseg selc 
mon witan pset hit sint segper ge twegen nam an ge twa 
ping,^** foreponc ond wyrd. Se foreponc is seo godcunde 
gesceadwisnes, sio is fsest on psem hean Sc^ppende" pe 

1 C, endeberdnesse. * C, an- (rest broken off"). 

s C, gemetunge. * B, for hwam hit swa ; C, broken off 

6 B, by. * B, wuht. "^ B, anfealdnesse. 

8 B, mistlice. * C, -Ssette. i'^ C, Mneg. 11 B, sceoppende. 

48 



X. THE ALFBEDIAN BOETHIUS. 49 

eall f orewat, hu hit geweorSan sceal ^ ger £er hit geweort5e. 
Ac J)8et pset we wyrd hata^, |78et bit5 Godes weorc pset^ he 
eelce dseg wyrcS, segl^er ge pses ]?e^ we gesioS ge fees fe 
us uDgesewenlic biS. Ac se godcunda foref^onc hea'Sera^ 
ealle gesceafta J^set hi ne moton toslupan of^ heora ^nde- 5 
byrdnesse.* Sio wyrd t5onne deelj? ealluin gesceaftum 
audwlitan,^ ond stowa, ond tida, gnd gemetgunga. Ac 
sio wyrd cymt5 of Sgem gewitte ond of t^sem foreponce pses 
selmehtigan Godes, se wyrcS sefter his mias^cgendllcum 
forej^once swa^ hwset swa he^ wile. 10 

Swa swa selc crseftega ^^ncS ond mearca'S his weorc on 
his mode ser ser he hit wyrce, ond wyrcS siSSan eall, ]?ios 
wandriende wyrd fe we wyrd hatat5, fserS sefter his fore- 
})once ond sefter his gejjeahte, swa swa he tiohhat5 fset hit 
sie. peah hit us manigfaldlic ^ ^ince, sum good, sum yfel, 15 
hit is ^eah him anfeald good, for ^sem he hit eall to 
godum ^nde br^ngt5,® ond for gode de^ eall fset ])8et he 
deS. Sit5^an we hit hatatS wyrd, sySt5an hit geworht bit5 ; 
£er hit waes Godes ^° foregone ond his f oretiohhung : tSa 
wyrd he ])onne wyrct5, ot5tSe purh Sa goodan ^nglas, oS^e 20 
purh monna sawla, o6^e ]?urh oSerra gesceafta lif, oSt5e 
J)urh heofones tungl, oS^e Surh para scuccena^^ mislTce 
lotwr^ncas ; hwilum purh an ^ara, hwilum^^ purh eall 6a. 
Ac pset is openlice cuS, pset sio godcunde foretiohhung is 
anfeald ond unaw^ndendlic,^^ ond welt selces pinges ^nde- 25 
byrdlTce, ond eall ping gehiwa^. Sumu ping ponne on 
pisse weorulde sint underSied peere wyrde ; sume hire 
nan" wuht un "er^ied ^^ ne sint. Ac sio wyrd ond eall 6a 

1 C, sceall. 2 B, >e. 3 c, wanting. 

* C, gesceafta to of broken off. ^ B, wyrdnesse. ^ q^ anwlitan. 

■^ B, )5onne swa. ^ B, manigfealdlic. ^ B, bring^, 

1"^ C, goodes. 11 C, scnccena. 12 g^ hwilcum. 

1^ C, unandwendlic. 1* B, nane. i^ B, anderj?iede. 



50 X. THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS. 

])iiig fe hire -imderSied sint, sint undeii5ied Saem god- 
cundan forefonce. Be ■Ssem ic Se mseg sum bispell 
s^cgan, j)8Bt J>u meaht ^ )>y sweotolor ongitan hwilce m^n 
bioS underSied ])^re wyrde; hwylce^ ne biot5. Eall ^ios 
5 unstille gesceaft ond fios hwearfiende iiwearfa'S on Seem 
stillan Gode, ond on t5eem gestseStSegan, ond on tSsem an- 
fealdan; ond he «^elt eallra gesceafta swa swa he set 
fruman getiohhod^ hsefde, ond get hsefS. 

Swa swa on wgenes eaxe hwearfiaS pa hweol, ond sio 

lo eax st^nt* stille, ond byrS peah ealne^ j^one wsen, ond® 
welt ealles paes f sereltes '' — )>8et hweol hwerftS ymbutan, 
ond slo nafu, nehst^ Ssere^ eaxe, sio fsert^^ micle fsest- 
licor^ ond orsorglicor ])onne ^a felgan^ dod'^^ — swelce sio 
eax sie )?8et hehste god* pe ^^ we ^^ n^mnaS God; ond ]>a 

15 selestan^ m^iL^'^ farad '^ nehste^^ Gode, swa swa sio nafu 
faerS neahst^^ f^re eaxe; ond J^a midmestan swa swa t5a 
spacan. For tSsem J^e ^Ices spacan^* bi^ oSer ^nde faest 
on Seere nafe, oSer on ]?gere felge, swa bi^ feem midlestan 
monnum ; oSre hwile he smeaS on his mode ymb J)is 

20 eorSlice, o6re hwile ymb Sset godcundlice, swilce he locie 
mid oSre eagan to heofonnm, mid 6t5re to eor|)an. Swa 
swa ])a spacan sticiaS, ot5er ^nde on J>8ere felge, o})er on 
Jieere nafe, middeweard ^^ se spaca bi^ segtSrum emn neahp 
t5eah oSer ^nde bio faest on ]>£ere nafe, oSer on p^re f elge ; 

25 swa biofS ]>a midmestan ^^ m^n onmiddan j^am spacan, ond 
})a b^tran near faere nafe, ond ))a msetran'^ near t5£em 

1 B, miht. 2 B, wanting. ^ B, getilihod. 

* C, stint. ^ B, byr-S eal ealne. ^ C, ivanting. 

■^ B, fsereldes. ^ C, jmrtly broken off. ^ B, ferS. 

10 C, hroken off; B, don. " C, broken off. 

12 C, hroken off; B, faran. i3 B, nehst. 

14 C, span. 15 B, middeweardre. 

16 B, inaesiaE. i'^ C^dale, maestan 



I 



X THE ALFREBIAN BOETHIUS. $1 

felgum: bio's j'eali fseste on S^re nafe, ond slo nafu^ on 
8^re eaxe. Hwset pa felga peah hongiaS on Jjgem spdcum,^ 
) eah hi eallunga wealowigen on psere eor^an ; swa do6 pa 
mStestan^ m^n on p^m midmestum, ond pa midmestan* 
on psem hetstum,^ ond pa b^tstan on Gode.^ peab pa 5 
m^testan^ ealle hiora lufe w^nden to Sisse weorolde, hi 
ne magon pser onwnnigan, ne to duhte"^ ne weortSa^, gif 
hi be nanum d^le ne beo6 gefsestnode to Gode, pon ma 
pe pses hAveoles^ felga magon bion on^ t^eem fserelte,^" gif 
hi ne biot5 fseste on 'S^m spacnm,^^ ond pa spacan on psere 10 
eaxe. pa felgea^^ bio5 fyrrest psere eaxe, for '6asm hi 
farat5 ungeredelicost.^^ Sio nafu fsertS neaxst ^^ peere eaxe, 
for $y hio fser^ gesundlicost.^^ Swa doS ba selestan 
m^n. Swa hi^ hiora lufe near Gode Iseta'S, ond swiSor 
pas eort^lican ping forseop,^^ swa hi beob orsorgran, ond 15 
l^s reccaS hu sio wyrd wandrige, obt5e hwget hio ^^ 
br^nge. Swa swa sio nafu bit5 symle swa^ gesund, 
hnseppen pa felga on paet be hi hnseppen ; ond peah bib 
sio nafu hwEethwugu todseled from pgere eaxe. Be py pu 
meaht ongitan pset se ween ^^ bib micle l^ng gesund, pe Ises 20 
bib todffiled from p^re eaxe. Swa blob pa m^n eallra 
orsorgoste,^^ segber ge pisses andweardan llfes earfoba^ 
ge pses toweardan, pa pe fseste blob on Gode; ac swa 



1 MSS., se nafa. 2 mSS., spacan. 

3 B, msestan. * C, -mestan broken off. 

5 MSS., betstan. 6 C, on Gode broken off. 

7 MSS., nauhte. ^ B, hweoliles. 

^ B, wanting. 1° B, faerelde. 

11 B, spacanm ; J, spacanum. 12 -q^ felga. 

^3 B, ungerj'delicost. 1* B, nehst. 

15 B, gesundfullicost. i^ C, gnd to forsio> wanting. 

1" C, hi. 18 C, >e wen. 

1^ C, orsorgestse. 20 c, earfo^'e. 



52 X. THE ALFREBIAN B0ETHIU8. 

hi swiSur bioS asyndrode fram Gode, swa lii swiSur 
biot5 gedrefde ond gesw^ncte, gegj^er ge on mode ge on 
llchoman. 

Swilc is ))3et paet we wyrd hata^, be J>8em godcundan 
5 forefonce : swylce sio ^ smeaung, ond sio gesceadwisnes, 
is to metanne wi^ ])one gearowitan ; ond swylce |>as lee- 
nan jjing bio6 to metanne wiS ^a ecan ^ ; ond swilce }?8et 
hweol bit5 to metanne wiS 'Sa eaxe. For Seem sio eax 
welt ealles ]?aes weenes; swa deS se godcunda foret5onc. 

10 He astereS^ fone rodor ond fa tunglu, ond ]7a eortSan 
gedeS stille ; ond gemetga'S ]m feower gesceafta, ]?set is, 
waeter, ond eort5e, ond fyr, ond lyft. pa he ge'SwseraS 
ond wlitega'5, hwilum eft unwlitega.S, ond on oSrum hiwe 
gebr^ngb ond eft geedniwat5 ; ond tydre'S ^ ^Ic tudor, ond 

15 hit^ eft gehyt ond gehelt ponne hit forealdod bitS ond 
forsearod, ond eft geeowt5^ ond geedniwaS fonne ponne 
he wile/ Sume uSwiotan 'Seah s^cgaS, J?8et sio wyrd 
wealde^ ^g]?er ge geseelSa ge unges^lSa eelces monnes. 
Ic fonne s^cge, swa swa ealle cristene m^n s^cgaS, ]73et 

20 SIO godcunde foretiohhung his wealde,^ nees sio wyrd; 
ond ic wat feet hio demS eall ]?ing swiSe rihte, feah un- 
gesceadwisum m^n swa ne ])ince. Hi wenaS l^set J)ara 
gelc sie god Se hiora willan ^° f ulg^S ; nis hit nan wundor, . 
for Seem hi beoS abl^nde mid Seem Jjiostrum heora scylda. 

25 Ac se godcunda forejjonc hit underst^nt eall swiSe rihte, 
]jeah us pince for urum dysige ]>8et hit on^^ woh fare, 
for S^m we ne cunnon J^set rihte'^^ understandan. He 
demS Seah eall swiSe rihte, J'eah us hwTlum swa ne 
Since. 

1 C, icanting. 2 b, entire clause wanting. ^ B, styre'S. 

4 C, tidre'S. 5 mSS., hi. 6 c, geew«. 

7 C, he wile wanting. ^ C, wyrlS wold. ^ C, walde. 

10 C. hiora willan broken off. ^^ B, wanting. 12 mSS., riht. 



I 



X. THE ALFREBIAIS BOETHWS, 53 

Ealle m^n spyriaS ^ sefter ]?£em liehstan goode, [segt^er] 
ge goode ge ytle. Ac for t5y ne magon })a yflan cuman to 
6^ni hean hrofe eallra gooda, for 'S^iii hi ne spyria'S on 
riht aefter. Ic wat J?eah [f'aet] fu cweSe- nu hwonne to 
me, 'Hwylc unriht niaeg beon mare ]?onne [paet] he^ 5 
Jiafige ])8et hit geweorSe, swa hit hwilum gewyrS, pset J^gem 
goodum becymS anfeald yfel on jnsse weorulde, ond })£em 
yflum anfeald god; ond oSre^ hwile gegSer gem^nged, 
£egt5er^ ge Sgem goodum ge ])£em yflum ? ' Ac ic Se acsige 
hwaeSer ])u wene pset eenig mon sTe swa andgitfnll pset he 10 
msege ongitan gelcne mon on riht, hwylc he sie, faet he 
nawSer ne sie ne b^tra^ ne wyrsa fonne he his wene? 
Ic wat 6eah J^set hi ne magon. Ac wyrd ^ swr6e ^ oft on 
won se sido ]7e sume m^n s^cga^ pset [he] sie mede 
wyrSe, sume m^n s^cgat5 pset he sie wites wyr6e. peah 15 
hwa msege ongitan hwset o^er do, he ne mseg witan hwset 
he j^^ncS ; ])eah he msege sume his willan ongitan, J^onne 
ne mseg^ he eallne. Ic pe mseg eac r^ccan sum bispell be 
f ^m ]7set ]m hit ^ meaht pe sweotolor ongitan, peah hit ^^ 
ungesceadwTse m^n ongitan ne msegen. pset is, For hwy 20 
se gooda Isece s^Ue peem halum m^n seftne dr^nc ond 
swetne, ond ot5rum halum biterne ond strangne? Qnd 
hwilum eft peem nnhalum, sumum liSne, sumum strangne ; 
sumum swetne, sumum biterne ? Ic wat pset ale para pe 
pone crseft ne can, wile pses wundrian for hwi hi^^ swa 25 
don; ac his ne wundriaS pa Ifficas nauht, for ^sem hi 
witon pset Sa otSre nyton: for 6^m hi cunnon^ selces 
hiora medtrymnesse ^^ ongitan ond oncnawan,^"' ond eac ^a 

1 C, spina's. 2 q^ cwse'Se. ^ c, ge. 

^ C, o'S^re. 5 C, wanting. ^ B, betera. 

■^ B, weor'Sa'S. ^ C, "Seah to swi'Se broken off. ^ B, wanting. 

10 C, >eah hit illegiUe. ^ C, hwi hi illegible. 12 c, illegible. 

13 B, medtrumnesse. i* 33^ tocnawan. 



54 ^' THE ALFBEBIAN BOETHIUS. 

crseftas ]?e ]?8er wiS sceolon. Hwset is sawla^ hselo bute 
rihtwisnes ? o66e hwset is hiora untrumnes^ bute un- 
})eawas ? Hwa is fonne b^tera leece J>^re sawle ponne se 
J>e hi gesceop, ])dBt is God? He arat5 ])a^ goodan, ond 

5 witnaS Sa yflan. He wat liwses aelc wyr^e biS ; nis hit nan 

wundor, for Seem he of ^£em hean hrofe hit eall gesihS, 

ond fonan misca'S ond metgaS aelcum be his gewyrhtum. 

pset we ])onne hata^ ^ wyrd, ])onne se gesceadwisa God, 

]>e selces monnes ^earfe wat, hwset wyrcS oS'Se gej>afa6 

lo Jises ])e we ne ^ wenaS. Qnd git ^ ic ])§ mseg sume bisne 
feaum^ wordum slogan be ])^m d^le ])e sio m^nnisce 
gesceadwisnes mseg ongitan J)a godcuudnesse. pset is 
l^onne, ]?cfit ® we ongitatS hwilum mon ^ on o'Sre wisan, on 
o^re hine God ongit.^° Hwilum we tiohhiatS }?8et he sie 

15 se b^tra,^^ ond ])onne wat God ]>8et hit swa ne bit5. ponne 
hwsem hwset cymS, o^Se goodes oSSe yiles, mare fonne 
Se ])inc6 pset he wyrSe sie, ne biS sio unrihtwisnes no on 
Gode, ac sTo ungleawnes biS on t5e selfum, pset ]>u hit ne 
canst on riht gecnawan. Oft gebyretS ]-eah ])8ette m^n 

20 ongitaS mon on^ Sa ilcan wisan ]?e hine God ongit. Oft 
hit* gebyreS 'Ssette manige m^ii bioS swa ungetrume 
segfer ge on mode^^ ge on iTchoman, )>set hi ne magon 
ne * nan good don, ne nan yfel nyllaS unnedige ; ond 
biotS eac swa ungefyldige, J?set hi ne magon nan earfoSu ^^ 

25 ge]?yldelice aberan. Eor Stem hit gebyreS oft j^set God 
nylle for his mildheortnesse nan unaberendlice ^'^ broc him 
ans^ttan, ])j l^s hi forlttten hiora unsceaSfulnesse,^^ ond 

1 C, sawle. ^ B, imtrymnes ; C, iihgible. 

3 B, >8em. ^ C, hteta-S. ° C, >8es ^e we na«. 

6 B, get. "^ B, feawum. ^ B, vmnting. 

^ C, wanting. 1° C, andgit. 11 B, \>q betsat. 

12 C, men to mode broken off. ^^ B, earfo'Sa. 

'^* B, aberendlic. ^^ C, unsce'S-. 



X. THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS. 55 

weorSen wyrsan, gif hi asterede^ bioS ^iid gesw^ncte.^ 
Sume m^n beo6 £elces crseftes fullcrseftige, ond fuUhalige 
weras ond rihtwise. ponne fincS pset Gode unriht fget 
he swylce sw^iice ; ge furt5um fone dea^, fe eallum m^ii- 
num IS gecynde to folianne, he him gedet5 seftran ]7onne 5 
o?)rum monnum : swa swa gio wismon cwge(5, pset se god- 
ciinda anwald gef rio^ode his deorlingas under his ^ fiSra ^ 
sceade,* ond hi scilde swa geornlice swa man deS j^one 
seppel ^ on his eagan. Manige tilia^ Gode to cwemanne 
to I'on georne, J^set hi wilniaS hiora agnum willum manig- 10 
feald earfo^ii t5 (5rowianne ; for t^eem hi wilniaS maran 
are ond maran hlisan ond weorSscipe mid Gode to hab- 
banne )7onne Jm habba^ J-e softor '' libbaS. 

Oft eac becymt) se anwald pisse worulde to swiSe 
goodiim monnum, for tSaem J^set se anwald l^ara yfiena^ 15 
weorSe toworpen. Sumum monnum God s^leS^ £eg6er 
ge good ge yfel gem^nged, for t5£em hi ^g]?res earniaS. 
Sume he bereafa^ hiora welan swrSe hra^e, paes jje hi 
^rest gesgelige AveorSaS, ])y l«s hi for longum geseel^um 
hi to tip dhfhben^^ ond ponan on ofermettum weorSen. 20 
Sume he " laet ]?reagan mid heardum broce, j^set hi leorn- 
igen ])one crseft gej^ylde^^ on 'Seem langan geswince. 
Sume him ondrsedaS earfo(5u swi^or ))onne hi ]7yrfen, 
l^eali hi hi^^ ea^e adreogan msegen. Sume hi gebycga'5 
weorSlicne hlisan ]?isses andweardan lifes mid hioi;a 25 
agnum deaSe ; for 'Ssem hi wenaS |?9et hi nsebben " nan 
oSer fioh^^ fees hlisan ^^ wyr^e, buton hiora agnum fiore. 

1 B, astyred. 2 5^ geswenced. ^ q^ wanting. • 

* B, fi'Sera. ^ C, sceate. ^ g^ ggip . j^ ggpj^ 

"^ C, habbanne to softor broken off; J cites C, hsebben. 
8 C, yfelana. ^ B, seller. 10 C, ah^bben. 

11 B, hi to he wanting. ^^ q^ ge^yldelice. is 5^ wantinr. 

"B, habben. i6B,fio-S. le B,hliosaii. 



56 X. THE ALFBEDIAN BOETHIUS. 

Sume m^ii weeroii gio unoferswiSedlice, swa |?8et hi nan 
ne meahte mid nanum wite oferswiSan. pa bysnodon 
hiora sefterg^ngum, ])set hi neereii mid witum oferswiSde. 
On ]?^m W8es sweotol J^set hi, for heora godum weorcum/ 
5 hsef den ^ Sone crseft Jjset him mon ne meahte oferswiSan. 
Ac ]7a yflan, for hiora yflum weorcum, weeron gewitnode 
ond oferswiSde/ for t5^m pset Sa witu gestirden ot5rum 
]93et hi ^ swa gedon ne dorsten, ond eac fa gebeten ^ Ipe hi 
]7onn6 brociat). pset is swi(5e sweotol tacn fsem wisan, 

lo pset he ne sceal lulian to ungemetlice Sas woruldgessel'Sa; 
for t^sem hie oft cumaS to t5^m wyrrestuin^ monnum. 
Ac hwset wille we cweSan be ]?8em andweardan welan fe 
oft cymS to Ssem goodum? Hwaet he^ ^lles sie buton 
tacn ipsds toweardan welan, ond ])8es edleanes angin ]>e 

15 him God tiohhod hsef (5 for his goodan willan ? Ic w^ene 
eac l^isette God s^lle msenegum yf elum monnum ^ gesselSa, 
for ]7£em })e he wat hiora gecynd ond hiora willan swa 
geradne ]78et hi for nanum ermSum ^ bioS ^^ ne ]?y b^tran, 
ac l^y^^ wyrsan. Ac se goda Isece, pset is God, lacnaS 

20 hiora mod mid Seem welan; wile j^set hi* ongiten hwonan 
him se wela come, ond ol^cce ]>^m ]?e lees he him fone 
welan afyrre, 0(5Se hine ])cem^ welan, ond w^nde his 
Jjeawas to gode, ond forleete Sa unpeawas ^^ ond J^a yfel 
])& he ser for* his erm'Sum dyde. Sume bioS J>eah ])j 

25 wyrsan ^^ gif hi welan habbaS, for Seem hi ofermodigaS ^* 
for 'Seem welan, ond his ungemetlice brucaS. 

1 C, >8et to weorcum broken off. 2 C, only -den left ; B, hasf don. 

3 B, gewitnode ofer swi'Se. * C, wanting. 

5 MSS., gebetan. ^ B, wyrston. 

■^ B, wanting. ^ C, men, 

9 B, earmSum. 10 C, byo« ; B, bi«. 

11 B, no ]7y bettran ne na \>j. ^^ q^ jjeawas «o unbeawas broken off. 

13 C, wyrson. 1* B, for )?am ofermodgian. 



X. THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS, 57 

Manegum ra^n b!o$ eac forgifene for •ggem fas weoruld- 
ges^l^a, ])8et he scyle ^ j^'^m goodum leanian hiora good, 
oud J)8ein yflum hiora yfel. Eor ^sem symle biotS j^a 
goodan ond ]7a yflan unge]?w£ere^ betwuh him, ge eac 
hwiluni ])a yflan bio$ ungerade betwuh him selfum ; ge 5 
furSum an yfel man biS hwilum ^ ungefwsere him selfum, 
for ^sem j^e he wat J^aet he untela deS, ond wenS him 
j^ara^leana, ond nyle J;eah fses geswican ne hit furcSum 
him ne Iset hreowan : ond f onne for 'Seem singalan * ^ge 
ne mseg no weor^an gejjweere on him selfum. Oft hit 10 
eac^ gebyret^'' fget se yfla forlset his yfel for^ sumes ot5res 
yfles mannes andan, for^ 'Ssem he wolde mid pe tselan* 
fone o^erne^ l^set he onscunode his pea was : swincti ^ ]7onne 
ymb J)set swa he swiSost maeg, 'Sset^ he'' tiolaS ungelTc to 
bionne^ ]78em ot5rum^; for 'S^m hit is ])aes godcundan 15 
anwealdes ^ gewuna, faet he wirct5 ^° of yfle good. Ac hit 
nis nanum m^n alefed feet he maege^^ witan eall Jjset God 
getiohhod hsef^S, ne eac ar^ccan^ ]>8et faet he geworht 
haef^. Ac on })8em hi habbaS genoh to ongitanne, fset se 
Scippend^^ ond se Waldend^^ eallra gesceafta welt ond 20 
rihte^^ gesceop eall pset he gesceop, ond nan yfel ne 
worhte ne get ne wyrcS, ac ^Ic yfel he adrifiS of eallum 
his rice, Ac gif ])u sefter ]?8em hean^^ anwalde spyrian^^ 
wilt fees selmehtigan Godes, fonne ne^^ ongitst J?u nan 

1 C, scile. 2 c, unge>were. 

8 C, simle. * B, maran. 

^ C, singalum. 6 c, wanting. 
' C, broken off. ^ B, laetan. 

9 B, bion. 10 B, wyrcS. 
11 C, Ac to m£ege broken off. 12 b, arecan. 

^3 B, sceoppend. i* B, wealdend. 

'5 C, rehte. 16 b, vmnting. 

1'^ B, anwealde scyrian. 



58 X. THE ALFEEDIAN BOETHIUS. 

yfel on xianum ]^inge, feah ])e nu ^ t5ince |78et her micel on 
]>js middangearde sie ; for t^eem hit is riht )?8et ta, goodan 
hsebben^ good edlean hiora goodes, ond pa yflan hsebben^ 
wite hiora yfles ; ne bi'S pset nan yfel ^set^ riht bi^, ac 
5 bis good. 

1 C, binge l^e nu nu ; B, binge beah nu ; J, >eah "Se nu. 

2 B, habban. 3 b, baette. 



XI. 

THE NATURE OF GOD. 

[From the Alfredian version of Boethius's De Consolatione 
Philosopliiae, according to the Cotton MS.] 

Da cw8et5 he, 'For 1Sj we sceoldon^ ealle ^ maegene spyr- 
ian sefter Gode, Ipadt we wissen^ hwset he wsere. Deah 
hit ure inge^ ne sie jjset we witen hwylc he sie,'' we sculon 
j^eah be ]>dds andgites meet^e ]>e he us gifS fandian^; swa 
swa we eer cweedon pddt mon sceolde ^ selc ping ongitan 
be his andgites mgepe, for ■gsem we ne magon gelc ]?ing 
ongitan swylc swylce hit bit5. ^Ic gesceaft t5eah, segtSer 
ge ^ gesceadwis ge ungesceadwis, pset sweotolaS l^set God 
ece is. For tSsem nsefre swa manega gesceafta, ond swa 
micla ond swa^ faegra,^ hi ne underSiodden leessan ge- 
sceafte ond Isessan anwalde })onne hi^ ealle sindon, ne 
fiir^um emne miclum.' Da cw8Bt5 ic, ' Hwset is eenes ? ' 
Da cwse^ he, 'pu me ahsast micles earfoiSes to ongitanne. 
Gif ]>u hit witan wilt, t)u scealt habban £er j)ines modes 
eagau clgene ond hlutor.^*^ Ne mgeg ic tSe nauht helan pees 
pe ic wat. Wast ])U J>8et freo ^ing sindon on })is middan- 
gearde ? An is hwilendlTc, pset hsefS " eegSer ge fruman 
ge ^nde, ond nat^^ $eah nan wuht Sees t5e hwilendlic is, 
nautSer ne his fruman ne his ^nde. 06er 6ing is ece, 

1 C, scoldon. 2 B^ eallon. 3 b^ wiston. 

* B, ';vitan he sie. ^ B, fundigan. ^ C, scolde. 

■^ B, wanting. ^ B, swaegra. ^ C, wanting. . 

■■0 B, hlutore with erasure of o; J, hluttre. 

11 B, >aes >e (/or i>^t hseftS). 12 B, ic nat. 

59 



6o XL THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS, 

)?3et hsef^ fruman ond naef^ neenne ^nde, ond wat^ 
hwonne hit ongint5, ond wat pset hit nsefre ne ge^nda^ ; 
]73et sint ^nglas, ond monna saula.^ pridde tSing is ece, 
but on ^nde ond but on anginne, )>set is God. Betweoh 

5 J?£em ))rim is swiSe micel toscead. Gif wit }>8et eall sculon 
tosmeagian,^ ponne cume wit late to ^nde pisse bee, ot5^e 
nsefre. Ac an ]?ing Su scealt nede^ ])3er £er^ witan, for 
hwy God is gehaten sio hehste ecnes.' Da cw3et5 ic 
* Hwy ? ' Da cwseS he, ' For Son fe^ we witon swKe lytel 

lo tSses t5e ser us wses, buton be gemynde ond be geascunge^; 
ond get leesse )7ses t5e sefter us bitS. pset an us is^ gewis- 
lice andweard, pset fe^ fonne biS ; ac him is eall andweard, 
ge ]T8et \)e^ eer wses, ge fset Jje^ nu is, ge )?8et ]?e® sefter us 
bit5 ; eall j^set is him andweard. Ne wexS^" his wela" na® 

15 ne eac nsefre ne wanat5. Ne of man he neefre nan wuht, 
for psem he ^^ nsefre nauht ne f orgeat. Ne secS he nan 
wuht ne ne smeat5, for t^aem pe he hit wat eall. Ne sect5 
he nan wuht, for t5y he nan wuht ne forleas. Ne eht^^ 
he nanre wuhte, for t5y hine nan wuht ne mseg flion. Ne 

20 ondrset he him^ nan^^ wuht, for t^eem he nsefS ngenne 
ricran, ne furSum nsenne gelican. Simle he biS gifende, 
ond ne wanatS his nsefre nauht. Symle he bit> selmihtig, 
for tSsem he symle wile good, ond nsefre nan yfel. Nis 
him nanes pinges nedfearf. Symle he bi6 lociende, ne 

25 slsep'S he n^fre. Symle he biS gelice monj^wsere. Symle 
he bis ece, for Ssem nsefre sio tiid uses ]?set he nsere, ne 
nsefre ne wyrS. Simle he biS frioh, ne biS he to nanum 
weorce geneded. Eor his godcundlicum anwalde he is 
seghwser andweard. His micelnesse ne mseg nan man 

1 B, ic wat. 2 B, sawla. ^ B, asmeagan. * B, nyde. 

^ C, an. 6 B, wanting. '^ C, geaescum. ^ b, te. 

9 MSS., i)set te {for >set >e). 10 C, sceaxS (?). n B, welena. 

^2 B places he after naulit. 1^ B, efst. 1* C, nane. 



XL THE ALFREDIAN BOETHIUS. 6 1 

ametan; nis l^set 'Seah ne^ iTcliomlice^ to weuanne, ac gast- 
lice, swa swa nu wisdom is oiid rihtwisnes, for Ssem he 
];8et is self. Ac liwaet ofermodie ge ponne, ot5(5e hwy 
ah^bbe ge eow wit5 swa lieane anwald? For ■Seem ge 
nauht wis hine don ne magon. For ■Sgem se eca ond se 5 
selmehtiga symle sit on ]:'^m liean^ setle his anw^aldes, 
Jjonan he mseg eall gesion, ond gilt gelcum swiSe^ rihte 
sefter his gewyrhtum. For t^sem hit nis no unnet^ pset we 
hopien t5 Gode ; for Ssem he ne w^nt^ na swa swa we 
doS. Ac biddaS ^ hine eaSmodlice,^ f or "Sgem he is swiSe 10 
rummod ond swi6e mildheort. H^bbat5 eower mod to 
him mid eowrum hondnm, ond biddaS ]?3es J^e riht sie ond 
eower fearf sie, for Seem he eow nele wyrnan. Hatiat5 
yfel ond fleotS swa ge swTSpst magen. LufiaS craeftas ond 
folgiaS J)^m. Ge habbaS micle nedSearfe ^ )?8et ge symle 15 
wel don, for t5gem ge symle beforan J7£em ecan ond ]?8em 
selmihtigan Gode do5 eall J^set ]>3et ge do5. Eall he hit 
gesiht5, ond eall he hit forgilt/ 

1 B, no. 2 c, liciimlice. » MSS., heah. 

* B, be >am {for swi^e). ^ b, unnyt. ^ b, welt. 

' B, abiddatS. 8 c, eadmodlice. » B, «earfe. 



XII. 

THE CONYEESION OF EDWIK 

[From the Anglo-Saxon version of Bede's Ecclesiastical History. 
The text follows the Tanner MS. (= Tanner 10, Bodl. Lib.), except 
at the middle part of the extract, where the reading of (= MS. 
279 Corp. C. C. Camb.) is introduced. The variants are from C 
(=MS. Cotton, Otho B. xi. Brit. Mus.), Ca (= MS. Kk. 3. 18, 
Camb. Univ. Lib.), and B (^= MS. 41 Corp. C. C. Camb.).] 

Mid ]>j he ])a Paulinus se biscop Godes word bodade 
ond l^erde, ond se cyning ^Ide ]m gyt to gelyfanne, ond 
]mrh sume tide, swa swa we ser cw^don, gelimpllcum ana 
sset, ond geornlice mid him seolfum smeade ond J>ohte 
5 hwset him selest to donne w^re ond hwylc eefsestnes him 
to healdanne wgere, J)a wses sume dsege se Godes wer 
ingongende to him fteer he ana sset, ond s^tte his pa swiS- 
ran hond him on ])8et heafod, ond hine ahsode hwseSer 
he pset tacen ongytan meahte. pa oncneow he hit sona 

10 sweotole, ond wses swiSe forht geworden, ond him to 
fotum feoll ; ond hine se Godes monn tip hof ond him 
cuSlice to sprsec, ond pus cwaetS : Ono hwset, ]m nu hafast 
]7urh Godes gife ]>inra feonda hond beswicade, ]?a 'Su t5e 
ondrede, ond pu purh his sylene ond gife feem rice on- 

15 fenge ])e ^u wilnadest. Ac gemyne nu ))8et ]?u )>8et pridde 
geleestest J^set }m gehete, ])3et ])u onfo his geleafan ond his 
bebodu healde, se t5e j7e from wilw^ndlecum earfe^Sum 
gen^rede ond eac in are wilw^ndlices rices ahof. Qnd 
gif t^u forS his willan hearsum beon wilt, jjone he furh 

20 me bodat5 ond leereS, he ponne pe eac from tinttregum 
62' 



XII. THE CONVEBSICIS OF EDWIN, 63 

gen^retS ecra yfela, ond fee dselneomende gedetS mid him 
pees ecaa rices in heofonum.^ 

pa^ se cyning pa };as word gehyrde, )?a ondswarode lie 
him, ond cwsetJ, feet he £eghw3ej)er ge wolde ge sceolde 
j?8em geleafan onfon }>e he leerde ; cwseS hwsepere, feet he 5 
n^olde mid ^ his freondum ond mid^ his wytum gesprec 
ond gefeaht habban, feet gif hi mid hine J^set gefaiian 
woldan, ]78et hi ealle setsomne on lifes willan Criste ge- 
halgade waeran. pa dyde se cyning swa swa he cwseS, 
ond se bisceop }>8et gefafade. 10 

pa hsef de he gesprec * ond gepeaht mid his witum, ond 
syndriglice wses fram him eallum frignende hwylc him 
J)uhte ond gesawen wsere peos niwe lar ond fsere godcund- 
nesse bigong ]>e )>^r Isered wses. Him Jja ondswarode his 
ealdorbisceop, Cefi wses haten : 'Geseoh pu, cyning, hwelc 15 
peos lar sie )>e us nu bodad is. Ic pe soSlice andette, pset 
ic cuSlIce geleornad hsebbe, pset eallinga nawiht msegenes 
ne nyttnesse hafatS sio gefsestnes pe we oS Sis hsefdon ond 
beeodon. For pon nsenig pinra fegna neodlicor ne gelust- 
fullicor hine sylfne underpeodde to ura goda bigange 20 
ponne ic ; ond noht pon l^s monige syndon pa pe maran 
gefe ond fr^msumnesse set pe ontengon ponne ic, ond on 
eallum pingum maran gesynto hsefdon. Hwset ic wat, gif 
ure godo genige mihte hsefdon, ponne woldan hie me ma 
fultumian, for pon ic him geornlTcor peodde ond hyrde. 25 
For pon me pyncetS wislic, gif pu geseo pa ping b^teran 
ond strangran pe us niwan bodad syndon, pset we pam 
onfon.' 

p3es wordum oper cyninges wita ond ealdormann ge- 
pafunge sealde, ond to psere sprsece feng ond pus cwsetS : 3« 

1 Thus far the text follows T. 2 j£ere begins. 

8 Ca, B ; O, wanting. * Ca, gesprsece ; B, sprsece. 



64 ^IL THE CONVERSION OF EDWIN, 

'pyslic me is gesewen, fu cyning, pis andwearde lU 
manna on eorSan to wiSmetenesse ptere tide ]?e us uncuS 
is, swylc ^ swa pu set sweesendum sitte mid pinum ealdor- 
mannum ond fegnnm on wintertide, ond sie fyr onseled^ 
5 ond pin heall gewyrmed, ^nd hit rine, ond sniwe, ond 
styrme^ utej cnme an spearwa ond lirsedlice pset hus 
purhfleo, cnme purh. opre duru in, purh. opre ut gewite. 
Hweetjhe on pa tid pe lie inne biS, ne biS brinen* mid p^ 
storme pses wintres; ac pset hv6 an eagan brybtm ond 

to pset leesste ^ fsec, ac be sona of wintra on pone winter eft 
cyme^. Swa ponne pis m^nna lif to medmiclum fsece 
setyweS ; bwset peer foregange, o^t5e bwset peer sefterfylige, 
we ne cunnun. Por tSon gif peos lar owibt cut5licre ond 
gerisenllcre ® br^nge, pses weorpe is pset we paere fylgen.' 

15 peossum wordum gelicum oSre aldorm^n ond ^ses cyn- 
inges gepeabteras sprgecan. 

pa gen tosetybte Cefi, ond cwseS, pset be wolde Paulmus 
pone bisceop geornlicor gebyran be pam Gode sprecende 
pam pe be bodade. pa bet se cyning swa don. pa be pa 

20 bis word gebyrde, pa clypode be ond pus cwse^ : ^ Geare 
ic p^t ongeat pset Sset nowibt wses pset we beeodan ; for 
pon swa micle swa ic geornlicor on pam bigange pset 
sylfe sot5 sobte, swa ic bit lees mette. Nu ponne ic open- 
lice ondette pset on pysse lare pset sylfe soS scinet5 pset 

25 us mseg pa gyfe syllan ecre eadignesse ond eces lifes 
bselo. For pon ic ponne nu Isere, cyning, pset pset tempi 
ond pa wigbedo,^ pa t5e^ we btiton wsestmum senigre 
nytnisse balgodon, pset we pa brape forleosen ond fyre 

IB; O, sw lie swa (a erased after sw) ; Ca, swa gelic swa. 

2 O, onselsed. ^ C, B, hagelge (Jor styrme). 

* B ; 0, hrined (h above the line) ; Ca, rined. 

^ Ca, B, Iseste. 6 q^ geweorlicre. 

^ O ends with wig ; T begins with bedo ; Ca, weofedu. ^ T, "Sa. 



XII, THE CONVEBSION OF EDWIN. 6$ - 

forbeerne.' Ono hwaet, lie J)a wees se cyning opeiilice 
^ndettende ^ pani biscope ^nd him eallum, jjset he wolde 
fsestlice pain deofolgildum wi'Ssacan (^ud Ciistes geleaifan 
onfon. 

Mid ]>y ])e he ]m, se cyning, from psem foresprecenan 5 
biscope sohte ond ahsode heora halignesse pe heo ser 
bieodon, hwa "Sa wigbed ond pa h^rgas para deofolgilda 
mid heora heowum pe heo ymbs^tte weeron, heo eerest 
aidligan ^nd toweorpan scolde, pa ondsworede he : ' Efne 
ic. Hwa mseg pa nu eaS, pe ic longe mid dysignesse 10 
beeode, to bysene oSerra monna gerisenlecor toweorpan, 
ponne ic seolfa purh pa snytro pe ic from psem soSan 
Gode onfeng?' Qnd he ■8a sona from him awearp pa 
idlan dysignesse pe he £er beeode, ond pone cyning basd 
pset he him w^pen sealde ond stodhors, pget he meahte 15 
on cuman ond deofolgyld toweorpan. For pon pam 
biscope heora halignesse ne wses alyfed pset he moste 
woepen wegan ne ^Icor buton on myran ridan. pa sealde 
se cyning him sweord, pset he hine mid gy rde : ond nom 
his spere on bond ond hleop on pses cyninges stedan, ond 2d 
to p^m deofulgeldum ferde. pa Sset folc hine pa geseah 
swa gescyrpedne, pa wendon heo pset he teola ne wiste, 
ac pset he wedde. Sona pses pe he nealehte to psem 
h^rige, pa sceat he mid py spere pset hit sticode fseste on 
psem h^rige, ond wses swiSe gefeonde pare ongytenesse 25 
pses soSan Godes bigonges. Qnd he $a helit his geferan 
toweorpan ealne pone h^rig ond pa getimbro, Qnd for- 
bsernan.^ Is seo stow gyt? seteawed gu Seara deofulgilda 
noht feor east from Eoforwicceastre begeondan Deor- 
wentan psere ea, ond gen to dsege is n^mned Godmund- 30 

1 Miller ; T, ondette ; O, Ca, andette (with omission of wses) ; 
B, andettende. 2 q, Ca, B ; T, -ndon. 



66 XII. THE CONVEltSIO:^ OF EDWIN. 

ingaham, J)^r se biscop [urh l-aes s6Sa.n Godes inbryrd.. 
nesse towearp ond fordyde ))a wigbed fe he seolfa sei- 
gehalgode. 

Da onfeng Eadwine cyning mid eallum ]?£em se^elingum 
5 his peode ond mid micle folce Ciistes geleafan ond 
fulwihte hddtQ J>y ^ndlyftan geare his rices. Wees he 
gefulwad from Paulini, feem biscope his lareowe, in 
Eoforwicceastre |?y halgestan Eastorda3ge in See. Petres 
cirican, )>8es apostoles, |m he |)8er hrsede geweorce of treo 

10 cirican getimbrode.^ SiSpan he gecristnad wses, swylce 
eac his lareowe ond biscope Paulini biscopseSl forgeaf. 
Qnd sona {^ses fe he gefulwad wses, he ongon mid ]38es 
biscopes lare maran cirican ond hyrran stsenenne timbran 
ond wyrcan ymb ]?a cirican utan ]?e he eer worhte. Ac 

15 ^r )>on heo seo ^ heannis ))8es wealles gefylled weere ond 
ge^ndad, pset he se cyning mid arleasre cwale ofsl^gen 
wses, ond pset ilce geweorc his sefterfylgende Oswalde 
forlet to ge^ndianne. Of ))^re tide Paulmus, se biscop, 
syx ger ful, pset is oS ^nde^ pses cyninges rices, paet he 

Qo mid his fultome in ))£ere meegSe Godes word bodade ond 
laerde ; ond m^n gelyfdon ond gefulwade w^ron, swa 
monige swa forteode wiSron to ecum life. 

1 B, hra'Se ge worhte cyricean treowene. 2 g^ ^q ^dr 'Son 'Se seo. 

3 T. endan. 



PART III. 

XIII. 

A BLICKLING HOMILY. 

[From the Homilies contained in a manuscript in the library of 
Bhckling Hall, Norfolk.] 

pisses middangeardes ^nde neah. is. 

M^n ])a leofostan,]iw8et ! nu anra manna gehwylcne ic 
myngie ond l«re, ge weras ge wif, ge geonge ge ealde, ge 
snottre ge unwise, ge Ipa. welegan ge ]?a pearfan, ]>ddt anra 
gehwylc hine sylfne sceawige ond ongyte, ond swa liwset 5 
swa lie on mycclum gyltum op|?e on medmycclum ge- 
fr^mede, |)8et lie J)onne hrsedlice gecyrre to I'am selran 
ond to pon sot5an l^cedome ; ponne magon we lis God • 
aelmihtigne mildne liabban, for pon pe Drihten wile pset 
ealle m^n syn hale ond gesunde, ond to pon sopan and- 10 
gite gecyrran, swa Dauid cwse]? : ^ pa eaSmodan heortan 
ond pa forhtgendan ond pa bifigendan ond pa cwacigendan 
ond pa ondrsedendan heora Scyppend, ne forhogap pa 
nsefre God ne ne forsyhp; ah. heora bena he gehyre'S, 
ponne hie to him cleopiaS ond him are biddap.' 15 

Magon we ponne nu geseon ond oncnawan ond swipe 
gearellce ongeotan pset pisses middangeardes ^nde swipe 
neah is, ond manige frecnessa seteowde, ond manna 
wohd^eda ond wonessa swipe gemonigfealdode ; ond we 
fram dsege to oprum geaxia^ ungecyndelico witu ond 20 

67 



68 XIII. A BLICKLING HOMILY. 

ungecyndelice'^ deaj?as geond ] eodland to manniim cumene; 
ond we oft ongytap ]:8et arisep feod wij? j^eode, ond unge- 
limplico gefeoht on wolicum deedum: ond we gehyra]? 
oft s^cggan gelome worldricra manna dea|? J^e heora lif 

5 m annum leof wsere, ond ])u]ite fseger ond wlitig heora 
lif ond wynsumlic ; swa we eac geaxiatS mislice adla on 
manegum stowum middangeardes^ ond himgras wexende ; 
ond manig yfel we geaxia]? her on life gelomlician ond 
wsBstmian, ond ngenig god awunigende, ond ealle world- 

10 lieu fing swT|)e synllcu ; ond cola]? to swi|?e seo lufu f e we 
to urum Hgelende habban sceoldan, ond )7a godan weorc 
we anforleetaj? j^e we for ure saule h^le began sceoldan. 
pas tacno j^yslico syndon f>e ic nii hwile big ssegde be 
})isse worlde earfo|?nessum ond fr^ecnessum, swa Crist 

15 sylfa his geongrum ssegde, )?8et J^as ]>ing ealle geweorj^an 
sceoldan ^r J)isse worlde ^nde. 

Uton we tiu efstan ealle msegene godra weorca, ond 
geornfulle beon Godes miltsa, nu we ongeotan magon 
])ddt ])is nealeecj) worlde forwyrde ; for ]7on ic myngige ond 

20 manige manna gehwylcne j^set he his agene deeda georne 
smeage, j^set he her on worlde for Gode rihtlice lifge^ ond 
on gesyh])e fses hehstan Cyninges. Syn we rtimmode 
}7earfendum mannum, ond earmum selmesgeorne, swa us 
God sylfa behead pset w^e s6])e sibbe heoldan, ond ge- 

25 J)W8ernesse us betweonon habban. Qnd fa m^n ipe beam 
habban, leeran hie ]r^m rihtne j^eodscipe, ond him tsecean 
lifes weg ond rihtne gang to heofonum ; ond gif hie on 
senigum dsele wolice libban heora lif, syn hie fonne sona 
from heora wonessum onw^nde, ond fram heora unrihtum 

30 oncyrron, )>8et we j^urh pset ealle Gode lician^ swa hit 
eallum geleaffullum folcum beboden standef, naes na ]mm 



i.( 



cynelice. 



XIII. A BLICKLING HOMILY. 69 

anum J?e Gode sylfum underfeodde syndon mid myclum 
hadum, biscopas ond cyningas ond msessepreostas ond 
heahdiaconas, ac eac soplice hit is beboden subdiaconum 
ond munecum. Qnd is eallum mannum nedj^earf ond 
nytlic ])8et hie heora fulwihthadas wel gehealdan. 5 

ile beo ngenig man her on worldrice on his ge])6hte to 
modig, ne on his llchoman to Strang, ne ni)7a to georn, ne 
bealwes to beald, ne bregda to full, ne inwit to leof, ne 
wrohtas to w^bgenne, ne searo to renigenne. Ne ]?earf 
))8es nan man wenan ])8et his lichama m5te oJ?]?e msege ] a 10 
synbyrj^enna on eor]?scraf e gebetan ; ah he ]?8er on moldan 
gemolsna]?, ond J)£er wyrde bide)? hwonne se selmihtiga 
God wille ]?isse worlde ^nde gewyricean, ond J?onne he his 
byrnsweord getyh]? ^nd ]^as world ealle |)urhslyh|?, ond fa 
lichoman Jjurhsceote^, ond pysne middangeard t6cleofet5, 15 
ond pa deadan up astanda]?; bij? fonne se fl^schoma 
ascyred swa glses : ne mseg ^aes unrihtes beon awiht 
bedigled. For ]?on we habba]? nedpearfe j^set we to lange 
ne fylgeon unwitweorcum, ac we sceolan us geearnian pa 
siblecan weera Godes ond manna, ond pone rihtan geleafan 20 
faeste stat5elian on urum heortum, pset he ^£er wunian 
maege ond mote, ond paer growan ond blowan. Qnd we 
sceolan andettan pa sopan geleaffulnesse on urne Drihten 
ond on^ Heelende Crist, his Sons ac^ndan Suna, ond on 
tSone Halgan Gast, se is efnece Feeder ond Sunu. Qnd 25 
we sceolan gehyhtan on Godes pa gehalgodan cyricean, 
ond on ^a rihtgelefedan. Qnd we sceolan gelyfan synna 
forlsetnessa, ond llchoman ^ristes on domes'^ dseg. Qnd 
we sceolan gelefan on peet ece llf, ond on paet heofonllce 
rice pset is gehaten eallum pe nu syndan godes wyrhtan. 30 
pis is se rihta geleafa pe seghwylcum m^n gebyreS paet he 

1 ond on misplaced after Crist. 2 domos. 



70 XIII. A BLICKLING HOMILY. 

wel gehealde oud geleeste, for Son pe nan wyrhta ne maeg 
god weorc wyrcean for Gode buton lufan ^ ond gelealan. 
Qnd us is mycel nedpearf pset we us sylfe geS^ncean ond 
gemunan, ond J^onne geornost ]?onne we geliyron Godes 
5 bee us beforan r^ccean ond rsedan, ond godspell s^cggean, 
ond bis wuldor)?rymmas mannum cyj^an. Uton^ we ponne 
georne teolian pset we sefter ]>on '6e b^teran syn ond {e 
selran for 'Stere lare Se we oft gehyrdon. 

Eala m^n Sa leofostan, hweet ! we sceolan geS^ncean 

10 l-set we ne lulian to swi]?e fset j^aet we forlmtan ^ sceolan, 
ne fset hnru ne forlsetan to swife paet vs^e ecelice habban 
sceolan. Geseo we nu for georne ])ffit neenig man on 
worlde to Sees mycelne welan nafaS, ne to Son modelico 
gestreon her on worlde, J^ast se on medmycclum fyrste to 

15 ^nde ne cume, ond J)8et eall forlseteS pset him £er her on 
worlde wynsumlic wses ond leofost to agenne ond to 
h(Ebhenne} Qnd se man nSfre to Son leof ne biS his 
nehmagum ond his worldfreondura, ne heora nan hine to 
))3es swipe ne InfaS ]?set he sona syppan ne sy onscungend, 

20 seoppan se iTchoma ond se gast gedaelde beop, ond |)inct) 
his neawist laplTco ond unfgeger. Nis pset nan wundor ; 
hwaet bi]? hit la §lles buton fltesc, seoSSan se ecea dgel of 
bip, paet is seo sawl ? hwset bi|> la ^lles seo laf buton wyrma 
m^te ? Hweer beoj? ponne his welan ond his wista? hw^r 

25 beoS ]>onne his wl^ncea ond his paimedlan ? hwar beo}> 
ponne his idlan gescyrplan? hw^r beop Sonne pa gl^ngeas 
ond ])a mycclan gegyrelan pe he pone lichoman ajr mid 
frsetwode ? hwser cumap ponne his willan ond his fyren- 
lustas Se he her on worlde beeode ? Hwset ! he ponne 

30 sceal mid his saule anre Gode selmihtigum riht agyldan 
ealles paes pe he her on worlde to wommum gefr^mede. 

1 lufon. 2 Yton. s _on. * -ene. 



XIIL A BLIGKLING HOMILY. /I 

Magon we nu gelieraii [secg]^ gean be [sumum welegum 
m^n]^ ond worldncum ; alite lie on pysse worlde mycelne 
welan ond swISe modelico gestreon ond manigfealde, ond 
on wynsumnesse lifde. pa gelamp him paet his lif wearS 
ge^ndod ond fc^iiic ^iide on becom pisses Isenan lifes.'^ pa 5 
W8es his nehmaga sum ond his worldfreonda paet hine 
swypor lufode ponne ^nig opor man ; he ].a for ]?£ere 
langunga ond for p^re geomrunga ])ses opres deapes, l^ng 
on j7am lande gewunian ne mihte, ac he unrotmod of his 
cyp])e gewat ond of his earde, ond on ])gem lande feala 10 
wintra wunode ; ond him nsefre seo langung ne geteorode, 
ac hine swipe gehyrde ond preade. pa ongan hine eft 
langian on his cyppe, for pon paet he wolde geseon eft ond 
sceawian pa byrgenne, hwylc se w^re pe he oft ser mid 
wlite ond mid waestmum fsegerne m . . .^ geseah. Him 15 
pa to cleopodon pses deadan ban, ond pus cw^don : ' For 
hwon come ]m hider us to sceawigenne ? Nu pu miht her 
geseon moldan d^l ond wyrmes lafe, peer pu ser gesawe 
godw^b mid golde gefagod. Sceawa p^r nu dust ond 
dryge ban, pser peer pu ser gesawe sefter fl^sclTcre gecynde 20 
fsegre leomu on to seonne. Eala pu freond ond mm mgeg, 
gemyne pis ond ongyt pe sylfne, pset pu eart nu pset ic 
wses 10 ; ond pu byst sefter fsece pset ic nu eom. Gemyne 
pis ond oncnaw peet mme welan pe ic 10 hsefde syndon 
ealle gewitene ond gedrorene, ond mine h^rewic syndon 25 
gebrosnode ond gemolsnode. Ac onw^nd pe to pe sylfum, 
ond pine heortan to rsede gecyr, ond geearna paet pine bena 
syn Gode selmihtigum andf^nge.' He pa swa geomor ond 
swa gnorngende gewat from pgere dustscea-wunga, ond 
hine pa onw^nde from ealre pisse worlde begangum ; 30 

1 MS. damaged here ; emendations by Morris. 2 nfges. 

^ MS. damaged here ; three or four words cut o# (Morris). 



72 XIII. A BLICKLING HOMILY. 

ond lie ongan Godes lof leornian ond j^aet Iseran, ond J»8et 
gastlice msegen lufian ; ond ]7urh f set geearnode liim j^a 
gife Haliges Gastes, ond eac pees ofres saule of witum 
gen^rede ond of tintregmn alesde. 
5 Magon we ]?onne, m^n pa leofestan, us J^is to gemyndum 
habban, ond J>as bysene on urum heortan stafelian, J?8et 

'^ we ne sceolan lufian worlde gl^ngas to swi|)e ne ]^ysne 
middangeard ; for Jjon ]7e feos world is eall forwordenlic 
ond gedrofenlic ond gebrosnodlic ond feallenlic,^ ond Jieos 

10 world is eall gewitenlic.^ Uton we ]7onne geornlice ge- 
]7^ncean ond oncnawan be fyses middangeardes fruman ; 
pa he £erest gesceapen wses, pa wses he ealre fsegernesse 
full, ond he wses blowende on him sylfum on swype 
manigfealdre wynsumnesse. Qnd on pa tid wses mannuni 

15 leof ofer^ eorpan, ond halw^nde ond haX^ smyltnes wses 
o/e?'^eorpan, ond sibba genihtsumnes, ondtuddres sepelnes. 
Qnd pes middangeard wses on pa tid to pon fseger ond 
to pon wynsumliG^ pset he teah m^n to him purh his wlite 
ond purh his fsegernesse ond wynsumnesse fram pon 

20 selmihtegan Gode. Qnd pa he pus fseger wses ond pus 
wynsum, pa wisnode he on Cristes haligra heortum, ond 
is nu on urum heortan blowende swa hit gedafen is. 
Nu is seghwonon hream ond wop ; nu is heaf seghwonon, 
ond sibbe tolesnes ; nu is seghwonon yfel ond sl^ge ; ond 

25 seghwonon pes middangeard flyhp from us mid mycelre 
biternesse, ond we him fleondum fylgeap, ond hine feal- 
lendne lufiap. Hwset ! we on pam gecnawan magon pset 
peos world is scyndende ond heononweard. Uton we poune 
pses gep^ncean, pa hwile pe we magon [ond] ^ moton, ) set 

30 we us georne to Gode pydon. Uton urum Drilitne hyran 

1 feallendlic. ^ gewiten; Morris, gewiteiidlic (?). ^ of or. 

* heal. - Tv-yin-. ^ Holthausen, 



1 



XIII. A BLICKLING HOMILY, 73 

georne, ond him fancas s^cggan ealra liis geofena ond 
ealra his miltsa ond ealra his ea^modnessa ond fr^msum- 
nessa pe he wi]) fis iefre gecy|)de, J)«m heofonllcan Cin- 
inge fe leofaS ond rixaj? on worlda world aa buton ^nde 
on ecnesse. Amen. § 



XIY. 



w^LFEIC'S HOMILY ON THE ASSUMPTION OF 
ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

[From the Cambridge Univ. Lib. MS. of ^Ifric's Homilies.] 

lohannes se Godspellere, Cristes dyrling, wearS on 
^ysum dsege to heofenan rices myrhSe purh Godes neos- 
unge genumen. He wees Cristes moddrian sunu, and he 
hine lufode synderlTce ; na swa micclum for 'Ssere mseg- 
5 lican sibbe swa for ^^re cl^nnysse his ansundan mseg'S- 
hades. He wses on maegShade Gode gecoren, and lie on 
ecnysse on ungew^mmedum msegShade |)urhwunode. Hit 
is gereed on gewyrdelicum racum |73et he wolde wifian, 
and Crist wearS to his gyftum gelaSod. pa gelamp hit 

10 ]>ddt set t5am gyftuin win wearS ateorod. Se H^lend 6a 
het ]7a t5eningm^n ^ afyllan six steenene fatu mid hluttrum 
wsetere, and he mid his bletsunge pset wseter to seSelum 
wine aw^nde. pis is ]78et forme tacn tSe he on his m^n- 
niscnysse openlice geworhte. pa AvearS lohannes swa 

15 onbryrd ]7urh paet tacn, ]?3et he 6ser rihte his bryde on 
msegShade forlet, and symle sy6t5an Drihtne folgode, and 
wear(5 6a him inweardlice gelufod, for 6an 'Se he hine 
setbreed )>am flsesclicum lustum. Witodlice 'Sisum leofan 
leorningcnihte befseste se Heelend his modor, }>a j^a he 

20 on rodeh^ngene manncynn alysde, peet his ch^ne lif ^aes 
cl^nan m^denes Marian gymde ; and heo 6a on hyre 
swyster suna fenungum wunode. 



^ C, Senigmen. 
74 



XIV. ASSU2IPTI0N OF ST. JOHy THE APOSTLE. 75 

Eft on fyrste, sefter Cristes upstige to lieofonum, rixode 
sum wsellireow casere on Eomana rice, sefter Nerone, se 
waes Domicianus gehaten, cristenra manna ehtere : se het 
afyllan ane cyfe mid weallendum ele, and |?one mseran 
godspellere ])^r on het bescufan ; ac he Surh Godes ge- 5 
scyldnysse ungew^mmed of Sam hdtan^ bseSe eode. Eft 
Sa Sa se waelhreowa ne mihte Sees eadigan apostoles bod- 
unge al^cgau, ]?a as^nde he hine on wrsecsiS to anum 
TgeoSe I'e is PaSmas geciged, ]?8et he 'Sser J^nrh hiingres 
scearpnj^sse acw^le. Ac se selmihtiga Hgelend ne forlet 10 
to gymeleaste his gelufedan apostol, ac geswutelode him 
on Sam wrsecsiSe J^a toweardan onwrigenysse, be S^re he 
awrat Sa boc Se is gehaten ' Apocalipsis ' : and se wsel- 
hreowa Domicianus on Sam ylcan geare wearS acweald 
get his witena handum ; and hi ealle anmodlice rseddon 15 
p8et ealle his ges^tnyssa aydlode wseron. pa wearS N'erua, 
swISe arfsest man, to casere gecoren. Be his ge)?afunge 
gecyrde se apostol ongean mid micclum wurSmynte, se 
Se mid hospe to wraecsISe as^nd wses. Him urnon ongean 
weras and wif faegnigende, and cweSende. ' Gebletsod is 20 
se Se com on Godes naman.' 

Mid |)am Se se apostol lohannes stop into S^re byrig 
Ephesum, ]>a bser man him togeanes anre wydewan lie to 
byrigenne ; hire nama wees DrQsiana. Heo wges swTSe 
gelyfed and selmesgeorn, and |)a Searfan, Se heo mid cysti- 25 
gum mode eallunga afedde, dreorige mid wope Sam lice 
folgodon. Da het se apostol Sa b^re s^ttan, and cwseS, 
* j\Iin Drihten Hgelend Crist arsere Se, Drusiana ; arts, 
and gecyrr ham, and gearca us gereordunge on ]nuum 
huse.' Drusiana pa aras swilce of slaepe awr^ht,^ and 30 
-;arfull be Sees apostoles heese ham gew^nde. 

1 MSS., hatum. 2 b, aweht. 



'jG XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN TEE APOSTLE. 

On •gam ot^rum daege eode se apostol be ^^re street : J^a 
ofseah. lie hw^r sum uSwita Isedde twegen gebro'Sru pe 
Iisefdon behwyrfed eall heora yldrena gestreon on deor- 
wurtSum gymstanum, and woldon t5a tocwysan on ealles 

5 fees folces gesibt^e, to wsefersyne, swylce to forsewen- 
nysse woruldlicra tebta. Hit wees gewunelic on t5am 
timan ])aet t5a t5e woldon woruldwisdoni gecneordlice leor- 
nian, ]?8et bi bebwyrfdon beora are on gymstanum, and 
^a tobr^econ ; oS6e on sumum gyldenum w^cge, and Sone 

10 on sge awurpan ; ])i Iges •6e seo smeaung ]?£era ^ sebta bi 
set Seere lare br^mde. pa clypode se apostol Sone u^witan 
Graton bim to, and cwse6, ' DyslTc bit$ l>8et bwa woruld- 
llce speda forbogige for manna b^runge, and beo on 
Godes dome geniSerod. . Ydel biS se l^cedom pe ne mseg 

15 Sone untruman gebeelan ; swa hv6 eac ydel seo lar t5e ne 
gebsel^ Seere sawle leabtras and unSeawas. SoSlice mm 
lareow Crist smnne cnibt J?e gewilnode pses ecan lifes 
])ysum wordum Igerde, j^set be sceolde ealle bis welan 
beceapian, and pset wurS Searfum dselan, gif be wolde 

20 fulfr^med beon, and be sy5t5an bsefde bis goldbord on 
beofenum, and S^er to eacan }>set ece lif.' Graton ^a se 
uSwita bim andwyrde, ^pas gymstanas synd tocwysede 
for ydelum gylpe, ac gif Sin lareow is soS God, gefeg t5as 
bricas to ansundnysse, ])8et beora wurS msege pearfnm 

25 fr^mian/ lobannes pa gegaderode S^ra gymstana bricas, 
and beseab to beofonum, ]ms cwet5ende, ^Dribten Hal- 
end, nis t5e nan 'Sing earfot5e ; ]m geedstat5elodest 'Sisne 
tobrocenan middangeard on ]nnum geleaffullum ]nirb 
tacen psere lialgan rode : geedstaSela nu pas deorwurSan 

30 gymstanas t5urb Slnra ^ngla banda, pset Sas nytenan 
m^nn Cine milita oncnawon, and on pe gelyfon/ Hwaet ! 

1 C, tfere. 



XIV. ASSU3IPTI0]^ OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. yy 

^a f^rlice wurdon 'Sa gymstanas swa ansunde )>3et furt5on 
nan tacen ^sere serran tocwysednysse nses gesewen. pa 
se u6wita Graton samod mid ))am cnihtum feoll to 
lohannes fotum, gelyfende on God. Se apostol hine 
fullode mid eallum his hirede, and lie ongann Godes ge- 5 
leaf an openlice bodian. pa twegen gebro^ra, Atticus and 
"Eugenms, sealdon heora gymstanas, and ealle heora sehta 
dseldon wsedlum, and filigdon fam apostole, and micel 
m^nigu geleaffullra him eac to ge'Seodde. 

pa becom se apostol set sumum seele to ]?£ere byrig Per- 10 
gamum, j^^^r t5a foressedan cnihtas lu ser eardodon, and 
gesawon heora Seowan mid godiuebbe gefrsetewode/ and 
on woruldlicum wuldre scinende. Da wurdon hi mid 
deofles flan jmrhscotene, and dreorige on mode J^aet hi 
waedligende on anum waclicum wsefelse ferdon, and heora 15 
^eowan on woruldlicum wnldre scinende weeron. pa un- 
dergeat se apostol t5as deoflican f acn, and cwseS, ' Ic geseo 
pset eower mod is aw^nd and eower andwlita, for ^an t5e 
ge eowre speda pearf um d^ldon, and mines Drihtnes lare 
fyligdon : gaS nu for -Si to wuda, and heawaS incre byrt>- 20 
ene gyrda, and gebringaS to me.' Hi dydon be his 
h^se, and he on Godes naman ^a grenan gyrda geblet- 
sode, and hi wurdon to readum golde aw^nde. Eft cwse^ 
se apostol lohannes, ' GaS to ^sere see strande, and f ^ccaS 
me papolstanas.' Hi dydon swa; and lohannes ])a on 25 
Godes msegentSrymme hi gebletsode, and hi wurdon ge- 
hwyrfede to deorwurSam gymmum. pa cw8et5 se apostol, 
^Gat5 to smiSSan, and fandiat5 ])ises goldes and 'Sissera 
gymstana.' Hi 'Sa eodon, and eft comon, J^us cweSende, 
' Ealle t5as goldsmitias s^cga^ J^aet hi n^fre ger swa cleene 3c 
gold ne swa read ne gesawon; eac t5as gymwyrhtan 

* C, godewebbe gefreatewode j Sweet, gefrsetewode. 



■ "J^ XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

s^cgaS J)3et 111 n^fre swa deorwurSe gy mstanas ne ge- 
metton.' pa cwset^ se apostol him to, *]Srinia6 }^is gold 
and ■Sas gymstanas, and f araS, and bicgatS eow landare ; 
for 'San \q ge forluron -ga lieofenlican speda. Bicgaf5 eow 

5 psellene cyrtlas, j^aet ge to lytelre hwile scinon swa swa 
rose, fset ge hrsedlice forweornion. Beo6 blowende and 
welige hwihvv^ndlice, j^set ge ecelice wsedlion. Hwset 
la ! ne mseg se selmilitiga Wealdend Jjurhteon fset he do 
his t^eowan rice for worulde, genihtsume on welan, and 

10 unwiSmetenlice scinan ? Ac he s^tte gecauip geleafful- 
lum sawluni, fset hi gelyfon to geagenne j^a ecan welan, 
^a Se for his naman pa hwilw^ndan speda forhogiaS. Ge 
gehseldon untruman on ])8es Heelendes naman^ ge afligdon 
deoflu, ge forgeafon blindum gesihSe, and gehwilce un- 

15 coSe gehceldon : efne, nti is Seos gifu eow setbroden, and 
ge sind earmingas gewordene, ge ^e wserou msere and 
strange. Swa mice! ^ge stod deoflum fram eow pset hi 
be eowere hgese pa ofs^ttan deofolseocan forleton ; nu ge 
ondrseda^ eow deoflu. pa heofenlican gehta sind us eallum 

io gemeene. ISTacode we wseron ac^nnede, and nacode we 
gewitat5. p^re sunnan beorhtnys,^ and ]>ges monan leoht 
and ealra tungla sind gem^ne pam lican and Sam heanan. 
Eenscuras and cyrcan dnru, fulluht and synna forgyf- 
ennys, huselgang and Godes neosung sind eallum ge- 

^5 meene, earmum and eadigum ; ac se unges£eliga gytsere 
wile mare habban ponne him genihtsumaS, ponne he 
furSon orsorh ne bricS his genihtsnmnysse. Se gytsere 
hsefS genne iTchaman, and m^nigfealde scrud ; he hsefS 
ane wambe, and pusend manna bigleofan : witodlice pset 

30 he for gytsunge uncyste nanum oSrum syllan ne masg, 
paet he hordaS, and nat hwani t swa swa se witega cwseS, 

I C, beorhnys ; Sweet. 



XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 79 

"On Tdel biS ^Ic man gedrefed se t5e horda'S, and nat 
hwam he hit gegaderaS." Witodlice ne biS he Ssera gehta 
hlaford, t5onne he hi dgelan ne mseg ; ac he biS psera sehta 
Seowa, |)onne he him eallunga feowaS ; and ]mv to eacan 
him weaxat5 untrumnyssa on his iTchaman, pset he ne 5 
mseg £etes ot)'6e wtetes brucan. He caraS dseges and 
nihtes pset his feoh gehealden sy; he gymS grtedelice his 
teolmige, his gafoles, his gebytla^he beryp6 pa wanspedi- 
gan,- he fulg;S'6® his lustiim and his plegan ; jionne feer- 
lice gewitt he of Sissere worulde, nacod and forscyldigod, 10 
synna ana mid him f^rigende; for t5an ]3e he sceal ece 
wite ^rowian/ 

Efne Sa 'Sa se apostol pas lare sprecende wses, t5a bser 
sum wuduwe hire suna lie to bebyrgenne, se hsefde ge- 
wifod pritigum nihtum ger. Seo dreorige modor pa samod 15 
mid pam llcmannum rarigende hi astr^hte set pses halgan 
apostoles fotum, biddende past he hire sunn on Godes 
naman ar^erde, swa swa he dyde pa wydewan Drusianam. 
lohannes t5a ofhreow pgere meder and Ssera licmanna 
dreorignysse, and astr^hte his lichaman to eorSan on 20 
langsuinum gebede, and "Sa set nextan aras, and eft upa- 
hafenum handum langlice bsed. pa t5a he 1Sus ^riwa 
gedon hsefde, ^a het he imwindan pses cnihtes lie, and 
cwseS, ' Eala t)u cniht, 6e purh ^ines fleesces lust hrsedlice 
6ine sawle forlure ; eala ] u cniht, pu ne cutest Sinne 25 
Scyppend; pu ne cutest manna H^lend; pu ne cutest 
^one soSan freond ; and for ^1 pu beurne on Sone wyrstan 
feond. Nu ic ageat mine tearas, and for ^inre nyten- 
nysse geornlice bsed, pset pu of dea^e arise, and pisum 
twam gebro^rum, Attico and Eugenio, cy'Se hu micel 30 
wuldor hi forluron, and hwilc wite hi geearnodon/ Mid 

1 C, gehytlu ; Sweet. 2 c, wann-; Sweet. s b, folga-S. 



8o JlIV. assumption of ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

tSain ))a aras se cniht Stacteus, and f eoU to lohannes 
fotum, and begann to Sreagenne pa gebroSru J>e misw^nde 
wseron, ])us cweSende, ^Ic geseah. Sa ^nglas ]>e eower 
gymdon dreorige wepan, and 6a awyrigedan sceoccan 
5 blissigende on eowerum forwyrde. Eow wses heofenan 
rice gearo, and scinende gebytlu mid wistum afyllede, 
and mid ecum leohte ; pa ge forluron purb unwserscipe, 
and ge begeaton eow Seosterfulle wununga mid dracum 
afyllede and mid brastligendum ligum, mid unas^cgend- 

10 Ileum witum afyllede and mid an'Srgecum st^ncum ; on 
Sam ne ablinS granung and foterung dseges oJ>)?e nihtes : 
biddaS for Si mid inweardre beortan Sysne Godes apostol, 
eowerne lareow, faet be eow fram Sam ecum forwyrde 
argere, swa swa be me fram deaSe areerde ; and be eowre 

15 saula, pe nu sind adylegode of peere liflican bee, gelsede 
eft t5 Godes gife and miltsunge.' 

Se cnibt pa Stacteus, Se of deaSe aras, samod mid pam 
gebroSrum astr^bte bine to lobannes fotswaSum, and 
p8et folc forS mid ealle, anmodlice biddende pset be bim 

20 to Gode gepingode. Se apostol pa bebead Sam twam 
gebroSrum paet bi Sritig daga be breowsunge dsedbetende 
Gode geof rodon, and on pam ^ f sece geornlice b^edon pset 
pa gyldenan gyrda eft to pan gerran gecynde aw^ndon^ 
and pa gymstanas to heora wacnysse. ^fter Sritigra 

25 daga fsece, pa pa lii ne mibton mid beora benum pset gold 
and pa gymstanas to beora gecynde aw^ndan, Sa comon 
bi mid wope to pam apostole, pus cwepende, ' Symle Su 
teebtest mildbeortnysse, and p^et man oSrum miltsode; 
and gif man oSrum miltsaS, bu micele swiSor wile God 

30 railtsian and arian mannum bis handgeweorce ! pset pset 
we mid gitsigendum eagum agylton, pset we nu mid 

* C, wanting. 



XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 8 1 

wependum eagum behreowsia^.^ ^ Da andwyrde se apos- 
^ol, ' Berat5 6a gyrda to wuda, and pa stanas to ssestrande : 
hi synd gecyrrede to heora gecynde.' pa 6a hi fis gedon 
haefdon, 63, underfengon hi eft Godes gite, swa fset hi 
adr^fdon deoflu, and blinde and untrume geh^ldon, and 5 
feala tacna on Drihtnes naman gefr^medon, swa swa hy 
^r dydon. 

Se apostol ];a gebigde to Gode ealne pone eard Asiam, 
se is geteald to healfum d^le middaneardes ; and awrat 
6a feor6an Cnstes boc, seo hr^pa6 swy6ost ymbe Ciistes ic 
godcundnysse. Da o6re 6ry godspelleras, Matheus, Mar- 
cus, Lucas, awriton £eror be Cristes m^nniscnysse. pa 
asprungan gedwolm^nn on Godes gela6unge, and cwffidon 
6set Crist ngere, ser lie ac^nned wses of Marian, pa b^dan 
ealle 6a leodbisceopas 6one halgan apostol pset he pa 15 
feor6an boc ges^tte, and psera gedwolmanna dyrstignesse 
adwsescte. lohannes pa bead 6reora daga fsesten gemeen- 
elice ; and he sefter 6ain fsestene wear6 swa miclum 
mid Godes gaste afylled, pset he ealle Godes ^nglas and 
ealle gesceafta mid healicum mode oferstah, and mid 20 
6ysum wordum pa godspellican ges^tnysse ongan, 'In 
piHncipio erat verbiim, et verbum ei^at apud Deum, et Deus ■ 
erat verhumj et reliqua,' pset is on ^nglisc, ^On fryin6e 
wses word, and pset word waes mid Gode, and pset word 
wses God ; pis waes on frym6e mid Gode. Ealle 6ing 25 
sind purh h.ine geworhte, and nis nan ping buton him 
gesceapen.' And sw^a for6 on ealre 6£ere godspellican 
ges^tnysse he cydde fela be Cristes godcundnysse, hu 
he ecelice butan angynne of his Feeder ac^nned is, and 
mid him rixa6 on annysse pses Halgan Gastes, a butan 30 
^nde. Feawa he awrat be his m^nniscnysse, for 6an pe 

* C, hereowsialJ. 



82 XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

fa 6ry oSre godspelleras genihtsumlice be farn heora bee 
Sutton. 

Hit gelamp set sumum S£ele ]98et ]>& deofolgyldan, ]>e j^a 
gyt ungeleaffulle weeron, gecweedon |?8et hi woldon }>one 
5 apostol to beora baeSenscipe geneadian. pa cwseS se 
apostol to t5am bgeSengyldum, ^Ga^ ealle endemes to 
Godes cyrcan, and clypiaS ealle to eowerum godum, ]?8et 
seo cyrce af ealle t5urb beora mibte; ^onne buge ic to 
eowerum bseSenscipe. Gif ^onne eower godes mibt |)a 

lo balgan cyrcan towurpan ne mseg, ic towurpe eower tem^ 
pel J)urb t^ses selmibtigan Godes mibte, and ic tocwyse 
eower deofolgyld; and bitS J>onne ribtlic geSubt J^aet ge 
geswycon eoweres gedwyldes, and gelyfon on tSone so6an 
God, se ^e ana is selmibtig.' pa b^Sengyldan 'Sisum 

15 cwyde ge^wserlsebton, and lobannes mid geswsesum 
wordum J)8et folc tibte J^set bi ufor eodon fram |>ani 
deofles temple } and mid beorbtre stemne setforan bim 
eallum clypode, ^On Godes naman abreose fis tempi 
mid eallum j^am deofolgyldum pe bim on eardiat5, ]7set 

20 peos m^nigu tocnawe fset Sis bseSengyld deofles bigg^ng 
is/ Hwset 'Sa f«rl!ce abreas jjset tempel grundlunga mid 
eallum bis anlicnyssum to duste aw^nde. On fam ylcan 
dsege wurdon gebigede tw^lf tSusend ^ bgeSenra manna to 
Cristes geleafan, and mid fullubte gebalgode. 

25 pa sceorede Sa gyt se yldesta bseSengylda mid myc 
elre ]7wyrnysse, and cwseS pset be nolde gelyfan butoK 
lobannes attor drunce, and purb Godes mibte Sone 
cwealmbgeran ^ dr^nc oferswiSde. pd cwseS se apostol, 
^peab Su me attor sylle, furb Godes naman bit me ne 

30 d^raS/ Da cwseS se b^Sengylda Aristodemus, 'pu scealt 
fierest oSerne geseon drincan, and Seer ribte cwelan, ]/aet 

1 B, J>usenda. 2 c, K, cwelmbaeran. 



XIV. ASSU3IPTI0N OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 83 

huru 6111 heorte swa forhtige for «am deadbserum dr^Dce.' 
lohannes him andwyrde, ' Gif m on God gelyfan wylt, 
ic unforhtmod «3es dr^nces onfo.' pa get^ngde se Aristo- 
denius to 6am lieahgerefan, and genam on his cwearterne 
twegen Seofas, and sealde him 6one uulybban setforan 5 
eallum t^am folce, on lohannes gesih(5e ; and hi '6«r rihte 
ffifter 6am dr^nce gewiton. Sy66an se h^Sengilda eac 
sealde 6one attorb^ran dr^nc |;am apostole, and he mid 
rodetacne his mu6 and ealne his lichaman gewSipnode, 
and 6one unlybban on Godes naman halsode, and si66an 10 
mid gebildnm mode hine ealne gedranc. Aristodemus 6a 
and ]>8et folc beheoldon pone apostol 6reo tida dseges, and 
gesawon hine habban glsedne andwlitan_ buton blacunge 
and forhtunge ; and hi ealle clypodon, ' An so6 God is, se 
6e lohannes wnr6a6.' pa cw8e6 se h^eeng^^da to 6am 15 
apostole, 'Gyt me tweona6 ; ac gif 6u 6as deadan scea6an 
on 6ines Godes naman ar^rst, })onne bi6 mm heorte ge- 
cl^nsod fram selcere twynunge.' Da cw3e6 lohannes, 
^Aristodeme, nim mine tunecan, and l^ge bufon ]}8era 
deadra manna He, and cwe'6, "pses Heelendes CrTstes 20 
apostol me as^nde to eow, ]?set ge on his naman of dea6e 
arlson, and ^Ic mann oncnawe ]?8et dea6 and lif ]?eowia6 
minum H^lende." ' He 6a be 68es apostoles h^se beer 
his tunecan, and alede uppon ^am twam deadnm ; and hi 
6cer rihte ansimde arison. pa '6a se h8e6engilda ])ddt ge- 25 
seah, 6a astr^hte he hine to lohannes fotnm, and sy66an 
terde to 6am heahgerefan, and him t5a wundra mid hlud- 
dre stemne cydde. HI 6a begen |)one apostol gesohton, 
his miltsunge biddende. pa bead se apostol him seofon 
nihta fsesten, and hi si66an gefullode ; and hi aefter 6am 30 
fuUuhte tdwnrpon eall heora deofolgyld, and mid heora 
maga fultnme and mid eallum crsefte argerdon Gode maere 
cyrcan on t53es apostoles wur6mynte. 



84 X7F. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

pa ^a se apostol wees nigon and hundnigontig geara, 
|?a aeteowode him Drihten Crist mid pam oSrum apos- 
tolum, ])e he of 6isum life geiiumen hsefde, and cwseS, 
' lohannes, cum to me : tima is j^eet ])U mid ^Inum ge- 
5 bro^rum wistfullige on minum gebeorscipe.' lohannes 
pa aras, and eode wi6 J?3es Hselendes ; ac he him to 
cwseS, ' ]S"u on sunnandseg, mines ^ristes dsege, }?u cymst 
to me ; ' and sefter 6am worde Drihten gew^nde to heof- 
enum. Se apostol micclum blissode on 6am behate, and 

10 on pam sunnanuhtan serwacol to Ssere cyrcan com, and 
pam folce, fram hancrede o6 undern, Godes gerihta l^rde, 
and him msessan gesang, and cwseS pset se Hgelend hine 
on Sam dsege to heofonum gela^od hsefde. Het 6a 
delfan his byrgene wi6 ]>3et weofod, and pset greot ut 

15 awegan. And he eode cucu and gesund into his byrg- 
ene, and astr^htum handum to Gode clypode, ^Drihten 
Crist, ic pancige 6e paet fu me gela6odest to pinum 
wistum ; ])u. wast |?8et ic mid ealre heortan ]?e gewil- 
node. Oft ic 6e baed pset ic moste to 6e faran, ac pu 

20 cwEede paet ic andbidode, pset ic 6e mare folc gestrynde. 
pu heolde minne lichaman wi6 eelce besmitennysse, and 
pu simle mine sawle onlThtest, and me nahwar ne for- 
lete. pu s^ttest on minum mu6e jnnre soSfsestnysse 
word, and ic awrat 6a lare 6e ic of 6Tnum mu6e ge- 

25 hyrde, and 6a wundra 6e ic 6e wyrcan geseah. Nu 
ic 6e betgece, Drihten, pine beam, 6a 6e J»in gela6ung, 
meeden and moder, purh wseter and pone Halgan Gast 
6e gestrynde. Onfoh me to minum gebro6rum mid 
6am 6e 6u come, and me gela6odest. Geopena ongean 

'i'^ me llfes geat, pset 68era 6eostra ealdras me ne ge- 
meton. pu eart Crist, 68es lifigendan Godes Sunu, pu 
pe be 6Tnes Fseder hsese middangeard gehseldest, and us 
«one Halgan Gast as^ndest. pe we h^ria6, and panciaS 



XIV. ASSUMPTION OF ST. JOHN THE APOSTLE. 85 

finra m^nigfealdra goda geoiid unge^ndode worulde.^ 
Amen.' 

^fter t^ysum gebede seteowode heofenlTc leoht bufon 
Sam apostole binnon t^gere byrgene, ane tid swa beorhte 
scmende pset nanes mannes gesihS ])3es leohtes leoman e 
sceawian ne mihte ; and he mid ]>am leohte his gast ageaf 
])am Drihtne J>e hine to his rice gelaSode. He gewat 
swa freoh fram deat^es sarnysse of t5isum andweardan 
life swa swa he wees selfr^med fram lichamllcere gew^m- 
mednysse. SoSlice sytSSan wses his byrgen gemet mid 10 
mannan afylled. Manna wses gehaten se heofenlTca m^te 
fe feowertig geara afedde Israhela folc on westene. Nu 
wses se bigleofa gemett on lohannes byrgene, and nan 
Sing ^Ues ; and se m^te is weaxende on hire oS Sisne 
andweardan dseg. pser beoS fela tacna seteowode, and 15 
untrume geheelde and fram eallum frecednyssum alysede 
furh Sses apostoles Singunge. pses him getiSaS Drihten 
Crist, pam is wuldor and wurSmynt mid Feeder and 
Halgum Gaste a buton ^nde. Amen. 

1 C, R ; B, woruld ; Sweet, worulda. 



XV. 



^LFEIC'S HOMILY ON ST. GEEGOEY THE 
GEEAT. 

[The text of this homily of vElfric on St. Gregory's Day is here 
given according to MS. Gg. 3. 28 of the Camb. Univ. Lib. (C). The 
variants that are not marked are from MS. Bodl. 340 (= NE. F. 4. 10) .] 

Gregorius se halga papa, Engliscre Seode apostol, on 
t5isum andwerdanHlsege, sefter m^nigfealdum^ gedeorfum 
and halgum gecnyrdnyssum, Godes rice gesaeliglice astali. 
He is rihtllce Engliscre tSeode apostol, for ^an Se lie purh 

5 -his reed and sande us fram deofles bigg^ngam setbreed, 
and to Godes geleafan gebigde. Manega halige bee cy6a6 
his drohtnunge and his halige lif, and eac 'Historia^ An- 
glorum/ (5a 6e Alfred cyning of Ledene"* on Englisc 
aw^nde. Seo^ boc sprecS genoh swutelice^ be 6isum 

Eo halgaii^ were. Nu wylle^ we sum Sing scortllce eow be 
hiiii^ ger^ccan, for San Se seo^ foresaede boc nis eow 
eallura cuS, peah Se heo on Englisc aw^nd ^" sy. 

pes eadiga papa " Gregorius wses of ^- aeSelborenre 
msegSe and eawfsestre ac^nned ; Eomanisce witan wgeron 

[5 his magas ; his feeder hatte Gordianus, and Felix, se 

1 ^ysurn andweardan. 2 maenig-. 

3 istoria. * igedene. 

5 syo (sy with above the line by another hand). 

6 swutellice, '^ -Sam halgiim. 

^ wille. 9 sceortlice be him (eow wanting"). 

10 awsend. 11 wer {for papa). 

^^ Above the line by another hand. 
86 



XF. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 87 

eawfsesta papa, waes his fifta fseder. He wses — swa swa 
we cw^don^ — for worulde seSelboren, ac he oferstah his 
se^elborennysse mid halgum Seawiun and mid godum 
weorcum gegl^ngde.^ Gregorius is Grecisc nama, se 
swegS^ on Ledenum"* gereorde ' Vigilantius/ }^£et is on 5 
Ignglisc ' Wacolre.' ^ He wses swi6e wacol on Godes be- 
bodiim, ^a Sa he sylf h^rigendllce leofode, and he wacol- 
lice ymbe^ manegra 6eoda pearfe hogode and himMifes 
weg ^ geswutelode. He waes f ram cildhade on boclicum 
larum getyd, and he on f^sere lare swa geseeligllce Seah, 10 
])aet on ealre Romanabyrig nses nan his gelica gecSuht. 
He gecneordlgehte sefter wisra lareowa gebisnungum,^ and 
naes forgytol,^" ac gefsestnode his lare on fsesthafelum 
gemynde. He hlod ^a mid purstigum breoste" (5a flow- 
endan lare, Se he eft sefter fyrste mid hunigswettre 15 
Jjrotan j^seslice bealcette. On geongllcum gearum, 6a 5a 
his geogo'S ^^ sefter gecynde woruldt5ing lufian sceolde, ]>si 
ongann^^ he hine sylfne to Gode geSeodan, and to eSele 
|)3es upplican^^ lifes mid eallum gewilnungum ^^ orSian. 
Witodlice sefter his fseder forSsiSe, he arserde six mun- 2,0 
uclif on Sicilialande,^^ and pset seofoSe binnon Romana- 
byrig^^ getimbrode, on 'Sam he sylf regollice under ab- 
bpdes ^^ heesum drohtnode. pa seof on mynstru he gel^nde ^^ 
mid his agenum, and genihtsumlice to dseghwomlicum 
bigleofan gegodode. pone ofereacan his sehta he asp^nde jj 

1 swa we ser cwsedon. 2 geglsengde. 

8 C, sweigS. 4 Isedenum. 

^ wacol. . for wacolre {erasure of about two letters). 



6 embe. 


^ heom. 


8 C, weig. 


^ bisnungum. 


10 forgytel. 


11 He hlod mid J^urstigum 


12 geogo'Se. 


13 ongan. 


mode. 


1'* uplican. 


15 gewillnungiim. 


16 silicia lande. 


'•- C, -burh. 


18 abbudes. 


1^ gelsende. 



88 XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 

on Godes j^earfum, and ealle his woruldlican ae^elboren- 
nysse to heofonlicum wuldre aw^nde. He eode ser his 
gecyrrednysse geond E-omanaburh mid psellenum ^ gyrlum, 
and sclnendum gymmum,^ and readnm golde gefrsetewod, 

5 ac^sefter his gecyrrednysse he 6enode Godes t5earfum, he 
sylf t5earfa, mid wacum wgefelse befangen.* 

Swa fulf r^medlice ^ he drohtnode on anginne his ge- 
cyrrednysse, swa ]78et he mihte Sa gyu® beon geteald on^ 
fulfr^medra halgena get^le. He lufode^ forhsefednysse 

10 on m^ttum and on dr^nce, and waeccan^ on syndrigum ge- 

bedum ; J^ser to eacan he ^rowade ^" singallice mitrumny ssa,^^ 

and swa he stKlIcor mid andwerdum ^ untrumnyssum of- 

s^tt^^ wees, swa geornfullicor })8es ecan lifes gewilnode. 

pa undergeat se papa, ]>g on jjam tlman fset apostolTce 

15 setl gesset, hu se eadiga Gregorius on halgum msegnum 
Seonde wses, and he 6a ^^ hine of 6^re munuclican droht- 
nunge genam and him to gefylstan ges^tte, on ^^ diacon- 
hade ge^ndebyrdne. Da gelamp hit set sumum seele, swa 
swa gyt for oft deS, |73et Englisce cypm^nn^^ brohton 

20 heora ware to Eomanabyrig, and Gregorius eode be )?8ere 
street to ■6am Engliscum mannum, heora 6ing seeawi- 
gende. pa geseah he betwux 6am warum cypecnihtas 
ges^tte, ])Si wseron hwites lichaman and fsegeres andwlitqn 
m^nn, and se6ellice gefexode.^^ Gregorius 6a beheohl 

25 ))8era ^^ cnapena wlite, and bef ran of hwilcere ^^ l^eode hi 

1 pellenum. ^ gimmum. 

3 eac (for ac, with e dotted for erasure). * befangen waes. 

5 fuUfremedlice. ^ iu (for gyu). ' to (for on). 

8 lufude. ^ drynce and on wseccan. i'^ hrowode. 

11 untrumnysse. ^^ andweardum. is ofset. 

1* Wa7iting. ^^ and before on (by later hand). 

16 cepmenn (y over first e, by later hand). i'^ gefeaxode. 

18 )>ara. ^^ hwylcere. 



XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 89 

gebrohte w^ron. pa seede him man J^aet hi of ]gnglalande 
w^ron, and j^fet 'S^re tSeode m^nnisc swa wlitig wsere. 
Eft 'Sa Gregorius befran, hwse^er ]>dds landes folc cristen 
wsere ^e heet5en. Him man ssede J^set hi heeSene w^ron. 
Gregorius tSa of innweardre^ heortan langsume siccet- 5 
unge^ teah, and cwseS, ^Walawa, j^set swa fsegeres hiwes 
m^nn sindon^ Sam sweartan deofle undert5eodde ! ' Eft 
he axode, hii 'Ssere Seode nama wgere ])e hi of comon. 
Him wses geandwyrd, ])cet hi Angle gen^mnode wseron.* 
pa cwseS he, ^Eihtlice hi sind Angle ^ gehatene, for San 10 
Se hi ^ngla wlite habbaS,^ and swilcum gedafenaS ])ddt hi 
on heofonum ^ngla geferan beon.' Gyt '8a Gregorius be- 
fran, hu S^ere scire nama weere f e Sa cnapan of al^dde 
w^ron. Him man ssede, j:'3et Sa scirm^n'' w^ron Dere^ 
gehatene. Gregorius andwyrde, 'Wei hi sind Dere^ge- 15 
hatene, for San Se hi sind ^° f ram graman gen^rode/^ and 
to Cristes mildheortnysse gecygede.^- ' Gyt Sa he befran, 
^Hu is Ssere leode^^ cyning gehaten? ' Him wses geand- 
swarod,^^ j^set se cyning ^lle gehaten wsere. Hwset Sa 
Gregorius gamenode mid his wordum to Sam naman, and 2c 
cwseS, ' Hit gedafenaS fset Alleluia sy ^^ gesungen on Sam 
lande ^® to lofe ]7ses selmihtigan Scyppendes.^^ ' 

Gregorius Sa sona ^^ eode to Sam papan l>ses apostolican 
setles, and hine bsed ]78et he Angelcynne ^^ sume lareowas 



1 inne weardre. 2 siccetuge. 

3 syndon. 4 engle wseron (genemnode wanting), 

^ synt engle. ® hsebba'S. 

''' scirmenn. s ^eri (i altered from e). 

9 synt deri (i altered from e). 10 synt. 
^1 generede. 12 gecigede. 

13 )jeode {for leode). 1* geandwyrd (/or geanswarod). 

^^ si. 16 iglande {for lande). 

1" >am selmihtigan scyppende. is Wanting. i^ to angel cynne. 



90 XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 

as^nde, t5e hi to Criste gebigden/ and cwseS, paet he sylf 
gearo ^ w£ere ]>cet weorc to gef r^mmenne ^ mid Godes ful- 
tume, gif hit '8am papan swa gelicode. pa ne mihte se 
papa fset geSafian, J^eah Se ^ he eall wolde ; for 'San 8e Sa 

5 Eomaniscan ceastergewaran noldon geSafian ]?8et swa ge- 
togen mann and swa ge'8ungen lareow J^a burh eallunge^ 
forlete, and swa fyrlen wrsecsiS gename. 

^Efter t^isum^ gelamp fset micel manncwealm becom 
ofer^ 8^re Romaniscan leode, and serest Sone papan 

lo Pelagium * gestod, and buton yldinge adydde. Witodlioe 
sefter 'Sees papan ge^ndunge, swa micel cwealm wearS 
|73es folces, fset gehweer stodon aweste hus geond fa burh 
buton bugigendum.^ pa ne mihte swa Seah seo Komana- 
burh ^^ buton ^^ papan wunian, ac eal ^ f olc t5one eadigan 

15 Gregorium to 8sere gef5ingSe ^^ anmodlice geceas, peah (5e 
he mid eallum msegne " wit5erigende ^^ w^re. Gregorius 
Sa as^nde senne pistol to (5am casere ^® Mauricium — se 
wees his gefsedera — and hine halsode and micclum bsed, 
J)8et he neefre Sam folce ne geSafode ])3et he mid ]?ses 

2o wurSmyntes wuldre geuferod wsere ; for San Se he ondred 
]>ddt he Surh Sone micclan had on woruldlicum wuldre, pe 
he ^r awearp, set sumum s^le bep^ht wurde. Ac Saes 
caseres ^'^ heahgerefa, Germanus, gelsehte Sone pistol set 
Gregories^* serendracan, and hine totser; and siSSan^' 

25 cydde l^am casere j^set pset folc Gregorium to papan ge- 
coren haefde. Mauricius Sa/ se casere, fees Gode Sancode, 

1 C, gebigdon. 2 geara. ^ gefremmanne. 

* Wanting. ^ eallunga. ^ >ysum. 

■^ on (^for ofer). ^ pelaium. ^ buigendum. 

10 romanisce (^for Eomanna). 11 butan. 

12 eall. 1^ C, ge'Sinc'Se. 1* msegene. 

15 wi^rigende. i*' kasere. 1^ kaseres. 

18 gregorius. 1^ syS^an. 



XV. HOMILY ON ST. GBEGOEY THE GEE AT, 91 

and hine gehadian het. Hwaet 'Sa Gregorius fleames cepte 
and on dymhofon ^ eetlutode ; ac hine man gelaehte, and 
teah. to Petres cyrcan,^ J)8et he ^eer to papan gehalgod 
wurde. Gregorius Sa, ser his hadunge, feet Eomanisce 
folc for Sam onsigendum cwealme Sisum^ wordum to 5 
behreowsunge * tihte * : 

*Mine gebroSra fa leofostan, us gedafenat5 ]78et we 
Godes swingle, J?e we on ^r towearde ondrsedan sceoldon, 
jjset we huru nu andwerde^ and afandode ondreedan/ 
Geopenige ure sarnys us infser soSre gecyrrednysse, and 10 
])8et wite Se we Srowia'S tobrece ure heortan heardnysse.* 
Efne nil Sis folc is mid swurde ])3es heofonlican graman 
ofsl^gen,^ and gehwilce senlipige^*' sind^^ mid feerlicum 
slihte aweste. Ne seo adl Sam deaSe ne forestsepS, ac ge 
geseoS ]:8et se sylfa deaS fsere adle yldinge forhradaS. 15 
Se geslagena biS mid deaSe gegripen/^ ger San Se he to 
heofungum soSre behreowsunge gecyrran msege. HogiaS 
for SI hwilc se becume setforan gesihSe J^ges strecan 
Deman, se Se ne mgeg J^set yfel bewepan Se he gefr^mode. 
Gehwilce eorSbugigende sind^^ setbrodene, and heora hus 20 
standaS aweste. Fsederas and modru^'^ bestandaS heora 
bearna He, and heora ^^ yrfenuman him sylfum to for- 
wyrde forestaeppaS. Uton eornostlice fleon to heofunge 
soSre dgedbote, pa hwile Se we moton, ar San pe se fgerlica 
sl^ge us astr^cce. Uton gemunan swa hwaet swa we 25 
dw^ligende agylton, and uton mid wope gewitnian Jjset 
pset we manfulllce adrugon.^^ Uton forhradian Godes 

1 dimhofan. 2 cirican. ^ j,ysum. 

* C, bereowsunge. 5 tyhte. ^ andwearde. 

■^ ondrsedon. ^ ^nd \)2dt wite to heardnysse wanting. 

® ofslsegen. 1° enlipige (altered by another hand to aenlipige). 

11 synd. 12 forgripen. 1^ Gehwylce eorlSbugiende synt. 

1* C, moddru. ^^ ^c heora. ^^ adrugan. 



92 XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT, 

ansyne on andetnysse/ swa swa se witega us manaS; 
* Uton ah^bban ure heortan mid handum to Gode ; ' fset 
is, fset we sceolon t5a gecnyrdiiysse tire bene mid geearn- 
unge godes weorces tip arseran. He forgifS trtiwan tire 
5 forhtunge, se 6e Jmrli his witegan clypaS, "JSTylle^ ic })8es 
synfullan deat5, ac ic wille pset he gecyrre and lybbe.^" 

^Ne geortruwige nan man* hine sylfne for his synna 
micelnysse ; witodlTce 6a ealdan gyltas^ Niniueiscre t^eode 
6reora daga behreowsung^ adilegode'; and se gecyrreda^ 

10 sceatSa on his dea'Ses cwyde ^ ]>8es ecan lifes mede geearn- 
ode. Uton aw^ndan ure heortan ^'^ ; hradlice bi6 se Dema 
to tirum benum gebiged,^^ gif we fram tirura t5wyrnys- 
sum beoS gerihtlsehte. Uton standan mid gemaglicum^- 
wopum ongean Sam onsigendum swurde swa miccles 

15 domes. SoSlice gemagnys ^^ is fam soSan Deman ge- 
cweme, feah t5e heo mannum nnSancwurtSe sy, for (5an tSe 
se arfsesta and se mildheorta God wile ])set we mid 
gemaglicum^ benum his mildheortnysse ofgan, and he 
nele swa micclum swa we geearniaS iis geyrsian. Be 

20 Sisum^* he cw8et5 purh his witegan, * Clypa me on dsege 
Mnre gedrefednysse, and ic Se ahr^dde, and Sti msersast ^^ 
me.' God sylf is his^^ gewita \ddt he miltsian^^ wile him 
to clypigendum/^ se Se manaS ]^3et we him to clypian 
sceolon. For Sy, mine gebroSra ])a leofostan,^^ uton ge- 

25 cuman on Sam feorSan dsege Jjysre ^ wucan on serneme- 
rigen, and mid estfullum mode and tearum singan^^ 

1 ondetnysse (altered lij another hand to an-). 

2 nelle. 3 Hbbe. * mann. 

5 leahtras (/or gyltas). ^ q^ i^ereowsung. ' adilgode. 

8 gecyrrede. ^ cwide. 1° heorhtan. 

1^ gebiged to urum benum. 12 gemahlicum. ^^ gemahnys. 

1* ^ysum. 1^ msersost. ^^ Wanting. 

1'^ mildsian. ^^ clypiendum. 1® leofestan. 

21 C, singon. 



XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 93 

seofonfealde letanias^ J^set se streca Dema us gearige, 
|>onne^ he gesihS ])8et we sylfe ure gyltas wreca'5.' 

Eornostlice 'Sa Sa micel m^nigu,^ gegSer ge preosthades 
ge muniichades^ ni^nn and fset leewede folc, sefter tSaes 
eadigan Gregories° hsese, on fone wodnesdseg to J^am 5 
seofonfealdum letanium gecomon,^ to ^am swi^e awedde 
se foresEeda cwealm, ]?8et hundeahtatig manna, on ^sere 
anre tide feallende, of life gewiton, t5a hwile pe Ipsst folc 
6a Tetanias snngon/ Ac se halga sacerd ne geswac y^set 
folc to manigenne, fset hi Ssere bene ne geswicon 06 pset 10 
Godes miltsung ]?one reSan cwealm gestilde. 

Hwget 'Sa Gregorius, sit5San^ he papanhad nnderfeng, 
gemunde hwset he gef jrn Angelcynne gemynte, and t5^r 
rihte j^set luftyme weorc gefr^mode. He na to Sses hwon* 
ne mihte Jwne Eomaniscan ^° bisceopstol ^^ eallunge^^ 15 
forleetan, ac he as^nde 6t5re bydelas, gecSungene Godes 
t^eowan, to t5ysum iglande, and he sylf micclum mid his 
bennm and tihtingum ^^ fylste, ]?3et Saera bydela bodung 
for^g^nge and Gode wsestmbgere wurde. peera bydela ^^ 
naman sind^^ fns gecigede : Augustmus, MellTtus, Lauren- 20 
tins, Petrus, Johannes, Justus. Das lareowas ^^ as^nde se 
eadiga papa^'^ Gregorius, mid manegum oSriim munecum, 
to Angelcynne, and hi t5isum ^^ wordum to ^eere fare tihte ^^ : 
^Xe beo ge afyrhte t5urh geswince ]?8es langsuman faer- 
eldes, G^^e ))urh yf elra manna ymbespraece ; ac mid ealre 25 
anraednysse and wylme Jiaere so^an lufe fas ongimnenan^ 

1 C, Isetanias. 2 gjf (/or >onne). ^ meniu. 

* munc hades. ^ gregorius. 6 comon. 

' sang. 8 syStSan. » nates hwon (for na to 

i'^ romaniscne. 11 C, biscopstol. "Sses hwon). 

12 eallunga. ^^ getihtingum'. 1* by dele. 

15 synd. 16 laureowas. i" Tfan,<m^. 

18 hysmn. ^® tyhte. 20 ongunnenun. 



94 ^V- SOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 

tSing purh Godes fultiim gefr^mmaS. And wite ge J^set 
eower med on Sam ecan^ edleane swa miccle^ mare biS, 
swa micclum swa ge mare^ for Godes willan swincaS. 
Geliyrsumiat5 eadmodlice on eallum Singnm Augustine, 

5 ))one t5e we eow to ealdre ges^tton : * hit fr^maS eowrum 
sawlum swa liwset swa ge be his mynegunge gefyllaS. 
Se selmihtiga God ]>urh his gife eow gescylde, and geunne 
me pset ic mote eoweres ^ geswinces waestm on Sam ecan 
eSele geseon, swa ]?8et ic beo gemet samod on blisse 

10 eoweres^ edleaneSjSeahSe^ic mid eow swincan ne maege, 
for Son'' Se ic wille swincan.' Augustinus Sa mid his 
geferum, ]?3et sind* ger^hte feowertig wera, ferde^ be 
Gregories^° hgese, oS J?8et hi to Sisum^ iglande gesund- 
fullice becomon. 

15 On Sam dagum rlxode ^J^elbyrht^^ cyning on Cant- 
warabyrig^^ riclice, and his rice wses astr^ht fram Ssere 
micclan ea Humbre oS suSs^. Augustinus hsefde ge- 
numen wealhstodas of Francena rice, swa swa Gregorius 
him behead ; and he Surh Ssera wealhstoda muS ]^am 

20 cyninge and his leode Godes word bodade : hu se mild- 
heorta Hselend mid his agenre Srowunge fysne scyldigari 
middaneard alysde, and geleaffullum mannum heofonan 
rices infser geopenode. pa andwyrde se cyning ^Sel- 
briht Augustine, and cweeS ]?aet he fsegere word and behat 

25 him cydde; and cwseS fset he ne mihte swa hrgedlice 
|)one ealdan gewunan t$e he mid Angelcynne heold for- 
Isetan; cwseS ]^8et he moste freolice Sa heofonlTcan lare 
his leode bodian, and ]>8et^ he him and his geferum^* 

^ 1 C, ecam {changed to ecum). 2 micele. ^ maran. 

* geset habba^ (hab- by another hand, -ba^ on an erasure), 
^ eowres. ^ Wanting. "^ for 'San. « synd. 

9 bset ferde. i*^ gregorius. ^^ %sum. 12 ge'Selbriht, 

13 C, cantwarebyrig. " C, geferan. 



XV. HOMILY ON ST, GREGORY THE GREAT. 95 

bigleofan tSenian wolde ; and forgeaf him Sa wun- 
unge on Cantwarabyrig,^ seo wses ealles his rices heafod- 
burh. 

Ongann ^ ^a Augustinus mid his munecum to geefen- 
Igecenne |?£era apostola lif/ mid singalum gebedum and 5 
wseccum* and faestenum Gode t)eowigende, and lifes word 
|>am 'Se ^ hi mihton bodigende,^ ealle middaneardlice 6ing, 
swa swa selfr^mede, forhogigende'; t5a ])ing ana ])e hi to 
bigleofan behofedon underfonde ; be ^am t5e hi tsehton 
sylfe lybbende, and for S^re so^fsestnysse 'Se hi bodedon 10 
gearowe* weeron ehtnysse to t$oligenne and deaSe sweltan, 
gif hi Sorfton. 

Hwaet Sa gelyfdon for wel m^nige,^ and on Godes 
naman gefullode wurdon/^ wundrigende psere bilewit- 
nysse heora nnscseSSigan lifes and [j^gere]^^ swetnysse 15 
heora heofonlican lare. Da aet nextan gelustfullode 6am 
cjminge ^Selbrihte heora clsene lif and heora wynsume 
behat, |?a sotSlice wurdon mid manegum tacnum gesetSde ^ ; 
and he Sa gelyfende wearS gefullod, and micclum f5a 
cristenan gearwurSode, and swa swa heofonlice ceaster- 20 
gewaran luf ode : nolde he '^ swa Seah neenne to cristen- 
dome geneadian, for San^^Se he ofaxode aet 6am lareowum 
his hsele paet Cristes Seowdom ne sceal beon geneadad/^ 
ac sylfwilles. Ongnnnon tSa dseghwomlTce ^'^ for wel 
m^nige^ efstan to gehyrenne (5a halgan bodunge, and 25 
forleton heora hseSenscipe, and hi sylfe getSeoddon^^ 
Cristes gelaSunge, on hine gelyfende. 

1 -buruh ; C, cantwarebyrig. 2 ongan. 

* life. * C, waeccan. ° Above the line in another hand. 
^ bodiende. "^ forhogiende. ^ gearewe. 

* maenige. 10 Wanting ; wurdon after naman hy later hand. 
11 Sweet, 1^ gese'Sede. i^ c, wanting. 

1* for tSatai. i^ geneadod. i^ dseghwamlice. i" gejpeoddan. 



96 XV. HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 

Betwux ^isum^ gew^nde Augustinus ofer sae to t5am 
^rcebisceope^ Etherium, and he hiue gehadode Angel- 
cynne^ to ^rcebisceope,* swa svva him Gregorius 2er ge- 
wissode. Augustinus Sa gehadod cyrde to his bisceop- 
5 stole,^ and as^nde £erendracan to Eome, and cydde tSam 
eadigan Gregorie ]>ddt Angelcynn ciistendom underfeng, 
and he eac mid gewritum fela ^inga befrau, hu him to 
drohtnigenne wsere betwux t5am nighworfenum folce. 
Hwset ^a Gregorius micclum Gode ^ancode mid blissi- 

10 gendum mode, pset Angelcynne swa gelumpen waes, swa 
swa he sylf geornlice gewilnode, and s^nde ® eft ongean 
gerendracan to ^am geleaffullan ^ cyninge ^})elbrihte, 
mid gewritum and m^nigf ealdum ^ lacum, and o6re ge- 
writu to Augustine, mid andswarum ealra 'Ssera 'Singa ]>e 

15 he hine befran, and hine eac ^isum^ wordum manode. 
' Broker ^ min se leofosta,^*^ ic wat ]^3et se selmihtiga God 
fela wundra |>urh t5e |)8ere ^eode 6e he geceas geswutelaS, 
"pses M miht blissigan,^^ and eac ^e ondraedan : fu miht 
blissigan " gewissllce ^^ pset Seere t5eode ^^ sawla ])urh Sa 

20 yttran wundra beo^ getogene to tSsere incundan gife ; 
ondraed Se swa Seah fset Sin mod ne beo ahafen mid 
dyrstignysse on Sam tacnum pe God Surh Se gefr^maS, 
and ])u Sonon^* on idelum wuldre befealle wiSinnan, 
J)onon ^* Se Su wiSutan on wurSmynte ahafen bist.' 

25 Gregorius as^nde eac Augustine ^^ halige lac on mges- 
sereafum, and on bocum, and Ssera apostola and martyra 
reliquias samod ; and bebead paet his sefterg^ngan^^ symle 
Sone pallium and Sone ^rcehad set Sam apostolican setle 

1 J)ysum. 2 arce-; C, -biscope. ^Wanting. 

* arcebiscope ; C, ercebiscope. ° MSS., biscop-. ^ ssende. 

■^ geleaffullum. s maenig-. ^ Bro-Sor. 

10 leofesta. ^i blissian. 12 gewislice. 

1* >aera Jjeoda. 1* >aiion. i^ agustine. i® gef tergsengan. 



XV. HOMILY ON ST. GBEGOBY THE GBEAT. gj 

Eomaniscre ^ gelat^unge f^ccan sceoldon. Augustmus 
ges^tte sefter Sisum ^ bisceopas^ of his geferum to* ge- 
hwilcum burgum on Engla ■8eode, and hi on Godes ge- 
leafan tSeonde ^ Surhwunodon 06 6isum ^ daeg^erlicum 
dsege. 5 

Se eadiga Gregorius gedihte manega halige trahtbec, 
and mid micelre gecnyrdnysse Godes folc to ^am ecan 
life gewissode, and fela wundra on his life geworhte,^ and 
wuldorfullTce pses papan setles '' geweold tSreottyne ^ gear 
and six mon^as and tyn dagas, and siS6an ^ on ^isuin - 10 
dsege gewat to ^am ecan setle heof enan ^'^ riceSj on Sam 
he leofaS mid Gode selmihtigum a on ecnysse. Amen. 

1 romaniscere. 2 jjysum. 

3 C, biscopas. - * C, ivanting. 

^ Wanting. ^ geworhte on his life. 

"^ )?8et papan setl. ^ ^ryttene. 

9 sy^^an. 10 heof onan. 



XVI. 

^LFEIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 

[From JElfric's Lives of the Saints, according to MS. Cottar 
Julius E. 7. Brit. Mus.] 

^fter San Se Augustmus to Englalande becom, wses 
sum seSele cyning, Oswold gehaten, on NorShymbra 
lande, gelyfed swype on God. Se ferde on Ms iugoSe 
fram bis freondiim and maguni to Scotlande on ssd, and 

5 jiffir sona wearS gefullod, and bis geferan samod ]?e mid 
Mm sTj)edon. Betwiix ])am wearS ofslagen Eadwine bis 
earn, NorSbymbra cynincg, on Crist gelyfed, fram Brytta 
cyninge, Ceadwalla geciged, and twegen bis sefterg^ngan 
binnan twam gearum ; and se Ceadwalla slob and to 

10 sceame tucode pa ISTorSbymbran leode sefter beora blaf- 
ordes fylle, oS ]->ddt Oswold se eadiga bis yfelnysse 
adweescte. Oswold Mm com to, and Mm cenlice wit5 
feabt mid lytlum werode, ac bis geleafa bine getrymde, 
and Crist bim gefylste to Ms feonda sl^ge. Oswold ]>a 

15 ar^rde ane rode sona Gode to wurSmynte, £er ])an ]>e be 
to Sam gewinne come, and clypode to bis gef erum, ' Uton 
feallan to S^ere rode, and ]?one ^Imibtigan biddan ])8et 
be us abr^dde wiS ]7one modigan feond pe us afyllan 
wile. God sylf wat geare pset we winnaS ribtlice wiS 

20 J>ysne reSan cyning to abr^ddenne ure leode.' Hi feollon 
pa ealle mid Oswolde cyninge on gebedum ; and syppan 
on oSerne mergen eodon to pam gefeobte, and gewun 
non J)8er sige, swa swa se Eallwealdend beom uSe for 
Oswoldes geleafan ; and aledon beora fynd, pone modigan 
q8 



XVI. ^LFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 99 

Cedwallan mid his micclan werode, ]^e wende fset Hm ne 
mihte nan werod wiSstandan. 

Seo ylce rod si(5$an, tie Oswold jjger araerde, on wurS- 
mynte ]>ter stod. And wurdon fela gehselde untrumra 
manna and eac swilce nytena Jmrh Sa ylcan rode, swa < 
swa us r^hte Beda. Sum man feoll on ise, J^set his earm 
tobserst, and Iseg j^a on b^dde gebrocod for Searle, o^ j^set 
man him f^tte of 'S^re foresgedan rode smnne d^l pees 
meoses ]?e heo mid beweaxen wses, and se adliga sona on 
slsepe wear^ geheeled on Ssere ylcan nihte ])urh Oswoldes 10 
geearnungum. 

Seo stow is gehaten 'Heofonfeld' on Englisc, wi$ ^one 
langan weall pe })a Eomaniscan worhtan, j^eer p^v Oswold 
oferwann |)one weelhreowan cynincg. And ]?£er wearS 
sijipan ar^red swISe meere cyrce Gode to wurSmynte, }?e 15 
wuna'S a on ecnysse. 

Hwset Sa Oswold ongann embe Godes willan to smeag- 
enne, sona swa he rices geweold, and wolde gebigan his 
leoda to geleafan and to })am lifigendan Gode. S^nde 
^a to Scotlande, p^r se geleafa wses Sa, and bsed ^a heaf- 20 
odm^nn ))eet hi his benum getipodon, and him sumne 
lareow s^ndon,- ]>e his leoda mihte to Gode geweman; 
and him w^eart* fees getipod. Hi s^ndon ]7a sona fara ge- 
S£eligan cyninge sumne arw^urSne bisceop, Aidan gehaten. 
Se waes mgeres lifes man on munuclicre drohtnunge, and 25 
he ealle woruldcara awearp fram his heortan, nanes 
]7inges wilnigende butan Godes willan. Swa hwset swa 
him becom of j^aes cyninges gifum ot5^e rlcra manna, ])8et 
he hraSe deelde pearfum and weedlum mid welwillendum 
mode. 30 

Hwset tia Oswold cyning his cymes faegnode, and hine 
arwur(5llce underfeng his folce to Searfe, ]>ddt heora ge- 
leafa wurde aw^nd eft to Gode fram ]7am wifersaece ]?e hi 



lOO XVI. uELFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 

to gew^nde weeron. Hit gelamp )?§, swa J'set se geleat 
fula cyning ger^hte his witan on heora agenum gereorde 
Jjses bisceopes bodunge mid bli})um mode, and wees his 
wealhstod ; for fan J^e he wel cu]?e Scyttysc, and se bis- 

5 ceop Aidan ne mihte gebigan his sj)r8ece to Nor^hym- 
briscum gereorde swa hra])e fa git. Se biscop fa ferde 
bodigende geond eall Nprt^hymbra land^ geleafan and 
fnlluht, and fa leode gebigde to Godes geleafan, and him 
wel gebysnode mid weorcum symle, and sylf swa leofode 

lo swa swa he Iserde oSre. He lufode forhsefednysse and 
halige reedinge, and iunge m^n teah georne mid lare, swa 
fset ealle his geferan fe him mid eodon sceoldon sealmas 
leornian oS^e sume rsedinge swa hwider swa hi ferdon 
f am folce bodigende. Seldon he wolde ridan, ac siSode on 

15 his fotum, and munuclice leofode betwux t5am Isewedan 

folce mid mycelre gesceadwisnysse and sofum msegnum. 

pa wear^ se cynincg Oswold swiSe selmesgeorn and 

eadmod on feawum and on eallum fin gum cystig, and 

man argerde ^ cyrcan on his rice geond eall and mynster- 

20 lice ges^tnyssa mid micelre geornfulnysse. 

Hit gelamp on sumne S£el feet hi sseton setgaedere, 
Oswold and Aidan, on fam halgan easterdsege; fa bser 
man fam cyninge cynelTce fenunga on anum sylfrenan 
disce ; and sona fa inn eode an f ses cyninges f egna f e his 

25 selmyssan bewiste, and ssede f set fela f earfan ssetan geond 
fa straet gehwanon cumene to f£es cyninges aelmyssan. 
pa s^nde se cyning sona fam fearfum fone sylfrenan 
disc mid sande mid ealle, and het toceorfan fone disc 
and syllan fam fearfum heora selcum his d^l ; and man 

30 dyde t5a swa. pa genam Aidanus se se'Sela bisceop fses 
cyninges swyfran hand mid swKlicre blysse, and clypode 

1 Sweet J MS., norhymbra lands. 2 Sweet ; MS., ahrserde 



XVI. uELFBIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 1 01 

mid geleafan, ]?us cweSende^ him. to, 'Ne forrotige on 
brosuunge peos gebletsode swySre hand.' And him eac 
swa geeode, swa swa Aidanus him bsed, peet his swit5re 
hand is gesundful 0'6 J)is. 

Oswoldes cynerice wear^ gerymed pa swySe, swa ]>8et 5 
feower ])eoda hine nnderfengon to hlaforde, Peohtas, and 
Bryttas, Scottas, and Angle, swa swa se selmihtiga God 
hi geanlaehte to Sam for Oswoldes geearnungum fe hine 
tefre wurSode. He fulworhte on Eferwic ])8et genlice 
mynster ]>e his maeg Eadwine eer begunnen^haefde; and ic 
he swanc for heofonan rice mid singalum gebedum swipor 
l^onne he hogode hu he geheolde on worulde ])a hwilw^nd- 
lican gepincSu, |)e he hwonlice lufode. He wolde sefter 
uhtsange oftost hine gebiddan, and on cyrcan standan on 
S3mdrigum gebedum of simnan upgange mid swySlicre le 
onbryrdnysse ; and swa hw^r swa he w^s, he wurSode 
^fre God upaw^ndum handbredum wiS pses heofones 
Weard. 

On ]7am ylcan timan com eac sum bisceop fram Eome- 
byrig, Birinus gehaten, to Westseaxena^ kyninge, Cyne- 20 
gyls gehaten, se wees 6a git h^t5en and eall Wests^xena 
land. Birinus witodlTce gew<^nde fram Eome be t^ses 
papan r^de ])e Sa on Eome wses, and behet pset he wolde 
Godes willan gefr^mman, £nd bodian f»am heepenum ]>9es 
H^lendes naman and ]?one so6an geleafan on fyrlenum 25 
landum. pa becom he to Westseaxan, ]>e waes t5a gyt 
h^pen, and gebigde fone cynincg Kynegyls to Gode, and 
ealle his leode to geleafan mid him. Hit gelamp pa 
swa ])8et se geleaffulla Oswold, NorShymbra cyning, waes 
cumen t5 Cynegylse, and hine to fulluhte nam, faegen 30 

1 Sweet ; MS., cwse^ende. 2 Sweet ; MS., begunnon. 

3 Sweet; MS., westseaxan. 



f02 2:VI. AJLFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 

his gecyrrednysse. pa geafoii J^a cynegas, Cynegyls and 
Oswold, ])am halgan Birine him to bisceopstole })a burh 
Dorcanceaster, and lie peer binnan wunode Godes lof 
argerende and gerilitl^cende ]?8et folc mid lare to geleafan 
5 to langum fyrste, oS pset lie gesyelig sijjcde to Criste ; and 
his lie wearj? bebyrged on Seere ylcan byrig, o'6 pset 
Haedde bisceop eft his ban f^rode to Wintanceastre, and 
mid wur^mynte gelogode binnan Ealdanmynstre, }>£er 
man hine wurSaS gyt. 

to Hwset ]>Si Oswold cyning his cynedom gelieold hlTsful- 
lice for worulde and mid micclnm geleafan, and on eallum 
dsedum his Drihten arwur^ode, o^ he ofslagen weart> for 
his folces ware on J^am nigo^an geare pe he rices ge- 
weold, ]-a ] a he sylf wees on ylde eahta and Jnittig geara. 

IS Hit gewearS swa be j^am past him wann on P^nda, Myr- 
cena cyning, ])e set his m^ges sl^ge ger, Eadwines cyn- 
inges, Ceadwallan fylste ; and se P^nda ne ctiSe be CrTste 
nan )>incg, and eall Myrcena folc wses ungefullod ])a git. 
Hi comon J^a to gefeohte to Maserfelda begen, and fengon 

20 togaedere, oS pset ])&v feollon fa cristenan, and ]?a hsSenan 
geneal^hton to pam halgan Oswolde. pa geseah he 
genealsecan ^ his lif es ge^ndmige, and gebsed for his folc 
l^e fger feallende swealt,^ and bet^hte heora sawla and 
hine sylfne Gode, and ])us clypode on his fylle, ' God, 

25 gemiltsa urum sawlum ! ' pa het se ligepena cynincg his 
heafod of aslean and his swrSran earm, and s^ttan hi to 
myrcelse. 

pa sefter Oswoldes sl^ge, feng Oswig his bro^or to 
NorShymbra rice, and rad mid werode to ]>^r his broSor 

50 heafod stod on stacan gefsestnod, and genam fset heafod 
and his swi^ran hand, and mid arwur^nysse f^rode to 

* Sweet; MS., genealecan. ^ Sweet; MS., sweolt. 



XVI. jELFRICS life of king OSWALD. 103 

fjindisfarnea cyrcan. pa wearS gefjlled, swa we her 
tores!«don, pset his swil^re hand wunaS hal mid pam fiasco 
butan selcere brosnunge, swa se bisceop gecwseS. Se earm 
wear^ geled arwurSlice on serine, of seolfre asmi{7od, on 
Sancte Petres mynstre bin nan B^bbanbyrig be ]mTe s^ 5 
strande, and li^ j^eer swa ansund^ swa he of aslagen wses. 
His br6])or dohtor eft siSSan on Myrcan wearS cwen, 
and geaxode his ban, and gebrohte hi to Lindesige to 
Bardamge mynstre, ])e hco micclum lufode. Ac pa myn- 
sterm^nn noldon for m^nniscum gedwylde pone sanct 10 
imderfon, ac man sloh an geteld ofer ];a halgan ban bin- 
aan peere licr^ste. Hwcet pa God geswutelode pset he 
halig sanct wses, swa pset heofonlic leoht ofer pset geteld 
astr^ht stod iip to heofonum swilce healic sunnbeam ofer 
ealle ^a niht ; and pa leoda beheoldon geond ealle pa scire 15 
swT6e wundrigende. pawurdon pa mynsterm^n niicclnm 
afyrhte, and beedon pses on mergen pset hi moston pone 
sanct mid arwnr^nysse nnderfon, pone pe hi ter forsocon. 
pa ^woh man pa halgan ban, and bcor into p^re cyrcan 
arwurSlice on serine, and gelogodon hi upp. 20 

And pger wurdon gehgelede purh his halgan geearnunge 
fela mettrume m^n fram mislicnm copum. pset wseter 
pe man pa ban mid a]nv6h binnan p^re cyrcan wearS 
agoten swa on anre hyrnan ; and seo eor^e sippan pe pset 
wseter nnderfeng wearS manegum to bote. Mid pani 25 
duste wurdon afligde deofia fram mannum, ]^a pe on wod- 
nysse £er w^ron gedr^hte. Eac swilce pger he feol on 
para gefeohte ofslagen, m^n namon pa eorSan to adligum 
mannum, and dydon on wgetere wanhalum to picgenne, 
and hi wurdon geheelede purh pone halgan wer. Sum 30 
wegfarende man ferde wi^ pone f eld ; pa weart) his hors 

1^ Sweet: MS., andsund. 



I04 ^VI. JELFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 

gesicclod, and sona peer feol wealwigende geond t5a eort5an 
wodum gelicost. Mid J^iani fe hit swa wealwode^ geond 
}7one widgillan feld, J^a becom hit embe lang peer se cyn- 
ing Oswold on ])am gefeohte feoll, swa swa we ser fore- 
5 SEedan ; and hit sona aras swa hit hr^pode ]>a stowe, hal 
eallum linmm, and se hlaford pees fsegnode. Se ridda ]7a 
ferde forS on his weg |)ider he gemynt hsefde. pa wses 
)?8er an m^den licgende on paralysing lange gebrocod. 
He began Jm to ger^ccenne hu him on rade getimode, and 
10 mann f^rode ]78et ni^den to ]^£ere foresgedan stowe. Heo 
wearS ]m on slsepe, and sona eft awoc ansund eallum 
limum fram ]?am ^geslican broce. Band J^a hire heafod, 
and bliSe ham ferde, ganggende on fotum, swa heo gefyrn 
eer ne dyde. Eft si^^an ferde sum gerendfsest ridda be 
15 ^£ere ylcan stowe, and geband on anum clajje of pam 
halgan duste pgere deorwurSan stowe, and Isedde forS mid 
him ]78er he fundode to ; ]'a gemette he gebeoras blKe set 
})am huse. He aheng ])a ]78et dust on senne heahne post, 
and sset mid J^am gebeorum blissigende samod. Man 
20 worhte )>a micel fyr tomiddes 6am gebeorum, and l^a 
spearcan wundon wiS j^ses hrof es ^ swySe, oS l^set ])8et hus 
f £erlice eall on fyre wearS, and ]m gebeoras fiugon afyrhte 
aweg. p3et hus wear^ 6a forburnen* buton fam anum 
poste ])Q ]78et halige dust on ahangen wses : se post ana set- 
as stod ansund mid )7am duste ; and hi swySe wundrodon j^ses 
halgan weres geearnunga, j^set j^set fyr ne mihte ]?a moldan 
forbsernan. And manega m^n si66an gesohton |?one st^de 
heora hgele f^ccende, and heora freonda gehwilcum. 
pa asprang his hlisa geond ]ia land wide, and eac swilce 
30 to Irlande, and eac su]7 to Franclande, swa swa sum 

1 Sweet; MS., wealweode. 2 Sweet; MS., paralisyn. 

' Sweet ; MS,, rofes. * Sweet ; MS., forburnon. 



XVI. ^LFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 105 

maessepreost be anuni m^n s^de. Se preost cwse^ fset an 
wer wsere on Irlande gel^ered, se ne gymde his lare, and 
lie lithwon hogode embe his sawle pearfe o^6e his Scyp- 
pendes beboda, ac adreah his lif on dyslicum weorcum, 
oS ]73et he weart5 geuntrumod and to ^nde gebroht. pa 5 
clypode he pone preost ])Q hit cydde eft ]7us, and cwse^ 
him to sona mid sarlicre stemne, ' Nu ic sceall ge^ndian 
earmlicum deape, and to h^lle faran for fracodum dsedum^ 
nil wolde ic gebetan, gif ic abidan moste, and to Gode 
gecyrran and to godum peawnm, and mm lif aw^ndan 10 
eall to Godes willan ; and ic wat J?8et ic ne eom wyrSe 
]78es fyrstes buton sum halga me }>ingie to pam Hselende 
Criste. Nu is us ges^d ]:>8et sum halig cyning is on 
eowrum earde, Oswold gehaten. Nu gif ]m ^nig ftincg 
haefst of pees halgan reliquium, syle me, ic pe bidde.' Da 15 
seede se preost him, ^Ic hsebbe of pam stocce pe his 
heafod on stod, and gif ]m gelyfan wylt, ]m wurpest hal 
sona.' Hwset pa se msessepreost pses mannes ofhreow, 
and sc5f on halig wseter of pam halgan treowe, sealde 
pam adligan of to supenne, and he sona gewyrpte, and 2c 
syt5^an leofode lange on worulde, and gew^nde to Gode 
mid eallre heortan and mid halgum weorcum ; and swa 
hwider swa he com, he cydde pas wundra. For py ne 
sceall nan mann aw^gan pset he sylfwylles beheet pam 
aelmihtigan Gode, ponne he adlig biS, pe Ises pe he sylf 25 
losige, gif he aliht5 Gode pset. 

Nu cwse^ se halga Beda, pe ^as boc gedihte, pset hit 
nan wundor nys pset se halga cynincg untrumnysse ge- 
hsele, nu he on heofonum leofaS, for San pe he wolde 
gehelpan, pa pa he her on life wses, pearfum and wann- 30 
halum, and him bigvdste syllan. Nu hsefS he pone wurS- 
mynt on pgere ecan worulde mid pam selmihtigan Gode 
for his godnysse. Eft se halga Cut5berht, ]>§. pa he git 



I06 XVI. jELFRIC'S life of king OSWALD. 

cnapa wses, geseah hu Godes qnglas'^ f^reclon Aidanes 
sawle, ])8es halgan bisceopes, bliSe to lieofonum to ) am 
ecan wuldre J^e he on woriilde geearnode. pees halgan 
Oswoldes ban wurdon eft gebroht sefter manegum gearum 
to Myrcena lande into Gleawceastre ; and God J^ser ge- 
swntelode oft feala wundra ])urh ]7one halgan wer. Sy 
]>8es wuldor ])km selmihtigan Gode ]>e on ecnysse rixa'6 a 
to worulde. Amen. 

1 MS., senglas. 



XVII. 

^LFKIC'S PREFACE TO GENESIS. 

[The text follows MS. Laud Misc. 509 (formerly Laud E. 19) 
Bodl. Lib. ; the variants are from MS. Cotton Claudius B. iv. Brit. 
Mus. (C), and MS. li. i. 33, Camb. Univ. Lib. (Ca).] 

Incipit prefatio Genesis Anglice. 

^Ifric munuc gret iESelwaercP ealdormann eadmodlice. 
pu b^ede me, leof, pset ic sceolde Se aw^ndan of Ledene 
on Englisc pa b5c Genesis : pa puhte me h^figtime pe to 
tiSienne paes, and pu cw^de pa pset ic ne porfte na mare 5 
aw^ndan peere bee buton to Isaace, Abrahames suna, for 
pam pe sum oSer man pe hsefde aw^nd fram Isaace j^a boc 
ot) ^nde. jSTu pinc(5 me, leof, paet pset weorc is swT^e 
pleolTc me o$6e senigum m^n to underbeginnenne," for 
pan pe ic ondr^ede, gif sum dysig man pas boc r^t o56e 10 
r«dan gehyrt5, pset he wille wenan pset he mote lybban 
nu on p^re niwan se swa swa pa ealdan faederas leofodon 
pa on peere tide ser pan pe seo ealde se ges^tt w^re, oSSe 
swa swa m^n leofodon under Moyses se. Hwilon ic 
wiste pset sum msessepreost, se pe mm magister wses 15 
on pam timan, hgefde pa boc Genesis, and he cuSe be 
d&ile Lyden understandan ; pa cwseS he be pam heah- 
fgedere lacobe, pset he hsefde feower wTf, twa geswustra 
and heora twa plnena. Ful soS he s^de, ac he nyste, 
ne ic pa git, hu micel todal ys betweohx^ p^re ealdan 20 
^ and psere niwan. On anginne pisere worulde nam se 

1 Ca, 8e>elweard. 2 c^, underginnenne. ^ Ca, betweox. 

107 



I08 XVII. ^LFBIC'S PREFACE TO GENESIS. 

brother ^ hys swuster^ to wife, and hwllon eac se fseder 
tymde bi^ his agenre dehter,^ and manega hsefdon ma 
wif a * to f olces eacan, and man ne mihte }pa set f ruman 
wifian buton on Ms siblingum.^ Gyf hwa wyle nu swa 

5 lybban sefter CrTstes tocyme swa swa ni^n leofodon £er 
Moises 86 o5^e under Moises se, ne byS se man na Cristen, 
ne he f ur6on ^ wyrt5e ne byt5 pset him senig Cristen man 
mid eteJ pa ungelgeredan preostas, gif hi hwset litles 
understandaS of j^am Lydenbocum, ponne pinc'^ * him sona 

lo |)8et hi magon m^re lareowas beon ; ac hi ne cunnon swa 
peah pset gastllce andgit j^ser to, and hu seo ealde se wses 
getacnung toweardra pinga, o5Se hu seo niwe gecySnis 
sefter^ Cristes m^nniscnisse wses gefillednys ealra^° f'sera 
|)inga, pe seo ealde gecySnis getacnode towearde be Criste 

15 and be hys gecorenum. Hi cwseSaS eac oft be Paul,^^ 
hwi hi ne moton habban wif swa swa Petrus se apostol 
hsefde, and hi nellaS gehiran ne witan j^set se eadiga Pe- 
trus leofede sefter Moises ^ 0$ j^set Crist pe on^^ pam 
timan to mannum com and began to bodienne his halige 

20 godspel and geceas Petrum ^^ serest him to geferan : \>h 
forlet Petrus l^aer rihte his wif and ealle ])a tw^lf apos- 
tolas, |)a J)e wif hsefdon," forleton segSer ge wif ge sehta, 
and folgodon Cristes lare to psere niwan ^ and clsen- 
nisse \q he silf jnl arserde. Preostas sindon ges^tte to 

25 lareowum ^^ f>am Isewedum f olce. Nu gedafnode him ]?set 

1 Ca, -or. 2 ca, wi^^ {for bi). 

3 Ca, agene dohtor. * Ca, ma wif hsefdon. 

2 Ca, gesiblingum. ^ Ca, forSon. 
'' Ca, gereordige {for ete). ^ L, bingd. 

^ Ca, gecy^nes wsere sefter. 10 Ca, ealda. 

11 L, modern hand has written Paul over an erasure of four or 

Jive letters ; Ca, petre. 12 Ca, 0^ bset \>q crist on. 

13 Ca, ba petrus. i^ Ca, liaeddon. 1^ Ca, lariwum. 



XVIL CLERIC'S PREFACE TO GENESIS. IO9 

hig cuSon pa ealdan « gastlice understandan and hwaet 
Crist silf t^hte and his apostolas on pgere niwan gecy$- 
nisse/ peet hig mihton f»ani folce wel wissian to Godes 
geleafan and wel bisnian to godum weorcum. We s^cgaS 
eac foran to pset seo boc is swiSe deop gastlice to under- 5 
standenne, and we ne writaS na mare buton pa nacedan 
ger^cednisse.^ ponne pinct5 pam ungelgeredum pset eall 
pset andgit beo belocen on psere anfealdan ger^cednisse ; 
ac hit ys swT^e feor pam. Seo boc ys gehaten Genesis, 
pset ys 'gecyndboc' for pain pe heo^ ys firmest boca"* and 10 
spricS ^ be gelcum gecinde ^ • ac heo ne spric6 na be psera 
^ngla gesceapenisse/ Heo onginS pus : /?i principio 
creauit deus celum^ et terram, pset ys on Englisc, ^On an- 
ginne^ gesceop God heofenan and eorSan.' Hit wses 
soSlice swa gedon pset God selmihtig geworhte ^° on an- 15 
ginne pa pa he wolde gesceafta. Ac swa peah sefter 
gastlicum andgite peet anginn ys Crist, swa swa he sylf 
cwse^ to pam ludeiscum : ^Ic eom angin, pe to eow sprece.' 
purh pis angin worhte " God Fseder heofenan and eorSan, 
for pan pe he gesceop ^^ ealle gesceafta purh pone Sunu se 20 
pe wses gefre of him acenned'^^ wisdom of pam wisan 
Fseder. Eft stynt" on psere bec^^ on pam forman ferse,*^ 
Spiritus dei ferebatur super aquas, pset ys on Englisc, 
^ And Godes Gast wses gef^rod ofer wseteru.' Godes Gast 
ys se Halga Gast purh pone geliffseste se Fseder ealle pa 25 

1 Ca, niwan ae gecySnesse. 2 q^l^ gersednusse. 

3 Ca, hu (for heo). * Ca, wanting. 

5 Ca, specs. 6 Ca, allum gecyndum. 

■'' Ca, gesceapennesse. ^ j^^ scelum ; Ca, celum. 

9 L, annginne. 10 Ca, geweorhte. 

^1 Ca, weorhte. 12 Ca, gescop. 

13 L, accenned. 1* Ca, stent. 

1^ Ca, boc. 16 Ca, uerse. 



no XVIL ^LFRICS PREFACE TO GENESIS^ 

gesceaftro j a he gesceop ]mxh ]7one sunn, and se Halga Gast 
fser^ geond manna heortan and silS^ us synna forgife- 
nisse, ^rest purh wseter on |7am fulluhte, and si^San })urb 
d^dbote^; and gif hwa forsiht5 pa forgifenisse pe se Halga 
5 Gast sylS,^ ponne bi^ his synn sefre unmyltsiendlic on 
ecnysse. Eft^ys seo halige frinnys geswutelod^ on ]7isre 
beo,^ swa swa ys on ]:am worde^ ]?e God cwaeS : 'Uton 
wircean mannan to ure anlicnisse.' Mid ]:am pe he cwse^, 
^ Uton wircean/ ys seo j^rinnis gebicnod ; mid ]?am J^e he 

10 c wee's, 'to ure anlicnisse,' ys seo so5e annis geswutelod; 
he ne cwseS na m^nifealdlice to urum anlicnissum^ ac 
anfealdlice ^ to ure anlicnisse. Eft comon }n'i ^nglas to 
Abrahame and he sprsec to him eallum^ ]7rim swa swa 
to anum. Hu clipode Abeles blod to Gode buton swa 

15 swa geices mannes misd^eda wrega'S hioe to Gode butan 
wordum? Be J^isum litlum man mseg understandan hu 
deop seo boc ys on gastlicum andgite, ]7eah |)e heo mid 
leohtlicum wordum awriten sig. Eft losep, \e, wees ge- 
seald^^ to Egipta lande and he ahr^dde ])8et folc wiS pone. 

20 miclan hunger, heefde GrTstes getacnunge pe^^ wses ge- 
seald for us to cwale and us ahr^dde fram pam ecan 
hungre h^llesusle.^^ paet micele geteld pe Moises worhte 
mid wunderlicum craefte on pam westene, swa swa him 
God sylfe gedihte, hsefde getacnunge Godes gelaSunge 

25 pe he silf astealde purh his apostolas mid menigfealdum'^ 
frsetewum and fsegerum peawum. To pam geweorce brohte 

1 Here C begins ; Ca, de> {for siltS). ^C',Tj, dsetbote. 

3 Ca, de« {for syl^S). * C ; L, oit. 

5 C, -ode. 6 Ca, boc. 

■^ Ca, weorde. ^ C ; L, andfealdlice. 

9 C, Ca ; L, eallon. 10 C, Ca ; L, gesssld. 

u Ca, he {for }>e). 12 c^, wanting. 

13 L, menigfseldum ; C, menifealdum. 



XVIL ^ELFBICS PREFACE TO GESE6IS. Ill 

pset folc gold and seolfor and deorwirSe ^ gimstauas and 
mejiigfealde^ m^v^Si 'j sume eac brohton gatehser, swa swa 
God bebead,^ pset gold getacnode urne geleafan and ure 
gode ingehid pe we Gode olfrian sceolon ; pset seolfor 
getacnode Godes sprseca and J^a halgan lara*]?e we hab- 5 
ban sceolon to Godes weorcum ; pa gimstanas getacnodon 
misllce faegeruissa on Godes mannum ; pset gateliger ge- 
tacnode pa sti6an deedbote p^ra manna pe lieora sinna 
beh.reowsiat5. Man off rode eac fela cinna orf Gode to 
lace binnan pam getelde, be pam 3^s swiSe ni^nigfeald lo 
getacnung, and wees beboden pset se teegel sceolde beon 
gehal ^fre on pam nytene set p^re offrimge for paere 
getacnnnge ^ paet God wile pset we simle wel don 06 ^nde 
ures lifes : ponne bitS se taegel geoffrod on uruni weorcum. 
Xti ys seo fores^de boc on manegum stowum swiSe nearo- 15 
lice® ges^tt, and peah swTSe deoplice^ on pam^ gastlicum 
andgite, and heo is swa* ge^ndebyrd swa swa God silf 
hig gedilite ]^am writere Moise, and we durron na mare 
awritan on Englisc ponne paet Leden ® hsefS, ne pa ^nde- 
birdnisse aw^ndan buton pam anum paet paet Leden and 20 
paet Englisc nabbacS na ane wisan on paere spruce fand- 
unge. ^fre se pe aw^nt oSSe se pe t^cS ^° of Ledene on 
Englisc, aefre lie sceal gefadian hit swa paet paet Englisc 
liaebbe his agene wisan, elles hit bit5 swiSe gedwolsum 
to raedenne pam pe^ paes Ledenes wisan ^^ ne can. Is 25 
eac to witanne paet sume gedwolm^n waeron pe woldon 
awurpan pa ealdan ae, and sume woldon habban pa 

1 C, deorwiir^e. * L, menigf aelde ; C, msenigf ealde. 

3 C, swa swa seo se bebead, * C, Ca, lare. 

^ Csi, for ]pddTegeta,cnunge wanting. ^ C, Ca; L, nserolice. 
"^ Ca, gesett and >eah sui^e deoplice wanting. 
8 Ca, wanting. ® C, Ca ; L, liden. 

10 Ca, tectS. " C, wise. 



112 XVII. uELFRIC'S PREFACE TO GENESIS. 

ealdan^ and awurjDan pa niwan, swa swa ])a ludeiscan 
do6 ; ac Crist sylf and his apostolas us t^hton segSer to 
healdenne ]?a ealdan gastlice and ])a nlwan so^lice mid 
weorcum. God gesceop us twa eagan and twa earan, 

5 twa nos)7irlu and twegen weleras, twa handa and twegen 
fet, and lie wolde eac habban twa gecySnissa on pissere 
worulde ges^t, pa ealdan and pa niwan, for ];am pe he 
det5 swa swa hine silfne gewyrS, and he n^nne r^dboran 
nsefS, ne nan man pearf ^ him cweSan to : ' Hwi dest pu 

10 swa ? ' We sceolon aw^ndan urne willan to his ges^t- 
nissnm and we ne magon gebigean his ges^tnissa to 
urum^ lustum. Ic cwe^e nu pset ic ne dearr ne ic nelle 
nane boc sefter pissere of Ledene on Englisc aw^ndan, 
and ic bidde pe, leof ealdorman, pset pti me pses na l^ng 

15 ne bidde pi Ises pe ic beo pe ungehirsum, oS^e leas gif ic 
do. God pe sig milde a on ecnisse. Ic bidde nu on 
Godes naman, gif hwa pas boc awritan wylle, pset he hig 
gerihte wel be psere bysne, for pan pe ic nah geweald, 
peah pe hig hwa to woge bringe pnrh lease writeras, and 

20 hit byS ponne his pleoh na mm*: mycel yfel deS se 
unwritere, gif he nele hys woh gerihtan.* 

1 C, Ca ; L, ealdan wanting. 2 Ca, ne >earf. 

' Ca, on urum. * Ca, his and na min. 

5 C, his gewrit gerihtan. 



XVIII. 

THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDEEW. 

[The text follows MS. 198 (S. 8) of Corpus Christi College, 
Camb. (C); the Blickling MS. of Homilies (B) supplies variants 
for a portion of the text.] 

Her s^gS ]78et sefter f»am J»e Drihten Hgelend Crist to 
heofonuin astah, pset ]?a apostoli wseron setsomne; and 
Me s^ndon hlot him betweonum, hwider hyra gehwylc 
faran scolde to l^eranne. S^g)? )?8et se eadiga Matheus 
gehleat to Marmadonia fsere ceastre ; s^gS |?onne Jjset pa. 
m^n 'pe on })£ere ceastre wseron ]>3et hi hlaf ne ^ton, ne 
wseter ne druncon, ac £eton manna lichaman and heora 
blod druncon ; and geghwylc man pe on faere ceastre com 
selj^eodisc, s^gS f»8et hie hine sona genamon and his eagan 
ut astiingon,^ and hie him sealdon attor drincan ])3et mid 
mydum^ lybcrsefte waes geblanden, and mid |?y pe hie 
pone dr^nc druncon^ hraj^e heora lieorte ^ waes tolesed and 
heora mod onw^nded. Se eadiga Matheus J>a in eode on 
]7a ceastre, and hraSe hie hine genamon and his eagan 
ut astungoriy^ and hie him sealdon attor drincan,'^ and hine 
s^ndon ^ on carcerne,^ and hie hine heton paet attor etan, 
and he hit etan nolde ; for J)on ^ his heorte uses tolesed,^ 
ne his mod onw^nded^ ; ac^^ he wses simle to Drihtne bid- 
dende mid myclum wope, and cw8et5 to him, ' Mm Drihten 
H^lend Crist, for fon we ealle forleton ure cneorisse/^ 

1 C, -an. 2 c^ miclen. s C, heorta. * c, drinccan. 

5 Here B begins. ^ B, carcern. "^ MSS., for >on J^e. « b^ tolysedu. 
3 B, naes onwended. lo g^ ^h. " B, cneorisne. 

113 



114 ^VIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDRE [V. 

and wseron fe fylgeiide, and pu eart ure ealra fultum, J?a 
fe on pe gelyfa]?, beheald nu and geseoh hu J>as m^n 
Jjinum ]}eowe doS. And ic J?e bidde, Drihten, ]?3et I>u me 
forgife minra eagna leoht, ]?8et ic geseo fa |?e me onginnatS 
5 don on pisse ceastre J>a weorstan tintrego ^ ; and ne for- 
l£et me, mln Drihten Heelend ^ Crist, ne me ne s^le^on 
]>oue^ bitterestan^ deaf>.' 

Mid * |)y ]>e he fis gebed se eadiga Matheus gecweden 
lisefde, mycel leoht and beorlit'' onleohte^ pset carcern, 

lo and Drihtnes stefn wees geworden to him^ on psem 
leohte cwepende, ' Matheus, mln se leofa, beheald on me.' 
Matheus ^^ pa lociende he" geseah Drihten Crist, and 
eft Drihtnes stefn ^ wses [geworden to him] cwepende, 
' Matheus, wes pu gestrangod, and ne ^^ ondrsed pu pe, for 
5 pon ne forlsete ic pe sefre, ac ^'^ ic pe gefreolsige of ealre ^ 
frecennesse, and nalaes paet an, ac simle ealle pine bro- 
Sor,^^ and ealle pa pe on me gelyfaS on eallum tidum op ^^ 
ecnesse. Ac onbid her seofon and twentig^^ nihta, and" 
sefter pon^^ ic s^nde to pe Andreas, pinne bropor, and ^° he 

20 pe ut algedep of pissum carcerne, and ealle pa pe mid pe 
syndon/ Mid® py pe pis gecweden wses, Drihten him 
eft to cw8e6, ' Sib si mid pe, Matheus.' He ^^ pa purhwu- 
niende mid gebedum wees ^^ Drihtnes lof singende on pam 
carcerne. And pa unrihtan m^n in eodon on^ pset car- 

25 cern pset hie pa m^n ut Isedan woldon ^* and him to m^te 



1 B. werrestan tintrega. 2 5^ Hselende. 

3 B, ne ,j>u me ne syle. * C, Jjon. ^ B, biter-. 

6 B, and mid. ' B, frea beorht. ^ B, onlyhte. 

® C, geworden to him wanting. '^^ B, Se eadiga M. " B, wanting, 

12 B, Drihten (/or Drihtnes stefn). i^ c, ne ne. i* B, ah. 
IS C, ealra. i^ g^ nalses to simle wanting ; C, brebere. 

17 B, on (for o». is c, xxvii. i^ C, )>an. 20 g, ^set. 

21 C, wanting. 22 c, and. 28 c, in. 24 b, -an- 



XVIII. THE LEUEyD OF ST. ANDREW. 115 

don. Se eadiga Matheus pa betynde his eagan ])j laes ]>a 
cw^Ueras gesawan^ p3et his eagan geopenede^ W£eron ; and 
hie'^ cwi^don him betwynum, 'pry* dagas nu to lafe syndon 
paet we hine willaS acwellan and us to m^te gedon.' 

Se eadiga Matheus ] a^ gefelde^ xx daga. Da Drihten 5 
Heelend Crist cwse^ to Andrea^ his apostole, mid pi pe he 
W3es in Achaia | am lande and p£er Iserde his discipuli, 
be cwseS, 'Gang on Marmadonia^ceastre, and alsed panon 
Matheum^ pinne bropor of pgem carcerne/^ for pon pe 
nu git ^^ pry ^ dagas to lafe syndon, paet hie hine willa« 10 
acwellan and him to m^te gedon.' Se haliga Andreas 
him andswarode, and he cwseS, ' Mm Drihten Hselend ^* 
Crist, hu maeg ic hit on prim dagum gefaran? Ac ma 
wen is pset pu ons^nde pTnne ^ngel se hit maeg hraedlicor 
gefaran/^ for J^on, mm Drihten, pu wast pset ic eam ^* 15 
fiSsclic man, and ic hit ne m£eg hraedlTce gefaran, ^^ for 
pon pe, mm Drihten, ^^ se siSfset is pider to lang, and ic ^' 
pone weg ne can.' . Drihten ^^ him to cwse^, ' Andreas, 
geher^^ me, for pon ]>e ic pe geworhte, and ic pTnne sI6^° 
gestapelode and getrymede. Gang nu to pses stes^^ war- 20 
0(5e mid piniim discipiilum, and pu peer gemetest scip on 
pam waro{5e; and^^ astig on pset mid pTnum discipulum.' 
And m.id py pe he pis cwgeS, Drihten H^lend ^a git waes 
sprecende a.nd cwae$, ' Sib mid pe and mid eallum pinum 
discipulum/ And he astag on heofonas.^ 25 

1 B, -on. 2 B, -ode. ^ c, he. " c, iii. 

^ C, se. 6 B, gefylde. " C, Andreae. ^ g^ Mermedonia. 

^ C, Matheus. i'^ C, Hnne to carcerne wanting. 

11 C, he nu git ivanting. ^^ B, Hselende. ^^ B, geferan. 

1* B, eom. 1^ B, hrpedlicor j^ider geferan. 

1^ C, be min Drihten wanting, i' B, ic after weg. 

18 B, Drihten Crist. i9 B, gehyre. 21 b, siSfset. 

21 C, sae. 22 c, wanting. 23 q^ And mid to heofonas wanting. 



Il6 XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 

Se haliga Andreas pa aras on mergen/ and he eode to 
fsere see mid his discipulum, and he geseah scip on ]7am 
waro^e ^ and ])TJ ^ weras on J>am sittende ; and he wses 
gef eonde mid mycle ^ gef ean, and him to cwaeS, ' BroSor, 
5 hwider wille ge faran ^ mid pis medmiclum scipe ? ' 
Drihten Hselend ^ wees on pam scipe swa se '' steorrec^ra, 
and his twegen ^nglas mid him, pa weeron gehwyrfede 
on manna onsyne. Drihten Crist him pa'' to cwse^, 'On 
Marmadonia^ ceastre/ Se haliga Andreas him andswa- 

10 rode, and he ^ cwse'S, ' Bro^or, onfoh us mid eow on pset 
scip and gelgeda(5 us on pa ceastre.' Drihten him to 
cw8et5, 'Ealle m^n fleot5 of pgere ceastre; to hw^m wille ^^ 
ge pider faran ^^ ? ' Se haliga Andreas him andswarode, 
he cwse^, ' MedmyceP^ ^rende we pider habbac^, and us 

15 is pearf paet we hit peh'' gefyllon.' Drihten Heelend® 
him to cw8et5, 'AstigatS on pis scip to us, and s^llaS us 
eowerne f sersceat.^^ ' Se haliga Andreas him andswarode, 
' Gehyrat5 gebropor, nabbat^ " we f sersceat,^^ ac ^^ w^e syndon 
discipuli Drihtnes Hselendes Cristes, pa he geceas ; and 

20 pis bebod he us sealde, and he cwseS, " ponne ge faren ^^• 
godspel to Iserenne, ponne nabbe ge mid eow hlaf ne feoh, 
ne twifeald hrsegl." Gif pu ponne wille mildheortnesso 
mid® us don, saga'^ us pset hrsedlTce^^; gif pu ponne nelle. 
gecyS^® us swa peah-° pone weg.^ Drihten Heelend® him 

25 to cwsetS, ' Gif pis gebod eow weere geseald fram eowrum 
Drihtene, astiga'S hider mid gefean on mm scip.' 

1 B, morgen. ^ 3, war>e. ^ q^ m 

* B, myclum (mid wanting). ^ C, willa'S ; B, wille feran, 

6 B, Hselende Crist. '^ C, wanting. ^ B, Mermedonia. 

9 B, wanting. ^^ C, willa'S. i'- C, ferau. 

12 C, Nedmycel. i^ b, fer-. " B, ne habba^. 

16 B, ah. 16 B, -an. i^ b, ssega. 

' i^ Qt br?et-, J® B, gecy)>e, 20 c, ^wa >eali wanting. 



XVIIL THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. II7 

Se halga Andreas pa ^ astah on feet scip mid his disci- 
pulum,^ and he gesset beforan ^ ]7am steorrepran pses 
scipes,* feet wses Drihten Hselend Crist. Drihten H^l- 
end^ him to cwseS, ^Ic geseo |78et® |)as broSor synt ge- 
sw^ncede of pisse s£ewe hreohnesse '' ; acsa hie hweej^er 5 
hi woldon to lande ^ astigan and pm J^eer onbidan op J^aet 
pu gefylle |nne f enunge to p^re ])e ^ ]m sanded eart/*^ and 
6u ponne eft hwyrfest " to him.' Se halga Andreas him 
to cw8e6, 'Mlne^- beam, wille ge to lande faran^^ and 
mm psdv onbidan?' His discipuli him^ andswarodon, so 
and hie cw^don, ' Gif we gewitaS fram \)e, ))onne beo we 
fr^mde fram eallum j^am godum ]>e ]m us gearwodest ; ac 
we beo6 mid pe swa hwyder ^^ swa pu faerest.' Drihten 
H^lend him to cwseS, to pam halgan Andrea/^ 'Gif pu sy 
so(5lice his discipul se is cweden Crist, spec ^® to pinum 15 
discipulum be pam maegenum pe pin Lareow dyde, pset 
sie gebletsod ^^ heora '^ heorte, and hie ofergieton ^^ pisse 
ssewe ^ge.' Se haliga Andreas cwse^ to his discipulum, 
' Sumre tide mid pi pe we waeron mid urum Drihtne, we 
astigon mid him on scip ; and ^ he sety wde us swa he 2c 
sl^pende wsere to costianne, and dyde swipe hreoge pa 
sae^°; fram pam winde waes geworden sw^a pset pa selfan 
ypa w^ron ahafene ofer pset scip. We us pa swipe an- 
dredon and cigdon^^ to him, Drihtne Hgelendum Criste. 

1 C, wanting ; B, >a astag. 2 c, mid his discipulum imnting. 

8 B, be. * C, bees scipes imnting. 

5 B, Hselend Crist. 6 c, for >on >e (for \>^t). 

' B, hreonesse. 8 b, eor>an. ^ C, wanting. 

^'^ C, eart sended. 11 B, hryrfest. 

12 B, min. i3 b^ willa> ge astigan on eor^an. 

1* C, hwser. i^ B, halgan Andrea wanting. 

16-B, spree. 1^ B, ]?sette sy geblissad. 

18 C, hiere. i9 B, syn ofergytende. 
20 B, 8wit>e hreonesse ^sere ssewe. 2i B, cegdon. 



Il8 XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 

And he ) a aras and bebead ))am winde ]?9et he gestilde ' 
6a ^ wses geworden mycel smyltnes on l?£ere sae. And hi 
hine^ ondredon ealle pa pe his weorc gesawon. Nu 
ponne, mine ^ beam, ne ondr^da}> ge eow, for f>on ])e Ore 

5 God us ne forl^teS.' 

And pus cwepende, se halga Andreas s^tte '' his heafod 
ofer ^nne his discipula,^ and he onslep.^ Drihten H^l- 
end ^ pa wiste for pon pe se halga Andreas pa slep, he 
cw8Bp to his ^nglum, ^Genima8 Andreas and his disci- 

10 pull, and as^ttaS hie beforan Marmadonia** ceastre ; and 
mid pi pe ge hie pser as^tton, hweorfaS** eft to me/ And 
pa ^nglas dydon swa heom beboden waes ; and he astah 
on heofonas. 

pa se mergen ^^ geworden wses, pa se haliga Andreas 

^5 licgende wses" beforan Marmadonia* ceastre, and his 
discipulos peer slsepende w^eron mid him ; and he hie 
aweahte, and cwseS, ' Arisa8 ge,^ mine beam, and ongitat) 
Godes mildheortnesse sio is nu mid us geworden. We 
witon ^^ pset ure Drihten mid us wses on jam scipe, and 

20 we hine ne ongeaton ; he hine geeaSmedde ^^ swa steor- 
repra, and he hine seteowde swa man us to costienne.^*' 
Se halga Andreas pa locode to heofonum,^^ and he cw3e6, 
'Mm Drihten Hsel end Crist, ic wat pset pfi ne eart feor 
fram pTnum peowum, and ic pe beheold on pam scype, and 

25 ic wses to pe sprecende swa to m^n. Nu ponne, Drihten, 
ic pe bidde ptet pu me |e onywe^*' on pisse stowe.' pa pis 
gecweden wses, pa'^ Drihteiv him setywde his onsyne on 

1 C, and. 2 Q^ iccmting. ^ B, min. 

* B, asette. ^ C, discipul. *5 C, and slep. 

■^ B, Hselende Crist. ^ B, Mermedonia ^ C, hrowaS. 

10 B, morgen, i^ B, >a se haliga to wajs wanting. 

12 B, witon we. ^^ C, geead-. !■* B, costisenne. 

1^ B, on heofenas. ^^ B, aeteowe. i" B, wanting. 



XVIIL THE LEG EX I) OF ST. ANDREW. 1 19 

taegeres cildes hlwe, and him to cweecS, ' Andreas, gefeoh ^ 
mid ] Tnum discipulum.' Se halga Andreas pa hine gebaed 
and cweeS, ' Forgif me, min Drihten, pget ic to )?e sprec- 
ende wses swa to m^n ; and- wen is paet ic gefirnode,^ 
for l^on |ie* ic ]e ne ongeat.' Drihten him ]^a to cwae^, 5 
'Andreas, neenig wuht ]m gefirnodest, ac for pon ic swa 
dyde, for l^on ]m swa cw^de ^ j^set ]i\ hit ne meahtes ® on 
(Slim" dagum ]nder geferan*; for ]on ic ])e swa seteowde,^ 
for pon ic eom mihtig mid* worde* swa eall to donne,^'' 
and anra gehwilcum to seteowenne swa hwaet^swa me 10 
iTcaS. ISTi l^onne aris, and ga " on pa. ceastre to Matheum 
l^inum brej^er, and ISt ^^ ])onne hine of f^^re ceastre, and 
ealle pa pe mid him syndon. Eno ^^ ic pe gecype, An- 
dreas, for ]7on pe manega tintrega hie ]-§ on bringaS, and 
pmne iTchaman geond pisse ceastre lonan^*hie tost^ncap^^ 15 
swa pset pin blod flowS ^^ ofer eorSa'n swa swa '^ wseter. 
To deape hie ]e willap gelsedan, ac hi ne magon; ac 
manega earf oSnessa hie pe magon ^^ on gebringan ; ac 
ponne hwaepere arefna'^ pu pa ealle, Andreas, and ne do 
pu after heora ungeleafulnesse. Gemune hu manega 20 
earfo6nesse ^ f ram Tudeimi ic waes prowiende, pa ^ hie me 
swungon, and hie me sp^tton^^ on mine onsyne ; ac ealP^ 
ic hit arsefnede, pset ic eow aeteowe hwylce ^ gemete ge 

1 C, geseoh. 2 b, wanting. 

3 B, gefyrenode. 4 q^ imnting. 

5 B, ne gefyrenodest >u nan wuht, ah for Son fiu cwsede. 

6 B, mihte. " C, iii. 

8 B, hider gefaran. ^ C, seteowe. 

io C, done. i* B, gang. 12 B, alsede. 

13 C, Ana. 14 B, lanan. i^ ^^ tostencea^. 

16 B, flewj). 1" C, swa {for swa swa). 

18 C, ac manega to magon wanting. i^ B, ahj^onne hwe>re areefne. 
20 B, Gemune to earfo-Snesse wanting. 21 B, spfetlaedon. 

22 B, minne ondwleotan ah eal. 23 b, hwyloum. 



I20 XVIIL THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 

sculori arsefnan.^ Geliiere me, Andreas, and arsefna ))as 
tintrego, for pon manige synt on ]?isse ceastre pa sculon 
geleofan on niTnne nam an.' Mid ])i he )?is cwseS, Drihten 
H^lend Crist, he astah on heofonas. 

5 Se haliga Andreas pa in eode on fa ceastre mid his 
discipulum ; and nsenig man hine ne mihte geseon. Mid 
pi ]>e hie comon to paes carcernes dyru, hie p^r gemetton 
seofon hyrdas standan. Se haliga Andreas pa gebsed 
on his heortan, and ra^e hio wseron deade. Se halga 

lo Andreas pa eode to pses carcernes duru, and he worhte 
Gristes rode tacen, and rape pa dura wseron ontynede, 
and he in eode on pset carcern mid his discipulum, and 
he geseah pone eadigan Matheus eenne sittan^ singende. 
S§ eadiga Matheus pa and se haliga Andreas hie wgeron 

15 cyssende him betweonon. Se halga Andreas him to 
cw8et5, 'Hwaet is pset, bropor? Hu eart pu her gemet? 
Nu pry dagas t5 lafe syndon paet hie pe willap acw^llan, 
and him to m^te gedon.' Se halga Matheus him andswar- 
ode, and he cwse^, 'Bropor Andreas, ac ne gehyrdest pu 

20 Drihten cwepende, ''For pon pe ic eow s^nde swa swa sceap 
on middum wulfum ? " panon wses geworden, mid py pe 
hie me syndon on pis carcern, ic bsed urne Drihten pset he 
hine seteowde, and hrape he me hine aeteowde, and he me 
to cw8et5, "Onbid her xxvii daga, and sefter pon ic s^nde to 

25 pe Andreas pTnne broSor, and he pe ut alset of pissum car^ 
cerne and ealle pa [pe] mid pe syndon." Swa me Drihten 
to cw8ep, ic gesio.^ BroSor, hwaet sculon we nti don ? ' 

Se halga Andreas pa and se halga Matheus gebsedon 
to Drihtne, and setter pon gebede se haliga Andreas s^tte 

30 his hand ofer para wera eagan pe ^ peer on p2em carcerne ^ 

1 Here B ends. 2 q, sitton. ~ 

3 C, gesie. * C, J>a. 

* C, on lande ; Zupitza. 



XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANBRETV. 121 

WEeron, and gesilipe hie onfengon. And eft he s^tte his 
hand ofer hiora heortan, and heora andgit^ him eft to 
hwirfde. Se haliga Andreas him to cwseS, 'Ganga^ on 
]^as niperan dselas pisse ceastre, and ge ]?^r gemetaS mycel 
fictreow ; sittaS under him and eta'5 of his wsestmum oS 5 
l^aet ic eow to cyme.' Hi cw^don to j^am halgan Andrea, 
' Cum nu mid us, for pon ])e ])u eart tire wealdend, ]^y Iges 
wen is ])?et hi us eft geniinon and on pa wyrstan tintregii 
hie us on gebringan.' Se haliga Andreas him to cwse^, 
' FaraS ])ider, for ])on ])e eow n^nig w4ht ne d^ra^ ne ne 10 
sw^nce]^/ And hra^e h!e ]:a ealle ferdon, swa him se 
halga Andreas bebead. And J)^r Avgeron on feem carcerne 
twa hund and eahta and feowertig wera, and nigon and 
feowertig wifa, Sa se haliga Andreas fanon ons^nde. 
And pone eadigan Matheum he gedyde gangan to pam 15 
eastdsele mid his discipulum and as^tton^ on pa dune 
p£er se eadiga Petrus se apostol wses. And he J?^r wun- 
ode mid him. 

Se haliga Andreas pa ut eode of p^m carcerne, and he 
ongan gangan tit purh midde pa ceastre, and he com to 20 
sumre stowe, and he peer geseah swer standan, and ofer 
pone swer ^rne onlicnesse. And he gesset be pam swere 
anbidende hwset him gelimpan scolde. Da unrihte m^n 
pa eodon pset hie pa m^n tit gel^ddon, and hie to m^te 
gedydon.^ And hie gemetton j^ses carcernes duru opene, 25 
and pa seofon hyrdas deade licgan. Mid py pe hie pset ge- 
sawon, hie eft hwirfdon to hiora ealdormannum, and hie 
cwsedon, ' pin carcern open we gemetton, and in gangende 
ngenige ^ we p^r gemetton.' Mid pi pe hie gehyrdon para 
sacerd^ ealdorm^n, hie ^ cweedon him betweonon, ' Hwset 30 

1 C, andgeat. ^ C, and se hahga Andreas ana asetton. 

8 C, gedon ; Zupitza. * Eds. ; C, msenige. 
5 C, and hie. 



122 XVIIL THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDBEW. 

wile ]ns we.san ? Wen is ]^?et hwilc wunclor in eode on jpet 
carcern and | a hyrdas acwgelde, and somnunga [alysde 
f»a] j^e ^ peer betynede wseron.' 

^fter piossum him feteowde deofol on cnihtes onlic- 

5 nysse, and him to cwseS, ' Gehyrat) me, and secaS her 
sumne selpeodigne man pses nama is Andreas, and acw^llaS 
hine. He pset is se ja gebimdenan of jnssum carcerue ut 
aleedde, and he is nu on pisse ceastre ; ge hine nii witon ; 
efstaS, mine beam, and acw^Ua^ hine.' Se haliga An- 

lo dreas ]>a cwseS to pam deofle, 'Eno^ ]m heardeste strgel to 
Sghwilcre imrihtnesse,^ pu ]>e simle fihtest wi6 manna 
cyn ; mm Drihten HSlend Crist pe gehneede in h^lle/ 
p9et deofol, pa he pis gehyrde, he him to cw8et5, ^pine 
stefne ic gehiere, ac ic ne wat hweer pu eart.' Se haliga 

115 Andreas him to cweeS, Tor pon pe pu eart blind, pu ne 
gesihst senigne of Godes pam halgum.' pset deofol pa 
cw8et5 to ]^am folce, 'BehealdaS eow and geseot5 hine, for 
pon pe he paet is se pe wiS me sprgec.' 

Da burhleode pa urnon, and hi betyndon peere ceastre 

20 gatu, and hi sohton ]:o7ie ^ halgan Andreas pset hie hine 
genamon. Drihten HiSleiid hine pa seteowde pam haligan 
Andrea, and him to cwaet), ^Andrea arls, and gecyS him 
pset h!e ongieton min.msegen on pe wesan.' Se haliga 
Andreas pa aras on paes f olces gesihpe, and he cwget5, ' Ic 

25 eom se Andreas pe ge secap.' pset folc pa arn, and hie 
hine genamon, and cwsedon, Tor pon pu us pus dydest, 
we hit pe forgylda^.' And hie johton hu hie hine 
acw^llan meahton. 

pa wees se deofol in gangende, and cwsef5 to pam folce, 

30 'Gif eow swa llcige, uton s^ndan^ rap on his swyran, and 

1 Goodwin, alysde J^a >e ; C, somnunga \>j. 2 q^ ^na. 

8 C, -tesse. 4 C, )>sene. & C, sendon. 



XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 1 23 

hine teon ])urh ]?isse ceastre lanan, and ))is uton we don 
oj) j.set he swelte. And mid |n ):>e he dead sle, uton we 
dtelan his lichaman urum burhleoduni.' And pa call ]?aet 
tblc j>8et gehierde, hit him licode, and hraSe hie s^ndon 
rap on his sweoran, and hie hine tugon geond )>eere 5 
ceastre lanan. Mid }.i ])e se eadiga Andreas waes togen, 
his lichama wses gemqnged'^ mid p^re eorSan, swa fset 
blod lleovv ofer eortian swa wseter. Da gefen geworden 
vvses, hi hine s^ndon on ]>ddt carcern, and hie gebundon ^ 
his handa behindan, and hie hine forleton ; and eall his 10 
lichama [wses]^ gelysed. Swilce opre dsege pset ilce hie 
dydon. 

Se haliga Andreas }>a weop, and he cwseS, ' Mm Drihten 
Hselend Crist, cum and geseoh pset hie me doS, f>Inum 
peowe ; and eall ic hit arsefnie for pinum gebode pe pu me 15 
sealdest, and ]m cwa&de, "'Ne do sefter hiora ungeleaful- 
jesse.'' Beheald, Drihten, and geseoh hu hie me do6.' 
jiid ])i he |ms cwseS, pset deofol cwseS to pam folce, 
SwingaS hine on his mu6, pset he ]nis ne sprece/ Da 
geworden wses pset hie hine eft betyndon on pam ca,r- 20 
cerne. 

Daet deofol pa genam mid him opre seofon deoflo, pa pe 
[se]^ haliga Andreas panon afliemde, and in gangende on 
pset carcern hie gestodon on gesihpe pses eadigan An- 
dreas, and hine bismriende mid myclere bismre, and hie 25 
cw^don, ^Hwset is pget pii her gemetest? Hwilc ge- 
freolsecS pe nu of urum gewealde? Hwser is pin gilp and 
pin hiht ? ' paet deofol pa cwge^ to pam o^rum deoflum, 
' Mine beam, acw^Ua^ hine, for pon he us gesc^nde and 
ure weorc' pa deofla pa hloeston^ h!e ofer pone halgan 30 
Andreas, and hie gesawon CrTstes rode tacen on his 

1 C, -e«. 2 c, -en. » Goodwin. * C, -an. 



124 XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW, 

onsiene ; hi ne dors ton liine genealsecan, ac hrat5e hie on 
weg flugon. pset deofol him to cwseS, ' Mine beam, for 
hwon ne acwealdon ge hine?' Hie him andswarodon 
and hie cwsedon, ' We ne mihton, for })on ]>e Cristes rode 

5 tdcn'^ on his onsiene we gesawon, and we us ondredon. 
We witon for ]7on ]>e aer he ^ on ]:>8es earf oSnesse com, he 
ure W9es wealdend. Gif fu msege, acw^l hine ; we pe on 
fissum ne hersumia^, ]>y Ises wen sTe J^set hine God ge- 
freolsige and us s^nde on wyrsan tintrego/ Se haliga 

lo Andreas him to cwse'S, ' peah ]>e ge me acw^llan, ne do ic 
eowerne willan, ac ic do willan mines Drihtnes Haelendes 
Cristes/ And pus hi geherdon, and on weg flugon. 

On mergen ])Si geworden wses eft hie tugon fone halgan 
Andreas, and he cTgde mid mycle wope to Drihtne, and 

15 cwse^, 'Mm Drihten Hselend Crist, me genihtsumiaS ^ pas 
tintrega, for pon ic eom geteorod. Mm Drihten Hselend 
Crist, ane tid on rode ]m prowodest, and pu cw^de, 
'^ Feeder, for hwon f orlete ]m me ? " Nu iii dagas syndon 
sy^San ic wses getogen ]mrh pisse ceastre lanum. pu 

20 wast, Drihten, pa m^nniscan tyddernysse ; hat onfon 
mmne gast. Hwger syndon pine word, Drihten, on pam 
pu us gestrangodest, and pu cweede, " Gif ge me gehyraS, 
and ge me beo6 fylgende, ne an loc of eowrum heafde 
forwyrS." Beheald, Drihten, and geseoh for pi min 

25 lichama^ and loccas mines heafdes mid pisse eorSan synd 
gem^ngde. One ^ iii dagas syndon sy66an ic wses getogen 
to psem wyrstan tintregum, and pu me ne seteowdest. 
Min Drihten Hselend Crist, gestranga mine heortan.' 
Dus gebiddende pam halgan Andrea Drihtnes stefn wses 

30 geworden, on Ebreisc cwepende, 'Mm Andreas, heofon 

iC, tanc. 2c, heser. s c, -a^S (/or -ia«); Eds. 

* C, geseoh for >inum lichaman ; Goodwin, geseoh for >od min 
lichama ; Morris. ^ C, Ane. 



XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 1 25 

and eort5e mseg gewitan; min word nsefre ne gewitap. 
Beheald sefter J^e, and geseoli jmme lichaman and loccas 
|)mes heafdes, liwaet hie syndon gewordene.' Se haliga 
Andreas ];a lociende he geseah geblowen treow weestin 
berende ; and he cwse^, ' Nu ic wat, Drihten, for pon l^set 5 
]m ne forlete me.' 

On aefenne ))a geworden hie hine betyndon on ])ani 
carcerne, and hio cwsedon him betwynum, Tor ]7on pe 
]nsse nihte he swelt.' Him seteowde Drihten H^lend 
Crist on ])^m carcerne, and he ap^nede his hand and 10 
gen am, and he cw8et5, ' Andreas, aris.' Mid ]>i ipe he ])set 
gehyrde, hrafe. he ]>Si aras gesund, and he hine gebsed, and 
he cwse^, 'pancas ic jje do, mm Drihten H^lend Crist.' 
Se haliga Andreas pa lociende, he geseah on middiim 
])9em carcerne swer standan, and ofer ]>one swer stsenenne 15 
anlicnesse. And he al>^nede his handa and hiere to 
cwseS, 'Ondreed fe Drihten and his rode tdcn,^ beforan 
l^eem forhtigaS heofon and eorpe. Nu ])onne, anllcnes, do 
|>aet ic bidde on naman mines Drihtnes Heelendes Cristes ; 
s^nd ^ mycel wseter ]?urh ]7inne mup, swa pset sien gew^m- 20 
mede ealle pa on pisse ceastre syndon.' Mid ])i he pus 
cwget), se eadiga Andreas, hrape sTo steenene^ onlicnes 
s^ndde mycel wseter purh hiere^ mtip swa sealt, and Mt^ 
£et manna lichaman, and hit acwealde heora beam and 
hyra nytemi. And hie ealle woldon fleon of psere ceastre, 25 
Se haliga Andreas pa cw9et5, ^ Mm Drihten Hselend Crist, 
ne forlset me, ac s^nd me pinne ^ngel of heofonum on 
fyrenum wolcne, pset he ^ embgange ealle pas ceastre pset 
[m^n hie] ne magen geneosian for psem fyre.' And pus 
cwepende, fyren tuolceri^ astah of heofonum, and hit 30 

1 C, tanc. 2 c, ssend. » C, stefne ; Goodwin. 

* C, heore, ^ C, hi?. e g, j,a, 7 c, wolc. 



126 XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. AND RE IV. 

ymbsealde ealla ])& ceastre. Mid ]>j ])set ongeat se 
eadiga Andreas, he bletsode Drihten. pset wseter weox 
o\) nianues swuran, and swij^e hit set hyra lichaman. And 
hie ealle cigdon and cw£edon, 'Wa us, for Ipon ]>e fas ealle 
5 up comon for J^issum aelfeodigum pe we on pissum car-, 
cerne betyned habbaS. Hwset beo we donde?^ Sume 
hie cwsedon, 'Gif eow swalice ]?uhte, utan gangan on 
Jnssum carcerne and hine ut forleetan, pj Ises wen sie fset 
we yfele forweor|?on ; and uton we ealle cigean and cwej^an 

10 for f>on pe we geleofaS on Drihten j^yses aelj^eodigan 
mannes ; ]>onne afyrre]:* he ]ms earfot5nesse fram us.' 

Mid pi se eadiga Andreas ongeat jjset hie to Drihtene 
W£eron gehwerfede, he cw9e6 to j^sere stsenenan anlicnesse, 
'Ara nu J>urh meegen ures Drihtenes, and ma weeter of 

15 pinum muj^e pu ne s^nd.' And pa gecweden, 'pset wseter 
oflan, and ma of Mere^ mu]?e hit ne eode. Se haliga 
Andreas )?a tit eode of j^am carcerne, and pset selfe wgeter 
l^egnunge gearwode beforan his fotum. And Jia []?e] J^eer 
to lafe waeron, hie comon to j^ses carcernes duru, and hie 

20 cweedon, ^ Gemiltsa us, God, and ne do us swa swa we 
dydon on |)isne 8el]7eodigan.' Se haliga Andreas j^a gebsed 
on |)8es folces gesihjje, and seo eorpe hie ontynde, and hio 
forswealh j^set wseter mid j^am mannum. pa weras pe^ 
}?9et gesawon, hie him swij^e ondr^don, and hie cwgedon, 

25 ' Wa us, for J^on pQ pes dea^ fram Gode is, and he us wile 
acw^llan for jnssum earfo'Snessum ]>e we ]?issum mannan 
dydon. S6t5lice fram Gode he is s^nd, and he is Godes 
l^eowa.' Se halga Andreas him to cw9et5, 'Mine beam, 
ne ondrseda]? ge eow, for ]7on pQ ]?as_ pQ on ])is wsetere 

30 syndon, eft hie libbat5. Ac ]?is is for ^on f»us geworden 
]?8et ge geleofon on minum Drihtne Hselendum Criste/ 

1 C, lieora> * C, t>a. 



XVIIL THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 12/ 

Se haliga Andreas ))a gebaed to Drihtne, and cwaeS, 
'Mm Drihten Hselend Crist, s^nd junne j^one Halgau 
Gast ])3dt [he] aw^cce ealle }>a |?e on ))isse wsetere syndon, 
l^set hie geliefon on )>inne naman.' Drihten fa het ealle 
arisan pe on J)ani waetere wseron. And sefter ]?issum se 5 
haliga Andreas het cyrican getimbrian on )}£ere stowe 
])3dT se swer stod. And he him sealde bebodii Drihtnes 
H^lendes^ Cristes, [and he cwseS,] 'And luliaS hine for 
]>on mycel is his msegen.' And genne of heora aldor- 
mannum to bisceope he him ges^tte, and he hi gefullode, 10 
and cwseS, 'Nu ]^onne ic eom gearo ])set ic gange to 
rnmum discipulum.' Hie ealle hine bsedon and hie 
cwgedon, 'Medmycel fsec nu gyt wuna mid us, J^set ])u us 
gedefran^ gedo, for pon ]?e we niwe syndon to pissum 
geleafan gedon.' Se halga Andreas hie J?a nolde gehieran, 15 
ac he hie grette and hie swa forlet. Him fylgede mycel 
manigo paes folces wepende and hrymende, and pa ascan 
leoht of er heora heaf od. 

Mid pi se halga Andreas panon wses farende, him setiwde 
Drihten Hselend Crist on pam wege on ansine fsegeres 20 
cildes, and him to cwsetJ, ' Andreas, for hwan g£est pu swa 
baton wsestme pines gewinnes, and pu forlete pa pe pe 
bsedon, and pu ngere miltsiende ^ of er heora cild pa pe pe 
wseron fyliende and wepende ? para cirm and wop to me 
astah on heof onas. Nu ponne hwyrf eft on pa ceastre, and 25 
beo pger seofon dagas, op pset pu gestrangie heora mod 
on minne geleafan. Gang ponne to psere ceastre mid 
pinum discipulum, and ge ^ on minne geleafan geleofan/ 
Mid pi he pis cwsetS, Drihten Hselend Crist, he astah on 
heofonas. 30 

1 C, -dest ; Eds. 2 c, gedefra. 

8 C, miltsiend. * Goodwin, >a ^e (for ge). 



128 X VIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. A NDR E W. 

Se eadiga Andreas ])a wses eft hwyrfende on Marma- 
donia ceastre, and he cwseS, ' Ic J?e bletsige, mm Drihten 
Hselend Crist, ]>u ]?e gehwyrfest ealle saula, for pon J>u 
me ne forlete ut gangan mid minre hatheortan of pisse 
ceastre.' Hio w^ron gef eonde mycle gefean ; and he faer 
wunode mid him seofon dagas, Iserende and strangende 
hira heortan on geleafan tires Drihtnes Hselendes CrTstes. 
Mid ]>i ])e ])Si w£eron gefyllede seofon dagas, swa swa him 
Drihten bebead, he ferde of [Mar]^madonia ceastre ef- 
stende to his discipulum. And eall j^set folc hine Isedde 
mid gefean, and hie cwaedon, 'An is Drihten God, se is 
Hselend Crist, and se Halga Cast, J^am is - wuldor and 
geweald on ]7^re Halgan prynnysse ])nrh ealra worulda 
woruld so^lice a butan ^nde.' Amen. 

1 C, erasure. 



XIX. 

THE HAEEOWING OF HELL. 

[From the Anglo-Saxon version of the apocryphal Gospel of 
Nicodemus. The text follows the Camb. Univ. Lib. MS. li. 2. 11 
(MS. A of the Gospels) ; selected variants from MS. Cotton Vitel- 
lius A. XV. (C, the Beowulf MS.) are given.] 

KarmU'S and Leuticus ]?us hyt awryton and ])us cw^don, 
' Ef ne ^ fa we weeron myd eallum urum f sederum on ]?£ere 
h^lliean deopnysse, )?8er becom seo beorhtnys on ))8ere 
J^eostra dymnysse f>8et we ealle geondlyhte ^ and geblys- 
sigende wseron. psBr ^ waes f seringa geworden on ansyne 5 
swylce peer gylden sunna on^led wsere and ofer us ealle 
geondlyhte,^ and Satanas ]?a and eall pset retSe werod 
wseron afyrhte, and ]ms cwsedon, ^^Hwset ys fys leoht 
))set her ofer us swa fserlice scynetS ? ^' pa wses sona eall 
])£et m^nnisce cynn geblyssigende. ure fseder Adam myd 10 
eallum heabfsederum and myd eallum wytegum for ))sere 
myclan beorhtnj^sse, and hig ])us cwsedon, '^ pys leoht ys 
Ealdor J^ses ecan leohtes, eall swa us Dryhten behet ))3et 
he us })8et ece leoht ons^ndan wolde.'' pa clypode Ysaias 
se wytega and cwse^, " pys ys )>8et f sederlice leoht, and hyt 15 
ys Godes sunu, eall swa ic foressede J)a ic on eorSan wses, 
pa ic cwsetS and forewitegode j?set tSset land Zabulon and 
pset land Neptalim wy(5 })a ea lordanen and ])aet folc pset 
on J)am )?ystrum sset sceoldon m^re leoht geseon ; and pa 
Se on dymmum ryce wunedon, ic witegode pset hig leoht 20 

1 C, So^lice {for EfneX 2 ^^ gond-. 

8 C, Da {for par). 

129 



I30 XIX. THE HARBOWING OF HELL. 

sceoldon onfon. And nu hyt ys tocumen, and us onlyht 
]>a t5e gefyrn on deaSes dymnysse saeton. Ac uton ealle 
geblyssian J^ses leohtes." Se wytega fa Symeon, heom 
eallum geblyssigendum, heom to cwsefS, "Wuldria^ jjone 

5 Dryhten Cryst/ Godes sunu, |>one ]>e ic bser on mynum 
earmum into pam temple ; and ic ))a 'Sus cwse^, ^pu eart* 
leoht and frofer^ eallum feodum, and fu eart- wuldor 
and wurpmynt eallum Ysrahela folce.' " Symeone fa fus 
gesprecenum/ call fset werod ]>^ra halgena fa wearS 

10 swy6e geblj^ssigende. And sefter fam feer com swylce 
funres sl^ge, and ealle fa halgan ongean clypodon, and 
cwsedon, ^'Hwset eart^ fu?" Seo stefen heom andswarode 
and cwse6, "Ic eom lohannes fses hehstan witega, and ic 
eom cumen ^ toforan hym fset ic his wegas gegearwian® 

15 sceal, and geican fa haele hys folces." 

'Adam ].a wses fys gehyrende, and to his suna cwe^- 
ende se wses gen^mned Seth, he cwsef, '' Ger^ce fynum 
bearnum and fysum heahfsederum ealle fa t5ing fe ^u fram 
Mychaele fam heah^ngle gehyrdest, fa ^a ic fe as^nde 

20 to neorxnawanges geate, faet 6u sceoldest Dryhten byd- 
dan fset he myd ] e his ^ngel as^nde fset he fe 6one ele 
syllan sceolde of l^am treowe S^ere myldheortnysse, fset 
$u myhtest mynne lychaman myd gesmyrian, fa Sa ic 
myd eallum untrum ^ wses." Seth, Adames sunu, wses fa 

05 to genealsecende fam halgum heahfsederum and fam 
wytegum, and wses cweSende, "Efne fa ic wses Dryhten 
byddende set neorxnawanges geate, fa setywde me ^Mich- 
ael se heah^ngel and me to cwset^, ' Ic eom as^nd fram 
Dryhtne to 6e, and ic eom ges^tt ofer ealle m^nnisce 

30 llchaman. Nu s^cge ic ];e Seth, ne fearft fu swincan 

^ C, loanting. ^ C, ear's. ^ c, frofor. * C, gespecenuin. 

6 C, comen " 0, gegearrian. "^ C, untrumme. 



XIX, THE HAB ROWING OF HELL. I3I 

byddende ne pyne tearas ageotende ].'3et Su purfe bkldan 
fone ele of j am treowe psere myldheortnysse j^eet })U Adam 
bynne fseder myd smyrian mote for his lichaman sare, 
for |)am cSe gyt ne syndon gefyllede ]7a f if Jnisend wyntra 
and ])a fif hund wyntra J>e sceolon beon agane ^r he ge- 3 
h^led wurSe; ac ponne cym^ se myldheortesta Cryst, 
Godes simu, and gelset pynne feeder Adam on neorxna- 
wang to ]7am treowe psere myldheortnysse.' " pa $ys 
wgeron ealP gehyrende ealle fa^ heahfsederas and ]?a 
wytegan and ealle J^a halgan )?e }>8er on |?am cwicsusle ic 
WEeron, hig weeron swyt5e geblyssigende and God wuld- 
ngende. 

'Hyt wfces swype angrislTc J^a c3a Satanas, j^sere h^lle 
ealdor and J^aes deaSes h^retoga, cwseS to l^sere h^lle, 
"Gegearwa ])Q sylfe ]:'8et ^u meege Cryst onfon, se hyne 15 
sylfne gewuldrod hsefS, and ys Godes sunu and eac man, 
and eac se deaS ys hyne ondreedende — ' and myn sawl 
ys swa Linrot peet me pincS pset ic alybban ne mgeg ' — . 
For J)ig he ys mycel wy^erwynna, and yfel wyrcende 
ongean me and eac ongean pe ; and fsela pe ic hsefde to 20 
me gewyld and to atogen, blynde and 'healte, gebygede 
and hreoflan/ ealle he f ram ]?e atyh(5/' Seo h^ll pa swl(5e 
grymme and swyt5e ^geslice andswarode pa^ Satanase, 
pam ealdan deofle, and cwaB(5, " Hwset ys se (5e ys^ swa 
Strang and swa myhtig, gif he man ys, pset he ne sig 25 
pone dea^ ondraedende pe wyt gefyrn beclysed hsefdon ? 
For pam ealle pa {5e on eor^an anweald hsefdon,^ pu hig 
myd pynre myhte to me getuge/ and ic hig^ fseste ge- 
heold ; and gif pu swa myhtig eart^ swa pu %t wsere, 
hwset ys se man and se H^lend pe ne sig pone deaS and 30 

1 C, wanting. 2 q^ wanting. ^ C, hreflan. * C, "Sam. 
^ C, se \>e sy. ^ c, ealle 'Se anweald on eor^an hafedon. 
' C, gotogon, ^ C, ear^. 



132 XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 

]7yne myhte ondrsedende ? Ac to sotJon ^ ic wat, gif he 
on ni^nniscnysse swa myhtig ys j^aet he na]?er ne unc iie 
c5one deaS ne ondreet, feet ic wat faet swa myhtig he ys 
on godcundnysse Jjset hym ne mseg nan )>yng wytSstandan. 
5 And ic wat gif se dea(5 hyne ondrset, ]?onne gefeJid^ he })e, 
and J>e by)? sefre wa to ecere worulde." Satanas fa, J^ses 
cwycstisles ealdor, pgere h^lle andswarode and pus cwae'6, 
"Hwset twyna(5 fe,^ 0(5(5e hwset ondreetst fu (5e ))one 
Hselend to onf onne, mynne wyt5erwynnan and eac fynne ? 

10 For fon ic hys costnode, and ic gedyde hym )78et eal )78Bt 
Itideisce folc }?8et hig weeron ongean hyne myd yrre and 
myd andan aw^hte; and ic gedyde ]?8et he^ waes myd 
spere gesticod; and ic gedyde ]?9et hym* man drincan 
m^ngde myd geallan^ and myd ^cede; and ic gedyde faet 

15 man hym treowene rode gegearwode and hyne J>ger on 
aheng and hyne myd nseglum gefsestnode; and nti set 
nextan ic wylle hys dea^ to '5e gelsedan, and he sceal 
beon under)7eod aeg^er ge me ge J^e." Seo h^ll J)a swy(5e * 
angrysenlice ]?us cwse^, '^ Wyte }7aet ^u swa do Jjset he 'Sa 

20 deadan fram me ne ateo; for fam fe her^ fsela syndon 
geornfulle fram ine, )>3et hig on me wunian noldon/ Ac 
ic wat \ddt hig fram me ne gewyta'S J^urh heora agene 
myhte, buton hig se selmyhtyga God fram me ateo, se t5e 
Lazarnm ^ of me genam, fone ]?e ic heold deadne f eower 

25 nyht fseste gebunden, and ic hyne eft cwycne ageaf jjurh 
hys bebodu." pa andswarode Satanas and cwse^, ^^ Se 
ylca hyt ys se t5e Lazarum^ of nnc bam genam." Seo 
h^ll hym |)a ^us to cwse^, " Eala ic halsige fe ])urh ]?yne 
mgegemi and eac J)urh myne ))9et (5u n£efre ne gej>afige J>aet 

30 he in on me cume,^ for fam J>a ic gehyrde ))8et word hys 

1 C, sotJau. 2 MSS. gefoh'5. 3 q^ twinost ^u. ^ C, imnting. 
fi A, eallan. ^ ^^ J/i(er her, erasure of about six letters. 
' C, nolden. ^ C, ladzarum. ^ C, inne on me come. 



XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL, 1 33 

bebodes, ic wses myd myclum ^ge afyrlit/ and ealle myne 
arleasan fenas weeron. samod myd me gedr^hte and ge- 
drefede, swa J?aet we ne myhton Lazarum ^ gehealdan ; ac 
he wses hyne asceacende eal swa earn J?onne he myd 
hrsedum^ flyhte wyle forcS afleon, and he swa wses* fram 5 
us rsesende, and seo eor(5e pe Lazarus ^ deadan lichaman 
hgold, heo hyne cwycne ageaf. And )?9et ic nu wat Jjset 
se man pe eall fset gedyde fset he ys on Gode Strang and 
myhtig, and gif \Vi hyne to me Isedest, ealle )?a fe her 
syndon on pysum wselhreowan cwearterne beclysde ^ and 10 
on |>ysum b^ndum myd synnum gewrySene, ealle he myd 
his godcundnysse fram me atyh^, and to lyfe gelset." 

* Ac amang pam ]?e hig ]?us sprsecon,^ fser wses stefen 
and gastllc hream swa hlud swa ^ J?unres sl^ge, and wses 
fas cweSende, " Tollite portas jprincipes uestras & eleuamini 15 
ports eternales & introihit rex glorie " ; fset by (5 on Englisc, 
" Ge ealdras tonymaS fa gatu, and tip ah^bbaS fa ecan 
gatu fset msege in gan se Cyng f ses ecan wuldres." Ac fa 
seo h^ll faet gehyrde, fa cwseS heo to fam ealdre Satane, 
^' Gewyt ra'Se fram me and far tit of mynre onwununge, 20 
and gif fti swa myhtig eart^ swa fti ser ymbe sprsece, 
fonne wyn fu nu ongean fone wuldres Cyning; and 
gewurSe fe and hym." And seo h^ll fa Satan ^ of hys 
setlum tit adraf , and cwseS to fam arleasum f enum, " Be- 
IticaS fa wselhreowan and fa serenan gatu, and to foran 2\ 
on sceotaS fa ysenan scyttelsas, and heom strangllce wif- 
standatS, and fa hseftinga^^ gehealdaS fset we ne beon 
gehsefte." pa fset gehyrde seo msenigeo f sera halgena f e 
Sser ynne w^ron, hig clypedon ealle anre stefne and 
cwsedon to feere h^lle, "Geopena fyne gatu fset msege 3* 

1 A, afyriht. 2 q^ ladzar-. ^ q^ hre^um. * C, waesswa. 

5 A, iDeclysede. ^ c, specon. '^ C, swilce {for swa). ^ C, ear-S, 
® C, satanas. 10 C, hseftinge. 



134 ^I^' THE HARROWING OF HELL. 

in gan se Cyning pses ecan wuldres." pa cwseS Dauid l^a 
gyt, "Ne forewitegode ic eow, J)a t5a ic on eor|?an lyti- 
gende wses,^ ' Andetta^ Dryhtne hys myldheortnysse, for 
])am 6e he hys wundra wyle manna bearnum gecyj^an, 
5 and pa eerenan gatu and fa ysenan scyttelas tobrecan,^ 
and he wyle genyman hig ^ of pam wege heora unryht- 
wysnysse ? ' " ^fter pam ]>a cwsetS se wytega Isaias to 
eallum ])am halgum ]>e ^ger wseron, "And ne fores^ede ic 
eow, ])a ^a ic on eorSan lyfigende wees, ]?8et deade m^n 

TO arysan sceoldon,* and msenige ^ byrgena geopenod weorSan, 
and ■Sa sceoldon geblyssian ]:e on eort5an wseron, for Sam 
])e hym fram Dryhtne hsel sceolde cuman ? " pa ealle ]>a 
halgan pys W£eron gehyrende fram ])am witegan Isaiam/ 
hig w£eron cweSende to ]r^i-e h^lle, " Geopena pyne gatu ; 

15 nu |?u scealt beon untrum and unmyhtig, and myd eallum 
oferswyped." Heom fa Sus gesprecenum/ fger wses ge- 
Avorden seo mycele stefen swylce funres sl^ge, and ]ms 
cw3et5, " Ge ealdras tonimacS eowre gatu and up ah^bbatS 
pa ecan gatu fset msege in gan se Cyning pses ecan 

20 wuldres." Ac seo h^ll ]:a ]:aet gehyrde^ pset hyt wses 
tuwa swa geciipod,^ fa clypode heo ongean and fus 
cwseS, " Hwset ys se Cyning fe sig wuldres Cyning ? " 
Dauid hyre andswarode fa and cwseS, "pas word ic on- 
cnawe, and eac ic fas word gegyddode, fa Sa ic on eorSan 

25 wees, and ic hyt gecwseS feet se sylfa Drihten wolde of 
heofenum on eorSan beseon, and fser gehyran fa geom- 
runge his gebundenra feowa. Ac nu fu fuluste and ]>u 
ful stincendiste h^ll, geopena fyne gatu fset msege in gau 
fses ecan wuldres Cyning." 

i C, wEes lyligende, ba ^'a ic ssede, 

2 C, scittelsas ; A, tobrecoii. ^C, hyg geniraan. 

^ C, sceolden. ^ C, manega. 6A,esaiam. 

7 C, gespecenum. 8 c, Ac J^a seo l>aet gehyrde. 



XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. I35 

'Dauide ]?a pus gesprecenum/ p^r to becom se wnldor- 
fuUa Cyning on mannes gelycnysse, ]?8et wees tire lieofen- 
llca Dryhten, and par pa ecan pystro ealle geondlyhte, 
and par pa synb^ndas ^ tie ealle tobrsec, and he ure eald- 
fgederas ealle geneosode p^r p^r big on^ pam pystriim ser 5 
lange wunigende w^ron.^ Ac seo b^ll and se dea'S and 
heora arleasan penunga, pa ^a big pset gesawon and ge- 
hyrdon, wgeron aforbtode myd heora waelhreowura penum, 
for pam ^e big on heora agenmn rice swa mycele beorbt- 
n^^sse paes leobtes gesawon, and big^ f^ringa Cryst ge- 10 
sawon on pam setle syttan pe be him sylfum geabnod 
b^efde ; and big wseron clypigende and pus cweSende, 
" We syndon f ram pe oferswySde, ac we acsiaS ^ pe, bwget 
eart pu, pu 'Se btitan gelcon geflyte and btitan selcere ge- 
w^mminge myd pynum msegenprymme bsefst tire mybte 15 
genySerod? O^Se bwset eart pti swa mycel and eac swa 
lytel, and swa ny^erlic and eft up swa ^ beab, and swa 
wunderlic on anes mannes by we us to oferdryfennc ^ ? 
Hwset ! ne eart ^ pu se Se ^ lage dead on byrgene, and 
eart lyfigende byder to us cumen,'° and on pynum deaSe 20 
ealle eorSan gesceafta and ealle tungla. syndon astyrode, 
and pti eart freoh geworden betwynan eallum oSrum 
deadum a,nd ealle tire eoredu pti bsefst swiSe gedrefed ? 
And hwaet eart pu pe " bsefst pset leobt byder geonds^nd,^^ 
and myd pynre godcundan mybte and beorbtnysse hsefst 25 
abl^ndpasynfullanpystro, and6ac^^gelyce ealle pas eoredu 
pyssa deofla syndon swySe afyrhte ? ^' And big* wteron 

1 C, gespecenum. 2 q^ sinn-. 

^ C, hig wEeron on. ^ C, wanting. 

5 C, halsia^ \^for acsia'S). 6 q^ g^^a up. 

■^ C, winnanne (/or -dryfenne). ^ q'^ Hwset ne eart wanting. 

^ C, se "Se wanting. ^^ C, gefaren {for cumen). 

11 C, 'Su >u "Se. 12 ^^ eond-. i^ ^^ wanting. 



136 XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 

J7a ealle }?a deoflu clypigende anre stefne, "Hwanon 
eart ]>% la Hselend, swa straug man, and swa beorht on 
msegenjjrymme^butan ^Icon womme, and swa clgene fram 
gelcon leahtre ? Eall eorcSan myddaneard lis wses symble 

5 underJ)eod o^ nu. And eornostlice we ahsiat5 J)e, hwset 
eart ]?u, fu 'Se swa unforht us to eart cum en, and \kv to 
eacan us wylt fram ateon ealle ))a ^e we gefyrn on 
b^ndum heoldon ? Hwse^er hyt wen sig fset ^ti sig se 
ylca Heelend ]?e Satan ^ ure ealdor ymbe spsec, and s£ede 

10 J)3et t^urli J)ynne deaS he wolde geweald habban ealles 
myddaneardes." 

^ Ac se wuldorf aesta Cyning, and ure heofenlica Hlaf ord 
fa nolde J>£era deofla gemat5eles na mare habban, ac he 
fone deofllcan dea(5 feor nyt5er atraed; and he Satan ^ 

15 gegrap and hyne fseste geband, and hyne ]?aere h^lle 
sealde on angeweald.^ Ac heo hyne J)a underfeng eall 
swa hyre fram ure heofenlican Hlaforde gehaten wses. 
pa cwseS s6o h^ll to Satane, " La t5u ealdor ealre forspyl- 
lednysse, and la c5u ord and fruma ealra yfela, and la M 

20 feeder ealra flymena, and la \xi J^e ealdor waere ealles 
dea^es, and la ordfruma ealre modignysse, for hwig ge- 
dyrstlgehtest \vi \q ])8et ^u })3et gej)anc on pset ludeisce f olc 
as^ndest J^aet hig Jjysne Hgelend ahengon, and JjQ hym 
naenne gylt on ne oncneowe ? And J)u nu })urh J)aet try w * 

25 and J)urh ))a rode hsefst ealle ]?yne blysse forspylled, and 
furh ]?8et ])e (5u ))ysne wuldres Cyning ahenge, J?u dydest 
wyt5erwerdlice ongean J)e ^ and eac ongean me ; and on- 
cnaw nti hti fsela ece tyntrega^ and fa unge^ndodan suslo 
fti byst frowigende on mynre ecan gehealtsumnysse." 

30 Ac fa Sa se wuldres Cyning fset gehyrde hu seo h^ll wy?) 



1 A, -l^rynme. 2 c, Satanas. ^ q^ an weald. 

* C, treow. ^ C, aeg'Ser ougean. ^ c^ tyntregaii. 



XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 1 3/ 

|7one reSan Satan sprsec,^ he cwseS to |>^re h^lle, "Beo 
Satan on )7ynum anwealde, and gyt butu on ecum for- 
wyrde, and pset beo ^fre to ecere worulde, on ])8ere stowe 
])e ge Adam and paera witegena beam ser lange on ge- 
heoldon." 5 

^And se wuldorfulla DryMen fa his swyt5ran hand 
aS^nede, and cwseS, " Ealle ge myne halgan, ge J?e myne 
gelycnysse habbaS, cuma6 to me; and ge l^e J)urh |?8es 
tieowes bleda^ genyc^erude wseron, ge seoS nu j^set ge 
sceolon purh paet treow mynre rode, fe ic on ahangen lo 
ivses, oferswySan l^one dea6 and eac j^one deofol." Hyt 
vvaes pa swySe ra6e f^aet ealle pa halgan waeron genealec- 
ende to pses Hselendes handa^; and se Hselend pa Adam 
be ))£ere rihtan^ hand genam and hym to cwseS, ^'Syb sig 
myd ))e, Adam, and myd eallum plnum bearnum." Adam 15 
wges pa nytSer afeallende and pses Heelendes cneow cyss- 
ende, andmydteargeotendre^ halsunge and myd mycelre 
stefne pus cwseS, *' Ic h^rige pe heofena Hlaford pset Su 
me of pysse cwycsusle onfon woldest." And se Haelend 
pa his hand aS^nede and rodetacen ofer Adam geworhte 20 
and ofer ealle his halgan ; and he Adam be psere swyt5ran 
handa^ fram h^lle geteh, and ealle pa halgan heom sefter 
fyligdon. Ac se halga Dauid pa t5us clypode myd strang- 
licre stefne and cwsecS, " SingaS Dryhtne nywne lofsang, 
for pam 6e Dryhten haefS wundra^ eallum peodum ge- 25 
swutelod, and he heefS hys hsele cuSe^gedon toforan ealre 
peode® gesyhSe, and his ryhtwysnysse onwrigen." Ealle 
pa halgan hym pa andswaredon and cwsedon, "pses sig 
Dryhtne maerS, and eallum hys halgum wuldor. Amen. 
Alleluia." 30 

1 C, spsec. 2 c^ blEeda. s C, handan. * MSS., riht. 

5 C, teamm gcotendre. « C, hys wuiidra. 

' A, hu'Se Cfor cu^e). ^ C, ealra 5eoda. 



138 XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 

'Se halga Dryhten waes l^a Adames hand healdende 
and hig Michaele ))am heab^ngle syllende, and hym sylf 
wses on heofenas farende, and ealle ]>si halgan wseron |7a 
Mychaele pam heah^ngle aefterfyligende ; and he hig ealle 

5 in gel^dde on neorxenawang myd wuldorfulre blysse. 
Ac J^a hig inweard foron, j^a gemytton hig twegen ealde 
weras, and ealle ])a halgan hig sona acsedon and heom 
pus to cweedon, " Hwset syndon ge pe on ^ h^lle myd us 
nseron, and ge nu gyt deade naeron,^ and eower lychaman 

10 swa |7eah on neorxnawange togsedere syndon ? " Se 
oSer hym ])a andswarode and cwsd]), " Ic eom Enoch, and 
ic }mrh Dryhtnes word wses hyder al^dd, and |^ys ys 
Hellas ^ Thesbyten pe myd me ys ; se waes on fyrenum 
crsete hyder gef^rod, and wyt gyt deaSes ne onbyrigdon ; 

15 ac wyt sceolon myd godcundum tacnum and myd fore- 
beacnum Antecrystes geanbydian and ongean hyne wyn- 
nan; and wyt sceolon on Hierusalem fram hym beon 
ofslagene, and he eac fram us ; ac wyt sceolon bynnan 
feor(5an healfes dseges fsece beon eft geedcwycode, and 

20 jjurh genypu up onhaf ene.'^ '' 

'Ac onmang^ J?am Se Enoch and Ellas ]>i\s spr^con," 
heom fser to becom sum wer ]>e wses earmlices hywes 
and wses berende anre rode tacen on uppan hys ^xlum ; 
ac ]?a halgan hyne ]>Si sona gesawon, and hym to cw^don, 

25 " Hwaet eart ]?u ]>e Syn ansyn ys swylce anes sceaSan, 
and hwset ys ])ddt tacen pe Su on uppan j^ynum ^xlum 
byrst ? " He hym andswarode and cwseS, " SoS ge s^c- 
gacS )?8et ic sceaSa wses and ealle yfelu on eortian wyr- 
cende, ac ])a ludeas me w^yS ])one Hgelend ahengon, and 

30 ic fa geseah ealle fa t5ing fe be fam HSlende on f^re 

1 C, ge ge \)e on. 2 q^ and ge nu gyt deade nseron wanting. 
3 C, elias. * C, onhefene. 

5 C, amang. ^ q^ specon. 



XIX. THE HABnOWING OF HELL. 1 39 

rode gedone wgeron, and ic pa sona gelyfde j^set he wses 
ealra gesceafta Sc3q3pend and se selmyhtiga Cyning ; and 
ic hyne pa georne baed and ]ms cwaeS, ^Eala Dryhten, ge- 
mun |)u myn ponne ]m on pyn ryce cymest.' And lie wees 
myne bene sona onfonde, and he me to cvvseS, ^To so(5on^ .j 
ic I'e s^cge, to dseg ]>u. byst myd me on neorxnawange ' ; 
and he me pysse rode tacen sealde, and cwseS, ^Ga on 
neorxnawang myd pysum tacne, and gif se ^ngel pe 
ys hyrde to neorxnawanges geate $e inganges forwyrne, 
setyw hym pysse rode tacen, and s^ge to hym, J>set se 10 
HiJelend^ Cryst, Godes sunu, pe nu wses anhangen, ])§ J>yder 
as^nde.' And ic ])a Sam ^ngle |>e Sser hyrde wses eall 
hym swa as^de, and he me sona in gelaedde on pa swy5- 
ran healfe neorxnawanges geates, and he me geanbydian^ 
het, and me to cw8e6, 'Geanbyda^ her 0(5 pset in ga eall 15 
m^nnisc cynn, se^ fseder Adam myd eallum his bearnum 
and myd eallum halgum pe myd hym wseron on paere 
h^Ue.'" Ac Sa ealle pa^ heahfsederas and pa wytegan, 
pa hig gehyrdon ealle pses sceapan word, pa cweedon hig 
ealle anre stefne, " Sig gebletsod se selmyhtiga Drihten, 20 
and se eca Fseder se 6e swylce forgifenysse pinum synnum 
sealde, and myd swylcere gife pe to neorxnawange ge- 
liSdde." He andswarode and cwseS, "Amen."' 

Dys syndon pa godcundan and pa halgan gerynu pe t5a 
twegen wytegan Carinus and Leuticus to soSon^ gesawon 25 
and gehyrdon, eall swa ic «r her beforan ssede pset hig 
on pysne dseg myd pam Hi^lende of deaSe aryson, eall 
swa hig se H^lend of deaSe aw^hte. And ]?a hig eall pys 
gewryten and gefylled hsefdon, hig up aryson and pa 
cartan pe hig gewryten hsefdon pam ealdrum ageafon. 30 

1 C, so^an. 2 A^ haelenda ; C, helend. ^ q^ geandbidian. 

* C, geandbida. ^ A, >e se ; C, ^e. 6 ^^ wanting. 



I40 XIX. THE HABROWING OF HELL, 

Carinus his cartan ageaf Annan and Caiphan and Gama- 
liele ; and gelice Leuticus his cartan ageaf ^ Nychodeme 
and losepe, and heom ))us to cw^don, ^Sybb sig niyd 
eow eallum fram ))am sylfan Dryhtne Heelendum^Cryste, 
5 and fram ure ealra H^elende.' And Carinus and Leuti- 
cus wseron ])a fseringa swa faegeres hywes swa seo sunne 
])onne heo^ beorhtost scyneS^ and on ])8ere beorhtnysse 
hyg of }5am folce gewyton, swa l^set ]>dds folces nawyht 
nyston hwseder hig foron. Ac ]>& ealdras ]>& and fa 

10 msessepreostas * fa gewrytu rseddon fe Carinus and Leu- 
ticus gewryten hsef don : fa wses segtSer gelice gewryten, 
fset naSer uses ne leesse ne mare fonne oSer be anum 
stafe, ne fur^on be anum prican. And fa fa gewrytu ^ 
gersedde wseron, eall f set ludeisce f olc ® fa heom betwynan 

15 cwsedon, ^So6e syndon ealle fas fyng fe her gewordene 
syndon; and sefre sig Dryhten gebletsod, a worulda 
woruld, Amen/ And £elc feera ludea wses fa ham to his 
agenum farende myd mycelre ymbhydignysse, and myd 
mycelum qge, and myd mycelre fyrhto, and heora breost 

<2o beatende f set hig myd f am betan woldon ^ f set hig wyS 
God agylt hsefdon. 

And Joseph and Nychodemus wseron fa farende to 
Pilate fam deman and hym eall atealdon be fam twam 
wytegum, Carine and Leutice, and be fam gewriton and 

25 be ealre fsere fare fe hym^ seror bedyglod wses. Ac 
Pilatus fa on hys dom^rne hym sylf awrat ealle fa fyng 
fe be fam Hselende gedon wseron, and he sytS^an an 
serendgewryt awrat and to Eome as^nde to fam cyninge 
Claudio; and hit wses fus awry ten, 'Se Pontisca Pilatus 

1 C, ageaf and on hand sealde. • 2 c, hselende. 

8 A, he. * C, -prostas. 

6 A, t>a (for >a J>a); C, gewriten. « A, wanting. 

' C, wolden. s c, wanting. 



XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 141 

gret^ hys cynehlaford Claudium; and ic cy^e \e j^set hyt 
nu nywan gelamp ]?9et Sa ludeas J^urh. hyra andan and 
}mrh hyra agene genySerunga pset hig fone Hselend ge- 
jiamon, and eac^ hyne me sealdon, and hyne swytSe^ 
wregdon, and hym fsela ongean lugon, and seedon fset he 5 
dry wsere, and eac J^aet he selcne r^stedseg * gew^mde, for 
|)an t5e hig gesawon ])get he on r^stedagum blynde m^n 
gelyhte, and hreofian geclsensode, and deofolseocnyssa 
fram mannum aflymde, and deade aw^hte, and fsela ot5ra 
wundra he worhte. And ic heom gelyfde swa svva ic na 10 
ne sceolde, and ic hyne swingan het and hyne heom 
syS^an to heora agenum dome ageaf; and hig hyne 
syt5San on treowenre r5de uhengon, and he ^ ])mT on dead 
wes ; and eft syS^an he bebyrged wses, hig peer to his 
bja-gene ges^tton -iiii- and feowertig c^mpena ]>e j^one 15 
lichaman healdan sceoldon ; ac he on |am J>ryddan dsege 
of dea^e aras, and ] a hyrdas hyt eall assedon, and hyt 
forhelan nc myhton. Ac fa Tudeas ];a hig J^aet gehyrdon, 
hig J7am hyrdon feoh geafon : and hig J^aet s^cgan sceoldon 
J^set his cnyhtas comon and ]7one lychaman forsteelon. 26 
And ])8i hyrdas ])ci |?8et feoh ftngon/ and hig swa feah J7a 
sopfsestnysse ])e Sser geworden wses forsuwian ne myhton. 
Nu leof cyning ic pe eac Itere for ])ig ] set ^u nsefre )?8era 
ludea leasunga ne gelyfe. Sig Dryhtne lof, and deoflum 
sorh, a to worulde. Amen.' 25 

1 C, gret wel. 2 c^ eac hyg. 3 q, wanting. 

* C, restne dseg. s c, onfengon. 



PAET IV. 

XX. 

C^DMON'S GENESIS. 

The Offering of Isaac. 

[From the Genesis attributed to Caedmon, preserved in MS. 
Junius XI of the Bodleian Library.] 

pa ]78es rinces se rica ongan [2845] 

Cyning costigan, cunnode georne 

hwilc ]78es seSelinges ^llen wsere, 

sti^um wordum sprsec Mm stefne to: 
5 ^Gewit ]m ofestlice, Abraham, feran, 

lastas l^cgan, and ])e l^de mid [2850] 

]im agen beam ; pu sCealt Isaac me 

ons^cgan, sunu f^inne, sylf to tibre ! 

Sit3t5an |iu gestigest steape dune, 
10 hrincg })8es hean landes, ])e ic j^e heonon getsece, 

up ))mum agnum fotum, fser ])u scealt ad gegeer- " 

wan, . [2855] 

bselfyr bearne t5inura, and blotan sylf 

sunu mid sweordes ^cge, and Sonne sweartan lige 

leofes lie forbsernan, and me lac bebeodan.' 
15 Ne forsaet he ])j si8e, ac sona ongann 

fysan to fore : him wses Erean ^ ^ngla [2860] 

1 MS., frea; Thorpe. 



XX. THE OFFERING OF ISAAC. 143 

word ondrysne, and his Waldend leof. 

Da se eadga Abraham sine 

nihtr^ste ofgeaf : nalles N^rgendes 

hsese wit^hogode, ac hine se halga wer 
5 gyrde grgegan sweorde, cytSde Cset him gasta 

Weardes [2865] 

^gesa on breostum wunode. Ongan t5a his ^solas 
bsetan, 

gamolferht5 goldes brytta, heht hine geonge 
twegen 

m^n mid sKian ; mseg wses his agen J^ridda, 

and he feor^a sylf. pa he fus gewat 
10 from his agenum hofe Isaac laedan, [2870] 

beam unweaxen, swa him behead Metod. 
' Efste Sa swiSe and onette 

forS foldwege, swa him Frea tsehte 

wegas ofer westen, otS ])dQt wuldortorht 
15 dseges Jriddan tip ofer deop waeter [2875] 

ord argemde. pa se eadega wer 

geseah hlifigan hea dune, 

swa him ssegde ^r swegles Aldor. 

pa Abraham sprsec to his ombihtum, 
20 ' Eincas mine, r^staS incit her [2880] 

on Sissum wicnm ; wit eft cumat5, 

sifSSan wit ^rende nncer twega 

Gastcyninge agifen habbaS/ 

Gewat him J^a se seSeling, and his agen sunu, 
25 to ])8es gemearces fe him Metod taehte, [2885] 

wadan ofer wealdas ; wudu bser sunu, 

feeder fyr and sweord. pa ^ses fricgean ongann 

wer wintrum geong wordum Abraham : 

' Wit her fyr and sweord, frea mm, habbaS ; 
30 hweer is fset tiber, feet pu torht Gode [2890] 



144 ^^' THE OFFEBING OF ISAAC. 

to pam brynegielde bringan J^^ncest ? ' 
Abraham maSelode (hsefde on an gehogod 
paet he gedsede swa hine Drihten het) : 

* Him fset SoScyning sylf a findetS, 

5 moncynnes Weard, swa him gemet jnnceS/ [2895] 

Gestah ]:a stKhydig steape dune 

up mid his eaforan, swa him se eca bebead, 

pset he on hrofe gestod hean landes, 

on J)£ere [stowe] ^ })e him se stranga to, 
10 w^erfsest Metod, wordum tsehte. [2900] 

Ongan j^a ad hladan, aeled w^ccan, 

and gefeterode fet and honda 

bearne sinum, and fa on b^l ahof 

Isaac geongne, and pa £edre gegrap 
15 sweord be gehiltum : wolde his sunu cw^Uan [2905] 

folmum sinum, fyre scqncan^ 

meeges dreore. pa Metodes Segn 

ufan, ^ngla sum, Abraham hlude 

stefne cygde. He stille gebad 
20 ares spreece and pam ^ngle oncwseS. [2910] 

Him ^a of stum to, ufan of roderum, 

wuldorgast Godes wordum mgelde : 

* Abraham leof a, ne sleah ])u. ]nn agen beam, 
ac )>u cwicne abregd cniht of ade, 

25 eaforan ))inne : him an wuldres God. [2915] 

Mago Ebrea, \u medum scealt 
))urh })8es halgan hand, Heofoncyninges, 
sot5um sigorleanum, selfa onfon 
ginfsestum gifum : |^e wile gasta Weard 

30 lissum gyldan, J)3et j^e wees leofra his [2920] 

sibb and hyldo, fonne. l>in sylfes beam.' 

I Bouterwek. 2 ]\is sencart 



XX. THE OFFERING OF ISAAC. 1 45 

Ad stod on^led ; hsefde Abrahame 
Metod moncynnes, msege Lothes, 
breost geblissad, fa he him his beam forgeaf, 
Isaac cwicne. pa se eadega bewlat [^925] 

3 rinc ofer ^xle, and him Sser rom geseah 
unfeor ^anoiij senne standan, 
broSor Arones, brembrum faestne ; 
|)one Abraham genam, and hine on ad ahof, 
ofestum miclum, for his agen beam. [2930] 

10 Abrsegd Sa mid ^j bille, brynegield onhread, 
reocenclne ^ weg rommes blode, 
onbleot fjset lac Gode, ssegde leana psmc 
and ealra j^ara [s^lt5a]- pe him siS and £er 
gifena Drihten forgifen hsefde. [^935] 

I MS., recceudue. s GreiOr 



XXI. 

THE BATTLE OF BEUNANBURH. 

[From the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.] 

An. Dccccxxxvii. 

Her ^Selstan cyning, eorla drihten, 

beorna beahgifa, and his bro6or eac, 

Eadmund aeSeling, ealdorlangne tir 

geslogon eet ssecce sweorda ^cgum 
5 ymbe Brunanburh : bordweall clufon, [5] 

heowon heaSolinde hamora lafum, 

eaforan Eadweardes ; swa him geseSele waes 

tram cneomagum, Sset hi set campe oft 

wi?^ laSra gehwsene land ealgodon, 
10 hord and hamas. H^ttend crungon, [10] 

Scotta leode and scipflotan, 

f^ege feollon : feld dennode 

s^cga swate, si|)}^an sunne upp 

on morgentid, meere tungol, 
15 glad ofer grundas, Godes candel beorht, [15] 

eces Drihtnes, o5 s!o seSele gesceaft 

sah t5 setle. Dser laeg s^cg monig 

garum ageted, guma Nor(5erna 

ofer scyld scoten, swylce Scyttisc eac 
20 werig wiges ssed. Wesseaxe forS [20] 

andlangne dseg eoredcystum 

on last l^gdon lafium Seodum; 

heowon h^reflyman hindan 6earle 
146 



XXI. THE BATTLE OF BRUNANBUBH. 147 

mecum mylenscearpiim. Myrce ne wyrndon 

heardes handplegan hsele^a nanum, [25] 

t5ara f>e mid Anlafe ofer eargebland 

on lides bosme land gesohton, 
5 fgege to gefeohte. Fife lagon 

on t5am campst^de cyningas geonge 

sweordum asw^fede, swylce seofone eac [30] 

eorlas Anlafes, unrim h^rges, 

flotena and Scotta, Deer geflymed wearS 
10 NorSmanna brego, neade gebeeded 

to lides stefne lytle weorode : 

cread cnear on flot ; cyning ut gewat [35] 

on fealone flod, feorh gen^rede. 

Swylce t5£er eac se froda mid fleame com 
15 on his cy$(5e nor$, Constantinus, 

bar hilderinc ; hreman ne 6orfte 

meca gemanr^n : he waes his maga sceard, [40] 

freonda gefylled on folcst^de, 

beslsegen aet ssecce, and his sunu forlet 
20 on wselstowe wundum forgriinden, 

geongne set gut)e. Gylpan ne 6orfte 

beorn blandenfeax billgeslihtes, [45] 

eald inwitta, ne Anlaf 6y ma 

mid heora h^relafiim ; hlihhan ne Sorfton, 
25 t58et h! beaduweorca b^teran wurdon 

on campst^de cumbolgehnastes, 

garmittinge, gumena gemotes, [50] 

wsepengewrTxles, Spes hi on wselfelda 

wi6 Eadweardes eaforan plegodon. 
30 Gewiton him pa NorSm^nn nsegledcnearrum, 

dreorig daro5a laf, on Dinges m^re 

ofer deop wseter Dyflin secan, [55] 

and eft Iraland, sewiscmode. 



148 XXL THE BATTLE OF B RUN AN BURR. 

Swylce ^a gebrot5or begen setsQmne, 

cyning and seSeling, cyt5t5e sohton, 

Wesseaxna land, wiges hremge. 

Leton him behindan lira bryttigan [60] 

^' salowigpadan, t5one sweartan hrsefn, 

hyrnedn^bban, and •gone liasopadan 

earn seftan hw!t, ^ses brucan, 

graedigne gu6liafoc, and t58et grsege deor, 

wulf on wealda. Ne wear$ wsel mare [65] 

10 on t5ys iglande tefre gyta 

folces gefylled beforan t5yssum 

sweordes ^cgum, t^ees Se us s^cgat5 bee, 

ealde ut5witan, si|7j)an eastan hider 

^lEngle and Seaxe upp becomon [70^ 

15 ofer brade brimii, Brytene sohton, 

wlance wigsmiSas Wealas ofercomon, 

eorlas arhwate eard begeaton. 



XXII. 

THE BATTLE OF MALDOK 

[This poem was preserved in but one MS., Cotton Otho A xii, 
which was destroyed in the fire of 1731 ; fortunately, Thomas 
Hearne had copied and published it in 1726. The variants there- 
fore refer to Hearne' s text.] 

. . . . brocen wurde ; 
het ])a hyssa hwsene hors forlaetan, 
feorr afysan, and forS gangan, 
hicgan to handum, and to hige ^ godum. 
5 pa^ l^aet Offan meeg serest onfunde, [5] 

])ddt se eorl nolde yrhSo gepolian : 
he let him ]>§. of handon leofne ^ fleogan 
hafoc wi6 ])dds holtes, and to j^^re hilde stop ; 
be })am man mihte oncnawan j^get se cniht nolde 

10 wacian set fam wige,* ])a he to wsepnnm feng. [lo] 
Eac him wolde Eadric his ealdre gelyestan, 
frean to gefeohte ; ongan ])a forS beran 
gar to gupe : he hsefde god gej^anc, 
|)a hwile pe he mid handum healdan mihte 

15 bord and brad swurd ; beot he geleeste, [153 

fa he setforan his frean feohtan sceolde. 

Da })8er ByrhtnoS ongan beornas trymian, 
rad and r^edde, rincum teehte 
hti hi sceoldon standan, and pone st^de healdan, 

20 and beed ]>sdt hyra randas ^ rihte heoldon [20] 

fseste mid folman, and ne forhtedon na. 

1 thige (for to hige). ^ ];>. 3 leofre. ^ w. ge. ^ randan. 

149 



150 XXII THE BATTLE OF MALBON. 

pa he hsefde |>3et folc fsegere getrymmed, 

he libte pa mid leodon, ])8er him leofost waes, 

]:>8er he his heorSwerod holdost wiste. 

pa stod on stseSe, stiSlice clypode [25] 

5 wicinga ar, wordum meelde, 

se on beot abe^td brimli|}endra 

ffirende ^ to \>hm eorle, ]>^i he on of re stod : 

' Me s^ndon to |)e ssem^n snelle ; 

heton ^e slogan, jpset J)U most s^ndan raSe [30] 

10 beagas wi6 gebeorge ; and eow b^tere is 

]?8et ge ))isne garrges mid gafole forgyldon, 

]?onne ^ we swa hearde hilde ^ d^lon. 

Ne ]?urf e we us spillan, gif ge speda}) to fam : 

we willaS wiS })am golde griS fsestnian. [35] 

15 Gyf J?u ]>3et ^ gergedest, pe her ricost eart, 

pset j>u |)ine leoda lysan wille, 

syllan sgemannum on hyra sylfra dom 

feoh wi6 freode, and niman friS set us, 

we willap mid J>am sceattum us to scype gangan, [40] 
20 on flot feran, and eow fripes healdan/ 

ByrhtnoS mapelode, bord hafenode, 

wand wacne sesc, wordum mgelde, 

yrre and anr^d, ageaf him andsware : 

'Gehyrst^ ]m, saslida, hwset pis folc s^geS? [45] 

25 hi willat^ eow to gafole garas syllaa, 

settrynne ord and ealde swurd, 

pa h^regeatu pe eow set hilde ne deah. 

Erimmanna boda, abeod eft ongean, 

s^ge pTnum leodum miccle lapre spell, [50] 

3c pset her stynt unforcu^ eorl mid his werode, 

pe wile geealgiin^ epel pysne, 

1 sersende. ^ >on. ^ . ,\i\d(i. * bat. ^ gehyrt. ^ gealgean. 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 151 

^l^elredes eard, ealdres mines, 
folc and foldan ; feallan sceolon 
h^j^ene aet hilde. To heanlTc me |>inceS [55] 

fset ge mid urum sceattum to scype gangon 
5 unbefohtene, nu ge pus feor hider 
on urne eard in becomon ; 
ne sceole ge swa softe sine gegangan: 
us sceal ord and ^cg ger geseman, [60] 

grimm gu(5plega, ter we gafoP syllon.' 

10 Het ]m bord beran, beornas gangan, 
l^get hi on J^am eastseSe^ ealle stodon, 
Ne mihte ]:ȣer for wsetere werod to ]7am o^rum : 
fser com fiowende flod sefter ^bban, [65] 

lucon lagustreamas ; to lang hit him |)uhte, 

I? hweenne h! togsedere garas b^eron.^ 

Hi ]72er Pantan stream mid prasse bestodon, 
Eastseaxena ord and se sesch^re ; 
ne mihte hyra eenig oSrum dorian, [703 

buton hwa purh flanes flyht fyl gename. 

o Se flod ut gewat ; pa flotan stodon gearowe, 
wicinga fela, wiges georne. 
Het pa hseleSa hleo healdan pa bricge 
wigan wlgheardne, se wses haten Wulfstan, [75] 
cafne mid his cynne, pset wses Ceolan sunu, 

e5 pe t^one form an man mid his francan ofsceat^ 
pe peer baldlicost on pa bricge stop. 
p^r stodon mid Wulfstane wigan unforhte, 
^If^re and Maccus, modige twegen ; [go] 

pa noldon set pam forda fleam gewyrcan, 

30 ac h! fsestlTce wiS Sa fynd w^redon, 
pa hwile pe hi weepna wealdan moston. 

1 he gofol. 2 easte'Se. ^ beron. 



152 XX 11. THE BATTLE OF MALDON, 

pa hi }>8et ongeaton, and georne gesawon 
)>8et hi ]>£er bricgweardas bitere fundon, [85] 

oiigunnon lytegian )7a lat5e ^ gystas : 
bsedon fset hi upgang^ agan moston, 
5 ofer )7one ford faran, fe|7an Isedan. 
Da se eorl ongan for his ofermode 
alyfan laodes to fela laj^ere t5eode; [90] 

ongan ceallian \2i ofer cald wgeter 
Byrhtelmes beam (beornas gehlyston) : 

10 *Nu eow is gerymed, gaf5 ricene to us, 
guman to gupe ; God ana wat 

hwa pgere wgelstowe wealdan mote.' [95] 

Wodon ])a waelwulfas, for wsetere lie murnon, 
wTcinga werod, west ^ ofer Pantan, 

15 ofer scir wseter scyldas wsegon,* 
lidm^n to lande linde bseron. 

p£er ongean gramnm gearowe stodon [100] 

ByrhtnoS mid beornum : he mid bordum het 
wyrcan pone wihagan, and pset werod healdan 

20 fseste wits feondum. pa wses feohte ^ neh, 
tir set getohte ; waes seo tid cumen 
]>ddt |)8er feege m^n feallan sceoldon. [105] 

pser wearS hream ahafen, hr^mmas^ wundon, 
earn ffises georn : wses on eorj^an cyrm. 

25 HI leton l^a of folman feolhearde speru, 
gegrundene garas fleogan : 

bogan w^ron bysige, bord ord onfeng, [no] 

biter wees se beadnrses, beornas feollon 
on gehwseSere hand, hyssas lagon. 

30 Wund wear6 ^ Wulfmser, waelraeste geceas, 

1 lu^e. 2 upgangan. ^ pest. * wegon. 

5 fohte. ^ bremmas. "' weard. 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 1 53 

ByrhtnoSes mgeg ; he mid billum weart5, 

his swuster sunn, swl^e forheawen. [115] 

peer \vear8 ^ wicingum wiperleaii agyfen ; 

gehyrde ic J'set Eadweard anne sloge 
5 swTSe mid his swurde, swinges ne wyrnde, 

]7get him aet fotum feoll f^ge c^mpa ; 

|}8es him his t5eoden ] anc gessede, [120] 

)7am burpene, fa he byre hgefde. 

Swa steranetton strShycgende ^ 
10 hyssas ^ set hilde ; hogodon georne 

hwa ]>ser mid orde ^rost mihte 

on f^egean m^n feorh gewinnan, [125] 

wigan mid weepnum : wael feol on eorSan. 

Stodon stsedefaeste, stihte hi Byrhtno^, 
15 bssd fset hyssa gehwylc hogode to wTge, 

J^e on D^non wolde dom gefeohtan. 

Wod ]^a wTges heard, wsepen up ahof, * [130] 

bord to gebeorge, and wis )>3es beornes stop ; 

eode swa anrsed eorl to J^am ceorle : 
20 ^g)7er hyra oSrum yfeles hogode. 

S^nde Sa se sserinc suj^erne gar, 

|)9et gewundod wear6 wigena hlaford ; [135] 

he sceaf ]>& mid t5am scylde, ]78et se sceaft tobgerst, 

and ])2et spere spr^ngde, j^get hit sprang ongean. 
25 Gegr^mod wearS se giitJrinc : he mid gare stang 

wlancne wTcing, ])e him j^a wnnde forgeaf. 

"Frod wses se fyrdrinc, he let his francan wadan [140] 

jmrh 'Sses hysses hals ; hand wTsode 

l^aet he on ])am feersceaSan feorh gersehte. 
30 Da he 6|?erne ofstllce sceat, 

])8et seo byrne tobserst ; he wees on breostum wund 



' wserd. ^ sti'Shugende. 



154 XXIL THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 

)>urh Sa hringlocan, him set heortan stod [145] 

eetterne ord. Se eorl wses j^e blTpra, 

hloh. pa modi man, s^de Metode l^anc 

Sees dgegweorces ]>e him Drihten forgeaf. 
5 Forlet J>a dr^nga sum daroS of handa, 

fleogan of folman, ])set se to for6 gewat [150] 

J7urh t5one sepelan ^J^elredes Ipegen. 

Him be healfe stod hyse unweaxen, 

cniht on gecampe, se full caflice 
10 brsed of ] am beorne blodigne gar, 

Wulfstanes beam, Wulfmger se geonga ; [155] 

forlet forheardne f aran eft ongean : 

ord in gewod, ])set se on eorj^an Iseg, 

Ipe his ])eoden ser pearle gersehte. 
15 Eode ]ia gesyrwed s^cg to j^am eorle ; 

he wolde |)8es beornes beagas gef^cgan, [160] 

reaf and hringas, and gerenod swurd. 

Da Byrhtno6 breed bill of sceaSe,^ 

brad and brun^cg,^ and on ]7a byrnan sloh : . 
20 to rape hine gel^tte lidmanna sum, 

pa he pses eorles earm amyrde ; [165] 

feoll pa to foldan fealohilte swurd, 

ne mihte he gehealdan heardne mece, 

wsepnes wealdan. pa gyt peet word gecwaetS 
25 har hilderinc, hyssas bylde, 

bsed gangan fort5 gode geferan : [170] 

ne mihte pa on fotum l^ng fgeste gestandan^; 

he to heofenum wlat 

^Ic gepancie'' pe Seoda Waldend, 
30 ealra peera wynna pe ic on worulde gebad. 

Xu ic ah, milde Metod, mseste pearfe, [175] 

1 sce'Se- 2 bruneccg. ^ gestuiidan. ^ ge ^>ance (for ic gebancie). 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALBON. 1 55 

])8et )}u mlnum gaste godes geunne, 

jjset mm sawul to tSe siSian mote, 

on \)m geweald, peoden ^ngla, 

mid fripe f^riau ; ic eom frymdi to pe, 
5 fset hi h^lsceaSan hynan ne moton.' C'^o] 

Da hine heowon heeSeue scealcas, 

and begen pa beornas ]:>e him big stodon, 

^IfnotS and Wulmser begen ^ lagon, 

§a onemn hyra frean feorh gesealdon. 
10 HI bngon \>k f ram beaduwe j^e j^^r beon noldon : [185] 

])£er wurdon Oddan beam ^rest on fleame, 

Grodric fram guj^e, and pone g5dan forlet, 

|)e him msenigne oft mear - gesealde ; 

he gehleop |)one eoh, ]?e ahte his hlaford, 
15 on jam gersedum ]>e hit riht ne waes, [190] 

and his bro6ru mid him, begen serndon/ 

Godrinc ^ and Godwig, gupe ne gymdon, 

ac w^ndon fram pam wige, and pone wudu sohton, 

flugon on pget fsesten, and hyra feore burgon, 
20 and manna ma ponne hit eenig mee^ wsere, [195] 

gyf hi pa geearnunga ealle gemundon, 

pe he him to dugupe gedon hsefde. 

Swa him Offa on dseg eer assede, 

on pam msepelst^de,^ pa he gemot haefde, 
35 p3et peer modiglice ® manega spr^con, [200] 

pe eft set pearfe ^ polian noldon. 

Da wearS afeallen paes folces ealdor, 

^pelredes eorl ; ealle gesawon 

he or (S gen eat as paet hyra hearra ^ Iseg. 
30 pa Sser w^ndon fort5 wlance pegenas, [205] 

i Eds., bewegen. 2 Eds., mearh. » gerdon. * godrine. 

^ me>elstede. ^ modelice. "^ >aere. ^ heorra. 



156 XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 

unearge m^n efston georne : 

hi woldon fa ealle 6t5er twega, 

iTf forlsetan^ o^Se leofne gewrecan. 

Swa hi bylde fortS beam ^Ifrices, 
5 wiga wintrum geong, wordum mselde, [210] 

iElfwine pa cwsetS, he on ^Uen sprsec : 

^ GemunaS ^ fa msela, fe we oft set meodo spraeeon, 

ponne we on b^nce beot ahofon, 

hseleS on healle, ymbe heard gewinn ; 
10 nu mseg cunnian hwa cene sy. [215] 

•Ic wylle mine sefelo eallum gecyfan, 

fset ic wses on Myrcon miccles cynnes ; 

wses mm ealda feeder Ealhelm haten, 

WIS ealdorman, woruldgesselig. 
15 Ne sceolon me on fsere f eode fegenas setwitan, [220] 

feet ic of tSisse fyrde feran wille, 

eard gesecan, nu mm ealdor ligeS 

forheawen set hilde ; me is f set hearma msest : 

he wses segSer^ mm mseg and mm hlaford/ 
20 pa he forS eode, fseh^e gemunde, [225] 

|>8et he mid orde anne ger^hte 

flotan on ] am folce, fset se on foldan Iseg 

forwegen mid his wsepne. Ongan fa winas manian, 

frynd and geferan, fset hi forS eodon. 
25 Offa gem^lde, sescholt asceoc : [230] 

'Hwset fu, ^Ifwine, hafast ealle gemanode, 

fegenas to fearfe : nu fire ] eoden \y6, 

eorl on eorSan, us is eallum fearf 

fset ure ^ghwylc oferne bylde 
30 wigan to wige, fa hwTle fe he wsepen msege [235] 

habban and healdan, heardne mece, 

1 iorlsBtun. 2 gemunu. ^ gggder. 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF 3IALD0N. 1 57 

gar and god swurd. Us Godric h8ef(5, 
earli Oddan beam, ealle beswicene : 
wende j^ses for moni man, ):a he on meare rad, 
on wlancan ] am wicge, ])8et wgere hit tire hlaford ; [240] 
5 for l^an wearS her on felda f olc totweemed, 
scyldburh tobrocen : abreoc5e his an gin, 
Jjset he her swa manigne man aflymde ! ' 
Leofsunu gemeelde, and his linde ahof, 
bord to gebeorge, he ]:am beorne oncwse'S : [245] 

.0 ' Ic ])8et gehate, faet ic heonon nelle 
fleon fotes trym, ac wille furt5or gan, 
Tvrecan on gewinne minne winedrihten. 
Ne furfon me embe Sturm^re st^defseste hseleS ^ 
wordum setwitan, nu mm wine gecranc, [250] 

15 ])8Bt ic hlafordleas ham si5ie, 

w^nde fram wige; ac me sceal wgepen niman, 

ord and iren.' He ful yrre wod, 

feaht faestlTce, fleam he forhogode. 

Diinnere pa cwse^, daro^ acw^hte, C^ss] 

20 unorne ceorl, ofer eall clypode, 

bsed \)ddt beorna gehwylc ByrhtnoS wrsece : 

^ISTe maeg na wandian se ]>e wrecan Jj^ncetS 

frean on folce, ne for feore murnan.' 

pa hi forS eodon, feores hi ne rohton ; [260] 

25 ongunnon pa hiredm^n heardlice feohtan, 
grame garberend, and God baedon 
pset hi moston gewrecan hyra winedrihten, 
and on hyra feondum fyl gewyrcan. 
Him se gysel ongan geornlTce fylstan ; [265] 

30 he waes on ISrort5hymbron heardes cynnes, 
^cglaf es beam, him wses ^scf ert5 nama : 

1 haBlaetS. 



158 XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 

he lie wandode na set J^am wigplegan, 

ac he fysde fort5 flan genehe ; 

hwilon he on bord sceat, hwilon beorn teesde ; [270] 

sefre embe stunde he sealde sume wunde, 
5 pa hwile t5e he wsepna wealdan moste. 

Da gyt on orde stod Eadweard se langa, 

gearo ^ and geornful ; gylpwordum spreec, 

]78et he nolde fleogan fotmgel landes, [275] 

ofer bsec bugan, ]7a his b^tera Iseg^: 
10 he braec ))one bordweall, and wi^ 6a beornas feaht, 

ot5 |J8et he his sincgyf an on ]?am ssemannum 

wurSlice wrsec,^ eer he on wsele leege. 

Swa dyde Mperic, sepele gefera, [280] 

fus and forSgeorn, feaht eornoste, 
15 Sibyrhtes broSor and swiSe msenig oj^er 

clufon cellod bord, cene hi w^redon : 

bserst hordes Iserig, and seo byrne sang 

gryreleot5a sum. pa set guSe sloh [2S5] 

Offa l^one sselidan, j^aet he on eort^an feoll, 
20 and 'Sser Gaddes mseg grund gesohte : 

isc6e weart5 aet hilde Offa f orheawen ; 

he hsefde 6eah gefor]7od J^set he his frean gehet, 

swa he beotode ger wi6 his beahgifan, [290] 

]78et hi sceoldon begen on burh ridan, 
25 hale to hame, oS6e on h^re cringan/ 

on wselstowe wundum sweltan ; 

he Iseg t^egenllce Seodne geh^nde. 

Da wear^ borda gebrsec ; brimra^n wodon, [295] 

. gut5e gegr^mode ; gar oft Jmrhwod 
30 faeges feorhhus. ForS ]?a^ eode Wistan, 

1 gearc. 2 leg. 8 yttgc. 

* crintgan. '' f or'Sa. 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 1 59 

purstanes sunu,^ wi6 pas s^cgas feaht j 

he W9es on ge]>range ^ hyra ])reora bana, 

£er him Wigelines beam on )>am wsele l£ege. [300] 

peer wses sti6 gemot : stodon faeste 
5 wigan on gewinne, wTgend cruncon, 

wundum werige ; wsel feol on eorjjan. 

Oswold and Ealdwold ealle hwile, 

begen fa gebro))ru, beornas trymedon, [305] 

hyra winemagas wordon bsedon 
10 ])8et hi ]?^r set Searfe Jiolian sceoldon, 

unwaclice w^pna neotan. 

Byrhtwold mapelode, bord hafenode, 

se wses eald geneat, sesc acw^hte, C3^°3 

he ful baldlice beornas leerde : 
15 'Hige sceal pe heardra, heorte fe cenre, 

mod sceal ]?e mare, fe ure msegen lytlatS. 

her lis ure ealdor eall forheawen, 

god on greote ; a mseg gnornian [315] 

se Se nu fram J>is wTgplegan w^ndan f^nceS. 
20 Ic eom frod feores : fram ic ne wille, 

ac ic me be healfe minum hlaforde 

be swa leofan m^n licgan p^nce/ 

Swa hi ^pelgares beam ealle bylde, [320] 

Godric to gupe ; oft he gar forlet 
25 wselspere windan on pa wicingas, 

swa he on pam f olce fyrmest code, 

heow and hynde, oS ^ pset he on hilde gecranc. 

Nses pset na se Godric pe Sa guSe forbeah [325] 



isuna, 2ge),rang ^odu 



XXIII. 

THE WANDERER. 

[Preserved in the Exeter MS.] 



Oft him anhaga are gebideS, 

Metudes milts e, ]?eali ]>e lie modcearig 

geond lagulade^ longe sceolde 

hreran mid hondum hrimcealde sse, 
5 wadan wrseclastas : wyrd bit5 ful areed ! [5] 

Swa cwgeS eardstapa earfepa gemyndig, 

wraj)ra wselslealita, winemgega hryre : 

^ Oft ic sceolde ana uhtna gehwylce 

mine ceare cwi]>an ; nis nu cwicra nan, 
10 ]>G ic him modsefan minne durre [lo^ 

sweotule as^cgan. Ic to so|>e wat 

])set bi)? in eorle indryhten peaw,. 

]>8et he his ferSlocan fseste binde, 

healde ^ his hordcofan, hycge swa he wills ; 
15 ne mseg werig mod wyrde wi^stondan [15] 

ne se hreo hyge helpe gef r^mman : 

for f5on domgeorne dreorigne oft 

in hyra breostcofan bindat5 fseste. 

Swa ic modsefan minne sceolde 
20 oft earmcearig eSle bidseled, [20] 

freomsegum feor feterum sselan, 

sij>)>an geara iu gold wine minne ^ 

hrusan heolster ^ biwrah, and ic hean ponan 

1 healdne. 2 mine ^ heolstre. 

160 



XXIII. THE WAN DEB EB. l6l 

wod wintercearig ofer wa])enia^ gebind, 
sohte s^le dreorig sinces bryttan, [25] 

hwaer ic feor ojjfe neah findan meahte 
pone ])e in meoduhealle minne ^ wisse 
5 o]>])e mec f reondleasne ^ f ref ran wolde, 
w^nian mid wynnum. Wat se ])e cunnat5 
hu slipen bit5 sorg to geferan [30] 

pam ])e him lyt hafat$ leof ra geholena : 
warat5 bine wrseclast, nales wunden gold, 

10 fer^loca freorig, nalaes foldan bl2ed ; 
gemon he s^les^cgas and sincf^ge, 
hu bine on geogut5e his goldwine [35] 

w^nede to wiste : wyn eal gedreas ! 
For pon wat se ])e sceal his winedryhtnes 

15 leofes larcwidum longe forpolian, 
tSonne sorg and sleep somod setgaedre 
earmne anhagan * oft gebinda^ : [40] 

J>incet5 him on mode ])8et he his mondryhten 
clyppe and cysse, and on cneo l^cge * 

20 honda and heafod, swa he hwilum ^r 
in geardagum gief stolas breac ; 
^onne onwsecne^ eft wineleas guma, [45] 

gesibS him biforan fealwe wsegas,^ 
bafian brimfuglas, brsedan fe|)ra, 

25 hreosan brim and snaw hagle gem^nged. 
ponne beo^ J>y h^figran heortan b^nne, 
sare sefter swsesne, sorg bit5 geniwad, [50] 

ponne maga gemynd mod geondhweorfetJ, 
gretet5 gliwstafum, georne geondsceawaS 

30 s^cga geseldan : swimmatS eft ^ on weg ; 

1 wal^ena. 2 mine ; Thorpe. ^ 4ease. * anhogan. 
5 Isege. 6 wegas. " oft. 



1 62 XXIII. THE WANDEEER. 

lleotendra ferS no )>£er fela bringeS 

cu^ra cwidegiedda ; cearo biS geniwad [55] 

}>am pe s^ndan sceai swljie geneahhe 

ofer waj^eina gebind werigne sefan. 
5 For pon ic ge|?^iican ne mseg geond [)as woruld 

for hwan modsefa min* ne gesweorce, 

j?onne ic eorla lif eal geondp^nce, [60] 

liu hi f^rlice fl^t ofgeafon, 

modge magupegnas. Swa pes middangeard 
10 ealra dogra gehwam dreoseS and fealle)? ; 

for j>on ne mseg weorf^an ^ wis wer, eer he age 

wintra dsel in woruldrice. Wita sceal ge)?yldig, [65] 

ne sceal no to hatheort ne to hrsedwyrde, 

ne to wac wiga ne to wanhydig^ 
15 ne to forht ne to fsegen ne to feohgifre, 

ne nsefre gielpes to georn, ger he geare cunne. 

Beorn sceal gebidan, ponne he beot spriceS, [70] 

op pset collenfertS cunne gearwe 

hwider hrepra gehygd hweorfan wille. 
20 Ongietan sceal gleaw haele hu gsestlic biS, 

ponne eall ^ pisse worulde wela weste stonde6, 

swa nu missenlice geond pisne middangeard [75] 

winde biwaune weallas stondap, 

hrime bihrorene, hrySge pa ederas. 
25 WoriaS pa winsalo, waldend licgaS 

dreame bidrorene ; duguS eal gecrong 

wlonc bi wealle : sume wig fornom, [So] 

f^rede in forSwege; sumne fugel opbser 

ofer heanne holm ; sumne se hara wulf 
30 deaSe gedeelde ; sumne dreorighleor 

in eorSscrsefe eorl gehydde : 

"^ mod sefan minne. 2 wear>an. » eaUe. 



XX III. THE WANDERER. 1 63 

yj^de^ swa jiisne eardgeard aelda Scyppend, [85] 

o\> pset burgwara breahtma lease 

eald ^nta geweorc idlu stodon. 

Se |7onne |)isne wealsteal wise gepohte, 
5 and ]7is deorce^ lif deope geondfi^nceS, 

frod in fert^e feor oft genion [90] 

wselsleahta worn, and jms word acwi6 : 

'Hw8er cwom mearg? hwser cwom niago? hwaer 
cwom nia|)|)umgyfa ? 

liw£er cw^om symbla gesetu? hwger sindon s^le- 
dreamas ? 
10 Eala beorbt bune ! eala byrnwiga ! 

eala |)eodnes [nym ! hu seo prag gewat, [95] 

genap under nihthelm, swa heo no waere ! 

StondeS nil on laste leofre duguj^e 

weal wundrum heah, wyrmlicum fah : 
15 eorlas fornomon^ asca pryj^e, 

weepen wselgifru, wyrd seo msere ; [100] 

and i^as stanhleo})U stormas cnyssa'S ; 

hrit5 hreosende hrusan* bindet5, 

wintres woma, ]7onne won cymeS, 
-2C nipeS nihtscua, nor|)an ons^nde^ 

hreo haeglfare li8Ble|)um on andan. [105] 

Eall is earfoSlTc eorj^an lice, 

onw^nde^ wyrda gesceaft weornld under heo- 
fonum : 

her bit5 feoh leene, her biS freond Isene, 
25 her bis mon Isene, her biS meeg leene ; 

eal J)is eoTpSin gesteal Tdel weorpe^ ! ' ["o] 

Swa cwaet^ snottor on mode, gesset him sundor set 
rune. 

^ yJj'Se. 2 deorcne. ® fomoman. * hruse. 



1 64 XXIIL THE WANDERER. 

Til bi]7 se )>e his treowe gehealde^ : ne sceal nsefre 

his torn to rycene 
beorn of his breostum acypan, nemfe he aer J)a 

bote cunne, 
eorl mid ^Ine gefr^mman. Wei bit5 })am |)e him are 

seceS, 
frof re to Fseder on heofonum, Jjser us eal seo fsest- 

nung stondetS. [115] 



XXIV. 

THE PHCENIX. 

[Preserved in the Exeter Manuscript.? 
I. 

Haebbe ic gefrugnen |)8ette is feor heonan 

eastd^lum on sepelast Ion da 

ftrum gefraege. Nis se foldan sceat 

ofer middangeard mongum gefere 
5 foldagendra,^ ac he afyrred is [5] 

|>urh Meotudes meaht nianfr^mmendum. 

Wlitig is se wong eall, wynnum geblissad, 

mid fam faegrestum foldan st^ncum ; 

£enlTc is ]?8et iglond, sefele se Wyrhta, 
10 modig, meahtum spedig, se fa moldan ges^tte. [10] 

Deer bitS oft open eadgum togeanes, 

onhliden hleoj^ra wyn, heofonrices duru. 

pset is wynsum wong, wealdas grene, 

rume under roderum. Ne maeg fser ren ne snaw, 
15 ne forstes fnaest,^ ne fyres blsest, [15] 

ne hsegles hryre, ne hrimes dry re, 

ne sunnan hgetu, ne sincaldu,^ 

ne wearm weder, ne winterscur 

wihte gewyrdan, ac se wong seoma^ 
20 eadig and onsund ; is ])8et sej^ele lond [20] 

blostmum geblowen. Beorgas ])£er ne muntas 

1 MS., f olcagendra ; Sweet. 2 MS., fnseft.; Thorpe. 

8 Sweet, sincald. 

165 



1 66 XXir. THE PHCENIX. 

5 
f 

stgape ne stondaS, ne stanclifu 

heah hlifiat5, swa her mid us, 

ne d^ne ne dalu, ne dunscrafu, 

hlsewas ne hlincas, ne J^^r Ueona^ oo [25] 

5 unsmepes wiht ; ac se sepela feld 

wrTdaS under wolcnum wynnum geblowen. 

Is J>3et torhte lond tw^lfum herra, 

folde fseSmrimes, swa us gefreogum^ gleawe 

witgan ]nirh wisdom on gewritum cy|)a^,^ [30] 

lo ]7onne senig para beorga pe her beorhte mid us 

hea hllfiaS under heofontunglum. 

Smylte is se sigewong, sunbearo lixeS, 

wuduholt wynlic ; wsestmas ne dreosaS, 

beorhte blede,^ ac j^a beamas a [35] 

15 grene stondaS, swa him God bibead ; 

wintres and sumeres w^udu bi^ gelice 

bledum ^ gehongen ; nsef re brosniaS 

leaf under lyfte, ne him lig sc^5eS 

sefre to ealdre, ger ])on edw^nden [40] 

20 worulde geweortSe. Swa lu waetres J?rym 

ealne middangeard, m^reflod |>eahte 

eorSan ymbhwyrft, ]m se sej^ela wong 

seghwaes onsund wiS ySfare 

gehealden stod hreora wgega [45] 

25 eadig, unw^mme, furh est Godes : 

bideS swa geblowen 06 bseles cyme, 

Dryhtnes domes, Jjonne deaSrseced, 

hselepa heolstorcofan onhliden weorpatS. 

Nis ])8er on pam londe laSgeniSla, [50] 

30 ne wop ne wracu, weatacen nan, 

1 Thorpe, gefreogun. 2 MS., cy>ad ; Ettmiiller. 

8 EttmuUer, blseda. * Ettmiiller, blsedum. 



XXIV. THE PHCtlNIX. 1 67 

yldu ne yrmSu, ne se ^nga deatS, 
ne fifes lyre, ne lafes cyme, 
ne synn ne sacii, ne sarwracu,^ 
ne w£edle gewin, ne welan onsyn, [55] 

5 ne sorg ne sl«p, ne swar leger, ^ 

ne winter.geweorp, ne wedra gebregd 
hreoh under heofonum, ne se liearda forst 
caldum cylegicelum cnyseS ^nigne. 
peer ne haegl ne hrim hreosa^ to foldan, [60] 

10 ne windig wolcen, ne ]>^r wseter f eallej? 
lyfte gebysgad ; ac j^^r lagustreamas, 
wundrum wrgetlice wyllan onspringaS, 
faegrum flodwylmum^ foldan l^cca)?, 
weeter wynsumu of pses wuda midle, [65] 

15 J?a m6n]7a gehwam of peere moldan tyrf 
brimcald brecaS, bearo ealne geondfara(5 
]7ragum J^rymllce : is \)set peodnes gebod 
}78ette tw^lf sipum j^get tirfaeste 
lond geondlace lagufioda wynn. [70] 

20 Sindon ]?a bearwas bledum geliqngne ^ 
wlitigum wgestmum : ]7ger ne * waniaS * 6 
halge under heofonum holtes frsetwe, 
ne feallat5 J>8er on foldan fealwe blostman, 
wudubeama wlite ; ac j^ser wr^tlice [75] 

25 on l^am treowum symle telgan gehladene, 
ofett edniwe in ealle tid, 
on pam grgeswonge grene stondaS, 
gehroden hyhtlice Haliges meahtum 
beorhtast bearwa. jSTo gebrocen weorSeS [80I 

30 holt on hiwe, feer se halga st^nc 

1 MS., sar wracu. 2 MS., fold- ; Grein. 

3 MS., gehongene. * MS., no ; Sweet. 

5 MS., wunia^; Thorpe. 



1 68 XXIV. THE PHCENIX 

wuna8 geond ^ynlond ; [aet onvv^nded ne biS 

2efre to ealdre, ser |)on ^iidige 

frod tyrngeweorc se hit on irym|7e gesceop. 

II. 

pone wudu weardaS wundrum fseger [85] 

5 fugel fe^rum strong, se is Fenix haten. 

p»r se anhaga eard bihealde6, 

deormod drohta6 ; nsefre him deacS sc^SeS 

on [)am willwonge, penden woruld st^ndeS. 

Se sceal |?^re sunnan si6 bihealdan [go] 

10 and ongean cuman Godes condelle, 

glaedum gimme, georne bewitigan 

hwonne up cyme get3elast tungla 

ofer ySm^re estan lixan, 

Fgeder fyrngeweorc frsetwum blican, [95] 

15 torht tacen Grodes. Tungol beo(5 ahyded, 

gewiten under wa(5eman westdselas on, 

bedeglad on dsegred, and seo deorce niht 

won gewTtet5 ; ])onne wacSum strong 

fugel fec5rum wlonc on firgenstream [*oo] 

20 under lyft ofer lagu locate georne, 

hwonne up cyme eastan glidan 

ofer sidne * S£e swegles leoma. 

Swa se 8et5ela fugel set j^am gespringe 

wlitigfsest wunatS wyllestreamas, [105] 

25 |?8er se tireadga tw^lf sTSum hine 

bibatSaS in |)am burn an, ffir j^ses beacnes cyme, 

swegelcondelle, and symle swa oft 

of ])am wilsuman wyllegespryngum 

brimcald beorgeS set baSa gehwylcum. [no] 

1 MS., si^ne ; Thorpe. 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 1 69 

Si55an hine sylfne gefter sundplegati 
heahmod h^feS on heaniie beam, 
fonan ySast meeg on eastwegum 
si5 bihealdan, hwonne swegles tapur 

5 ofer holmj^rsece ^ hSdre blice, [115] 

leohtes leoma. Lond beo(S gefrgetwad, 
woruld gewlitigad, sicSSan wuldres gim 
ofer geofones gong grund gescine(5 
geond middangeard, maerost tungla. 

10 Sona swa seo sunne sealte streamas [*2o] 

hea oferhlifa^, swa se haswa fugel 
beorht of j^aes bearwes beame gewitecS, 
fares feSrum snell flyhte on lyfte, 
swinsaS and singet5 swegle togeanes.* 

15 ponne bi6 swa faeger fugles gebseru, ["5] 

onbryrded breostsefa blissum hremig^; 
wr!xle5 woc^crsefte wundorlicor 
beorhtan reorde, fonne sefre byre monnes 
hyrde under heofonum, si58an Heahcyning, 

20 wuldres wyrhta, woruld sta^elode, [130] 

heofon and eorc^an. Bi5 j^ses hleot5res sweg 
eallum songcrseftum swetra and wlitigra 
and wynsumra wr^nca gehwylcum ; 
ne magon ])ani breahtme byman ne hornas, 

25 ne hearpan hlyn, ne haelec^a stefn [135] 

senges on eorSan, ne organan sweg, 
ne hleoSres geswins,* ne swanes fe(5re, 
ne genig J)ara dreama pe Dryhten gescop 
gumum to gliwe in pas geomran woruld ! 

1 MS., holmwrsece ; Thorpe. 2 ^g.^ to heanes ; Thorpe. 

3 MS., remig; Grein (?). 

* MS., ne wanting; MS., leotSres geswin ; Thorpe, hleotSres; 

Ettmiiller, geswins. 



I/O XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 

Singes swa and swinsaS seelum geblissad, [140J 

o'6 |)8et seo sunne on suSrodor 

s«ged weor'SeS ; )7onne swiaS he 

and hlyst gefeS, heafde onbrygdeS 
5 j?rist l^onces gleaw, and l^riwa ascseceS 

feSre flyhthwate : fugol bi6 geswiged. [145} 

Symle he tw^lf si5um tida gemearca(5 

daeges and nihtes. Swa gedemed is 

bearwes big^nga, \>3Qt he j?^r brucan mot 
10 wonges mid willuni, and welan neotan, 

lifes and lissa, londes frsetwa, [150 J 

oti }?8et he pusende j^isses lifes, 

"wudubearwes weard, wintra gebideS. 

ponne bif5 geh^fgad haswigfeSra 
15 gomol gearum frod : grene ' eorf5an 

aflyhS fugla [wynn],^ foldan gebl5wene, [155] 

and |?onne geseceS side ^ rice 

middangeardes, l^eer no m^n biigatS 

eard and eSel. peer he ealdordom 
20 onfehS foremihtig " ofer fugla cynn, 

ge]7ungen on J^eode, and forage mid him [160] 

westen weardaS. ponne wat5um string 

west gewiteS wintrum gebysgad 

fleogan feSrum snel ; f uglas ]?ringa(S 
25 utan ymbe seSelne ; eeghwylc wille 

wesan j^egn and ]eow jeodne meerum, [^^s] 

oS ])ddt he geseceS Syrwara lond 

corSra meeste. Hira se clsene ])Sdi 

ot5scufe6 scearplice, ]?8et he in scade weardaS 
30 on wudubearwe weste stowe 



^ MS., rene; Thorpe. ^ Grein; Ettmiiller, fugla betst (?). 
3 MS., ^itJ'e; Ettmiiller. 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. I7I 

biholene and bihydde hseleSa monegum, [170] 

|)£er he heanne beam on holtwuda 

wiinaS and weardaS, wyrtum fsestne 

under heofunhrofe, \>one hatacS m^n 
5 Fenix on foldan, of pees fugles noman. 

Hafat5 )>am treowe forgiefen tirmeahtig Cyning [175] 

Meotud moncynnes, mine gefr^ge, 

|)9et he ana is ealra beama 

on eorSwege upliijdendra 
10 beorhtast geblowen ; ne mseg him bitres wiht 

scyldum sc^66an, ac gescylded a [*8o] 

wunaS ungewyrded, |?enden woruld stondeS. 

III. 

ponne wind liget5, weder biS fseger, 

hluttor heofones gim halig scineS, ' 
15 beoS wolcen towegen, wsetra prySe 

stille stondaS, biS storma gehwylc C'^s] 

asw^fed under swegle, su^an bliceS 

wedercondel wearm, weorodum lyhteS ; 

|)onne on ]?am telgum timbran onginneS, 
20 nest gearwian, biS him neod micel 

J)8et he ])SL yldu ofestum mote [190] 

furh gewittes wylm w^ndan to life, 

feorh ^ geong onfon. ponne feor and neah 

]?a swetestan somnaS and gsedraS 
25 wyrta wynsume and wudubleda ^ 

to ))am eardst^de, aij^elst^nca gehwone [»95] 

wyrta wynsumra, pe Wuldorcyning, 

Fseder frymSa gehwses,^ ofer foldan gescop 

IMS., feorg; Ettmiiller. 2 Ettmuller, -blseda. 

3 MS., gewses ; Thorpe. 



1/2 XXIV. THE PH(ENIX, 

to indryhtum SBlda cynne, 

swetes under swegle. pser he sylf bieretS 

in pset treow innan torhte f raetwe ; [200] 

pser se wilda fugel in })am westenne 

5 ofer heanne beam bus getimbretS 
wlitig and wynsum, and gewica'S j>8er 
sylf in fam solere, and ymbs^teS utan 
in fam leafsceade He and feSre [205] 

on healfa gehwam ^ halgum st^ncum, 

10 and ]>am seSelestum eor(5an bledum.^ 
Sites sKes fus, ))onne swegles gim 
on sumeres tid sunne hatost 
ofer sceadu scineS, and gesceapu dreogeS, [210] 
woruld geondwliteS ; ponne weorSetS his 

15 hus onh^ted ])urh hador swegel, 
wyrta wearmiatS, wills^le stymetS 
swetum swaeccum, ])Oune on swole byrneS 
J)urh fyres f^ng fugel mid neste : [215] 

b£el bis onseled ; ]?onne brond J^^ceS 

20 heorodreorges ^ hus, hreoh onetteS, 
fealo lig feormatS and Fenix byrnetJ 
fyrngearum frod. ponne fyr ]?igeS 
l^enne llchonian, lif biS on siSe, [220] 

fgeges feorhhord, ])onne flsesc and ban 

25 adleg eeleS. HwseSre him eft cymeS 
sefter fyrstmearce feorh edniwe. 
SiSSan fa yslan eft onginnaS, 
sefter ligpraece, lucan togsedere [225] 

geclungne to cleowne,* ])onne clsene biS 

30 beorhtast nesta bsele forgrunden, 

1 MS., healfa geh ware; Sievers, gehwam. ^ Ettmiiller, blaedum. 

2 MS., heore-; Thorpe. * MS., cleowenne; Sievers. 



XXIV. THE PUCE NIX. 1 73 

heaSorofes hus * : hra bi^ acolad, 

banfaet gebrocen, and se bryne sweSratJ. 

ponne of ]?am ade aeples gellcnes [*3o] 

on ])£ere ascan bit5 eft gemeted, 
5 of }>am weaxet5 wyrm. wundrum faeger, 

swylce he of sege ^ ut alsede 

scir of scylle ; J^onne on sceade weaxe^, 

)>8et he eerest hvS swylce earnes brid, [235] 

faeger f ugeltimber ; |?onne f urSor gen ^ 
10 wrlde^ on wynnum, ])9et he bi'S waestmum gelic 

ealdum earne, and sefter \on 

fe^rum gefrsetwad^ swylc he set frym^e wses, 

beorht geblowen ; |>onne breed weortSe'6 [240] 

eal edniwe eft ac^nned, 
15 synnum asundrad, sumes onllce* 

swa m^n to andleofne eort5an wsestmas * 

on haerfeste ham gelsedetS, 

wiste wynsume, ser wintres cyme C*453 

on rypes timan, |)y lees hi renes scur 
20 awyrde under wolcnum ; peer hi wrat^e metatS 

fodor]7ege gefean,® Jjonne forst and snaw 

mid ofermsegne eorSan ]7^ccat5 

wintergeweedum ; of J^am waestmum sceal [2503 

eorla eadwela^ eft aleedan 
25 ))urh cornes gecynd, \q eer cleene bitJ 

seed onsawen, Jjonne sunnan glsem * 

on l^nctenne, lifes tacen, 

1 Thorpe, hof. 

2 MS., segerum ; Thorpe, sege wsere ut-alaeded ; EttmuUer, gegerum 
ut alude. » MS., gin ; Ettmiiller. 

* Thorpe, sumeres on lice. ^ MS., waesmas. 

« MS., gefeon ; Ettmuller, gefean (?); Grein, gefeo« (?). 

7 MS., eorla eadwelan ; Thorpe, eorl ; Grein. ^ Ettmiiller, gleam. 



174 -TXIF. THE PHCENIX, 

w^ccet5 woruldgestreon, |>3et ]?a wsestmas beoS [255] 

J)urh agne gecynd eft ac^nde, 

foldan frsetwe : swa se fugel weor^eS, 

gomel sefter gearum, geong edniwe 
5 flsesce bifongen. No he foddor J^igeS 

m^te on moldan^ nemne meledeawes [a6oj 

dgel gebyrge, se dreoset5 oft 

set middre nihte ; bi |)on se modga liis 

feorh afedeS, 06 j^set fyrngesetu 
10 agenne eard eft geseceS. 

IV. 

ponne biS aweaxen wyrtum in gem^nge [265] 

fugel fet^rum deal, feorh biS niwe 

geong geofona ^ f ul, j7onne he of greote his 

lie leoSucrgeftig,^ J73et eer lig fornom, 
15 s^mna^ swoles lafe, searwum gegsedratS 

ban gebrosnad sefter bgelj^rgece, C^7o] 

and ponne gebringe6 ban and yslan, 

ades lafe, eft eetsomne, 

and }7onne fset wselreaf wyrtum biteldetJ 
20 fsegre gefrsetwed.^ ponne afysed bitS 

agenne eard eft to secan, [2753 

ponne fotum ymbfeh^ fyres lafe, 

clam * biclyppeS and his cy5t5u eft 

sunbeorht gesetu secet5 on wynnum, 
25 eadig eSellond. Eal hv6 genlwad 

feorh and feSerhoma, swa he set frym^e wses, [280] 

pa hine serest God on pone seSelan wong 

sigorfsest s^tte. He his sylfes peer 

1 Ettmiiller, geofena. 2 Thorpe, lic-leo-Su crasftig ; EttmuUer. 

8 Thorpe, gefrsetwa'S (?). * Thorpe, clawum (?), 



I 
I 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 1 75 

ban gebringeS, J>a ^r brondes wylm 

on beorhst^de beele forf'ylmde, 

ascan to eacan ; ])onne eal geador [285] 

bebyrgeS beaducrseftig ban and yslan 
5 on )>am ealonde. BiS him edniwe 

|?^re suunan segn,^ ponne swegles leoht 

gimma gladost ofer garsecg up 

8et5eltungla wyn eastan lixeS. [2903 

Is se fugel fseger forweard hiwe, 
10 bleobrygdum fag ymb j^a breost foran ; 

is him J?9et heafod hindau grene, 

wrsetlice wrixle'6 ^ wurman geblonden. 

ponne is se finta fsegre ged^led, [295] 

sum brun, sum basu, sum blacum splottum 
15 searolice bes^ted. Sindon ]?a fiSru 

hwit hindanweard, and se hals grene 

niot5oweard and ufeweard, and f>aet n^bb llxeS 

swa glses o^Se gim, geaflas scyne [300] 

innan and utan. Is seo eaggebyrd 
20 stearc and hiwe stane gelTcast, 

gladum gimme, ponne in goldfate 

smit5a orponcum bis^ted weorSeSo 

Is ymb pone sweoran, swylce sunnan hring, [305] 

beaga beorhtast bregden ^ fetSrum. 
25 Wrffitlic is seo womb neoSan, wundrum faeger, 

scir and scyne. Is se scyld ufan 

frsetwum gefeged ofer paes fugles baec. 

Sindon pa scancan scyllum biweaxen, C3'°3 

fealwe fotas. Se fugel is on hiwe 
30 seghwaes * senile, onlicost pean 

1 MS., ]?egn ; Thorpe. *2 Thorpe, wrixled. 

* Ettmuller, brogden- * Thorpe, seghwser (?). 



176 XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 

wynnum geweaxen, ))ses gewritu s^cga8. 

Nis he hiuderweard ne hygegselsa, 

swar ne swongor swa sume fuglas, [3^5] 

fa }>e late furh lyft lacaS fiSrum ; 
5 ac he is snel and swift and swiSe leoht, 

wlitig and wynsum, wuldre gemearcad : 

ece is se set5eling, se })e him ead gifeS ^1 

ponne he gewitet) wongas secan [320] 

his ealdne eard of pisse eSeltyrf. 
10 Swa se fugel fleogeS, f oleum otSeaweC 

m^ngum monna geond middangeard, 

))onne somna6 su6an and nort5an 

eastan and westan eoredciestum, [325] 

faraS feorran and nean folca J>ryt5um, 
15 f»8er hi sceawiaS Scyppendes giefe 

fsegre on pam fugle, swa him set frumau s^tte 

sigora Sot5cyning sellicran gecynd, 

f rsetwe f aegerran ^ of er f ugla cyn. [330] 

ponne wundriaS weras ofer eorSan 
20 wlite and wsestma, and gewritum * cySaS, 

mundum mearcia'S on mearmstane 

hwonne se dseg and seo tid dryhtum geeawe 

fraetwe flyhthwates. ponne fugla cynn [335] 

on healf a gehwam * heapum fringaS, 
as sigat5 sidwegum, songe lofiaS, 

mgeraS modigne meaglum reordum 

and swa J)one halgan hringe beteldafS 

flyhte on lyfte : Fenix bit5 on middum C3+°] 

freatum biprungen. peoda wlita^, 

1 MS., gefelS ; Grein. 2 Thorpe, -ed. 

* MS., fsegran ; Thorpe. * MS., gewritu ; Thorpe. 

• MS., gehwore ; Thorpe, gehwone ; Ettmtiller, gehwaere ; Sievers 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. I'JJ 

wundrum wafiat5,^ hu seo wilgedryht 
wildne weortSiaS, worn sefter o^rum, 
crseftum cySaS and for cyning mseratS 
leofne leodfruman, Iseda^ mid wynnum [345] 

5 getSelne to earde, ot5 J?3et se anhoga 
otSfleogeS fet5rum snel, pset him gefylgan ne mseg 
drymendra gedryht, ]?onne dugut5a wyn 
of fisse eorSan tyrf eSel sece^. 

y. 

Swa se gesseliga sefter swylthwile [350] 

10 his ealdcySt^e eft geneosat5, 

fsegre foldan ; fugelas cyrratS 

frQm fam guSfrecan geomormode 

eft to earde, ]?onne se se^eling biS 

giong in geardum. God ana wat, (^355] 

15 Cyning selmihtig, hu his gecynde bitS, 

wifhades j^e weres : pset ne wat senig 

monna cynnes btitan Meotod ana, 

hu fa wisan sind wundorlice, 

fseger fyrngesceap, ymb |^ses fugles gebyrd ! [360] 
20 peer se eadga mot eardes neotan, 

wyllestreama wuduholtum in, 

wunian in wonge, oS })3et wintra biS 

fusend urnen : ponne him weorSetS 

^nde iTfes ; hine ad ]p^cet5 [365] 

25 ))urh aeled fyr : hwaetSre eft cymeS 

aweaht wrsetlice wundrum to life. 

For J)on he drusende deaS.ne bisorgaS, 

sare swyltcwale, \q him symle wat 

sefter lig]>rsece llf ednlwe, [370] 

1 MS.,wefiay; Thorpe. " 



178 XXiF. THE PHCENIX. 

feorh sefter fylle, ponne fromlice 

furh briddes had gebreadad weorSeS 

eft of ascan, edgeong wesefS 

under swegles hleo. BiS him self gehwseSer 
5 sunu and swges fgeder and symle eac [375] 

eft yrfeweard ealdre lafe. 

Forgeaf him se meahta^ money nnes Fruma, 

fset he swa wrsetlice weorSan sceolde 

eft })8et ilce |?8et he ger ))on wses, 
10 fetSrum bifongen, peah hine fyr nime. [380] 

yi. 

Swa })8et ece lif eadigra gehwylc, 

fefter sarwrsece, sylf geceoseS 

))urh deorcne dea6 ]?3et he Dryhtnes mot, 

jjefter geardagum, geofona neotan 
15 on sindreamum and siSSan a [385} 

wunian in worulde weorca to leane. 

pisses fugles gecynd fela gelices ^ 

bi ]?am gecornum Cristes pegnnm 

beacnaS in burgum, hu hi beorhtne gefean 
20 purh Fseder fultum on ] as frecnan tid [390] 

healdaS under heofonum and him heanne bleed 

in |)am uplican eSle gestrynaS. 

HabbaS we geascad/ f set se selmihtiga 

worhte wer and wif })urh his wundra sp^ed 
2S and hi ])a ges^tte on pone selestan [395] 

foldan sceata/ pone fira beam 

n^mnaS neorxnawong, pser him nsenges waes 

6ades onsyn, penden eces word 

halges hleoSorcwide healdan woldan 

1 Ettmtiller, meahtiga. 2 Thorpe, gelic is(?). 

8 MS., geascaS. 4 jvfg,^ sceates; Thorpe. 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 1 79 

on l^am niwan gefean. peer him nit5 gescod, [400] 
ealdfeondes sefest/ se him get gebead 
beames blede, pset hi bu j^egun 
seppel unreedum ofer est Godes, 

5 byrgdon forbodene.^ pser him bitter wear^ 
yrmt^ii sefter ^te and hyra eaferum swa [405] 
sarlic symbel, sunum and dohtrum : 
wurdon teonlice to6as idge^ 
ageald sefter gylte ; hsefdon Godes yrre 
10 bittre bealosorge ; fees fa byre siSf5an 

gyrne onguldon, fe hi j^aet gyfl }?egun [410] 

ofer eces word. For J>on hi e8les wyn 
geomormode ofgiefan sceoldon 
ourh nsedran nl^, ])a hio nearwe biswac 

r- yldran usse in serdagum 

furh fsecne ferS, tJset hi feor J)onan [415] 

in })as dea^d^ne drohtat5 sohton, 
sorgfulran gesetu. Him wearS sells lif 
heolstre bihyded and se halga wong 
20 )>urh feondes searo fseste bityned 

wintra m^ngu, 06 ]>ddt Wuldorcyning C+^o] 

))urh his hidercyme halgum togeanes/ 
monncynnes gefea, meSra frefrend 
and se anga hyht, eft ontynde. 

VII. 

25 Is pon gelicast, ]?8es \q us leorneras* 

wordum ^ s^cgaS and writu^ cySaS, [425"] 

1 Ettmiiller, efest. 2 Ettmiiller, -enne. 

3 MS., wordon teonlice to J^as idge ; Thorpe, wurdon teonUce to 

s . . . idge ; Grein. 

* MS., to heanes ; Thorpe. 5 Thorpe, lareowas (?}- 

6 MS., weordum ; Thorpe. '^ Ettmiiller, writum. 



l8o XXIV, THE PHOENIX. 

}>ises fugles gefser^ ponne frod ofgiefe'5 

eard and eSel and geealdad hv8, 

gewiteS werigmod wintrum gebysgad, 

feer he holtes lileo heali gemetet^, 
5 in fam lie getimbreS tanum and wyrtum [430] 

J?ani seSelestum eardwic niwe, 

nest on bearwe : biS Mm neod micel, 

J>8et he feorhgeong eft onfon mote 

]7urh iTges blsest lif sefter dea^e, 
10 edgeong wesan and his ealdcySSu [435] 

sunbeorht gesetu secan mote 

sefter fyrbaSe. Swa fa foreg^ngan 

yldran usse anforleton 

})one wlitigan wong and wuldres setl 
15 leoflic on laste, tugon longne si^ [440] 

in hearmra hond^ )>£er him h^ttende 

earme agl^can oft gescodan. 

Wseron hw^^re monge, pa fe Meotude wel 

gehyrdun ^ under heofonum halgum jjeawum, 
20 dffidum domlicum, J^set him Dryhten wearS [445J 

heofona Heahcyning hold on mode. 

pset is se hea ^ beam, in f am halge nu 

wic weardia^, ]?ger him wihte ne mseg 

ealdfeonda nan atre sc^S^an 
25 facnes tacne on ]^a frecnan tid, [450] 

Jjser him nest wyrceS wi5 ni6a gehwam 

dsedum domlicum Dryhtnes c^mpa, 

J)onne he selmessan earmum d^ele^ 

dugeSa leasum, and him Dryhten gecygS 
30 Feeder on fultum, forS onetteS, [455] 

IMS., meotude we gehyrdun; Thorpe, meotude gehyrdun; 
Grundtvig, wel gehyrdan ; Grein. 
2 Grundtvig, heah. 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. l8l 

leenan lifes leahtras dwassceS, 
mirce mand^de, healdetS Meotudes se 
beald in breostum and gebedu seceS 
clgenum geliygdum and his cneo bigeS 

5 aeSele to eorcSan, flyh^ yfla gehwylc [460] 

grimme gieltas for Godes ^gsan, 
glsedmod gyrnetS pset he godra msest 
d£eda gef r^mme : pani biS Dryhten scyld 
in siSa gehwane, sigora Waldend, 

10 weoruda Wilgiefa.^ pis pa wyrta sind, [465] 

wsestma blede, pa se wilda fugel 
somna(5 under swegle side and wide 
to his wicstowe, ))8er he wundrum fsest 
wis ni6a gehwam nest gewyrceS. 

15 Swa nu in ]?am wTcum willan fr^mmaS [470] 

mode and msegne Meotudes c^mpan, 
maerSa tilgaS : pses him meorde wile 
ece aelmihtig eadge forgyldan. 
BeoS him of ]>am wyrtum wTc gestaSelad 

20 in wuldres by rig weorca to leane, [475] 

pses pe hi geheoldan ^ halge lare, 
hate set heortan^ hige weallende 
dseges and nihtes Dryhten lufiatS, 
leohte geleafan leofne ceosat5 

25 ofer woruldwelan : ne biS him wynne hyht [480] 
]>ddt hy pis Isene lif long gewunien. 
pus eadig eorl ecan dreames ^ 
heofona^ hames mid Heahcyning 
earnaS on ^Ine, oS pset ^nde cymeS 

30 dogorrimes, ponne dea'6 nimeS [485] 

1 Thorpe, sigora wilgiefa weoruda waldend. 

2 Ettmiiller, -on. ^ MS., eortan; Thorpe. 

* Ettmuller, dreamas. ^ Thorpe, heofonlican (?). 



1 82 XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 

wiga wselgifre wsepnum gepvj^ed^ 

ealdor anra gehwses, and in eort5an fseSm 

snude sanded ^ sawlum binumene 

Iffine lichoman, ]?£er hi longe beoS 
5 ot5 fyres cyme foldan bipeahte. [490] 

ponne monge beoS on gemot leeded^ 

fyra cynnes : wile Feeder ^ngla 

sigora SocScyning seona^ gehegan, 

dugu6a Dryhten, deman mid ryhte. 
10 ponne geriste ealle gefr^mmatS [495] 

m^n on moldan, swa se mihtiga Cyning 

beodeS, Brego ^ngla, byman stefne 

of er sidan grund, sawla N^rgend : 

bi(5 se deorca deaS Drylitnes meahtum 
15 eadgum ge^ndad ^ setSele hweorfa'6, [500J 

freatum }?ringat5, ])onne peos woruld 

scyldwyrcende in scome byrneS 

ade on^led. WeorcSeS anra gehwylc 

forbt on ferhSe,* ponne fyr brieeS 
20 Isene londwelan, lig eal pigeS [505I 

eorSan sehtgestreon, sepplede gold 

gifre forgripeS, grsedig swelgef5 

londes frsetwe. ponne on leoht cymeS 

seldum })isses in pa openan tid 
25 fseger and gefealic^ fugles tacen, [510] 

ponne anwald eal up ast^lleS ^ 

on byrgenum, ban gegsedraS/ 

leomu lie somod and lif es ^ gsest, 

fore Cristes cneo : Cyning prymlice 

1 Ettmuller, gebrySelS. 2 mS., senda«. 

8 MS., l£edab ; Thorpe. * MS., fer^be ; Grundtvig. 

5 MS., gefealig ; Grundtvig. ^ MS., astellaS ; Grein. 

■? MS., Grein, gegsedrad. ^ MS. liges ; Grundtvig. 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 1 83 

of his heahsetle halgum scine'6, [515] 

wlitig wuldres gim. Wei bif5 J^am ]>e mot 
in J)a geomran tid Gode lician ! 

VIII. 

peer ]>& lichoman leahtra cl^ene 
5 gongacS gltedmode, gtestas hweorfa'5 
in banfatu, j^ionne biyne stige^ [520] 

heah to heofonum. Hat biS monegum 
^geslTc seled, j^onne anra geliwylc 
sot^fsest ge synnig sawel mid lice 

10 from moldgrafum seeeS Meotudes dom 

forht afsered. Fyr biS on tihte/ [525] 

8elet5^ nncyste.^ p^r ja eadgan beot5 
sefter wrsechwTle weorcum bifongen, 
agnum d^dum : ]:>9et j a sej^elan sind 

15 wyrta wynsume, mid pam se wilda fugel 

his sylfes nest bis^tefS utan, [530] 

fset hit fyeringa fyre byrneS, 
forsweleS under sunnan and he sylfa mid 
and }>onne eefter iTge lif eft onfeh^ 

ao edniwinga. Swa bi6 anra gehwylc 

fl^sce bifongen fira cynnes [535] 

senile and edgeong, se pe his agnum her 
willum gewyrceS, paet him Wuldorcyning 
meahtig aet |?am maeSle milde geweorSet^. 

25 ponne hl.eoSriaS halge gaestas, 

sawla softfse-ste song ah^bbat^, [540] 

clfilne and gecorene, h^rga'5 Cyninges )?rym 
stefn aefter stefne, stigaS to wuldre 
wlitige gewyrtad mid hyra weldaedum. 

MS., ontihte ; Thorpe. 2 Grundtvig, aeled. 3 Ettmiiller, un'^ysta. 



1 84 XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 

BeoS ))onne am^rede nioniia geestas, 

beorhte abywde ^ ])urh bryne fyres. [545] 

Ne wene J?8es ^ ^nig selda cynnes, 

)73et ic lygewordum leo6 somnige, 
5 write woScrsefte ! gebyraS witedom, 

lobes gieddinga ! purh gsestes blaed 

breostum onbryrded beald reordade, [550] 

wuldre geweorSad lie J)3et word gecw3et5 : 

^ Ic J)8et ne f orhycge heortan gefoncum, 
10 pset ic on mmum neste neob^d ^ ceose 

lisele ^ hrawerig, gewite bean ponan 

on longne siS lame bitolden [sss] 

geomor gudseda^ in greotes fse^m 

and ]7onne sefter dea'Se furh Dryhtnes giefe 
15 swa se fugel Fenix feorh. edniwe 

sefter seriste agan mote, 

dreamas mid Drybten, fger seo deore scolu [560] 

leofne lofia^. Ic J)8es lifes ne mseg 

£efre to ealdre ^nde gebidan, 
20 leohtes and lissa : peab mm He scyle 

on moldserne molsnad weorSan 

wyrmum to willan, swa ]?eab weoruda God [565] 

sefter swylthwile sawle alyseS 

and in wuldor aw^ceS. Me fses wen nsefre 
25 forbirsteS in breostnm, fe^ ic in Brego ^ngla 

forSweardne '' gefean faeste hsebbe.' 

pus frod guma in fyrndagum [570] 

gieddade gleawmod, Godes spelboda, 

ymb bis seriste in ece lif, 

1 Thorpe, abysde (?); Ettmliller, setywde. 

2 Grundtvig, )>8er. 3 Thorpe, nea- (?). 
* Ettmtiller, hseles. ^ Thorpe, geo-. 

6 Grundtvig, Jjset. ' Ettmtiller, -wearde (?). 



XXIV. THE PHCENIX. 1 8$ 

)78et we fy geornor ongietan meahten 

tirfaest tacen, fset se torhta fugel 

'puih. hTjne beacnaS : bana lafe [575] 

ascan and yslan ealle gesomnat5 ^ 
5 aefter ligbryne, laedeS siSt5an 

fugel on fotum to frean geardum, 

sunnan togeanes, l^ser lie ^ sit5t5an f orS 

wnnatS ^ wintra f ela wsestmum geniwad [580] 

ealles edgiong, feer eenig ne mgeg 
10 in pam leodscipe leeSSum ^ hwopan. 

Swa nu sefter dea^e purh Dryhtnes miht 

somod si6iat5 sawla mid lice, 

fsegre gefrsetwed fugle gelTcast [585] 

in eadwelum set^elum st^ncum, 
15 J?8er seo soSfseste sunne llhte^ 

wlitig ofer weoredum in wuldres byrig. 



IX. 

ponne s66 fees turn sawlum scinetS 

lieah ofer hrofas Htelende Crist ; [590] 

him f olgia^ fuglas scyne ^ 
20 beorhte gebredade blissum hremige 

in fam ^ gladan ham, gsestas gecorene, 

ece to ealdre, p^r him yile ne mseg 

fah feond gemah facne sc^St5an : [595] 

ac J)£er lifgat5 a leohte w^rede 
25 swa se fugel Fenix in freo^u Dryhtnes 

wlitige in wuldre. Weorc anra gehwaes 



1 Ettmiiller, -ad. 2 ]y[g^ ^i . Grundtvig, him ; Thorpe. 

3 MS., wuniaS; Thorpe. * Ettmiiller, Ise^'um. 

^ Ettmiiller. fiSrum scyne (?). ^ Ettmiiller, j^one (?). 



1 86 XXIV. THE PH(ENIX. 

beorlite bliceS in |7am blTSaii ^ ham 

fore onsyne eces Dryhtnes [600] 

symle in sibbe sunnan gelice, 

fser se beorhta beag brogden wundrum 
5 eorcnanstanum eadigra gehwam 

hlifat5 ofer heafde. Heafelan iTxa'S 

frymme bej^eahte ; peodnes cynegold [605] 

so^faestra gehwone sellTc gl^ngeS 

leohte in life, p'^r se longa gefea 
10 ece and edgeong eefre ne swet^rat^, 

ac hy in wlite wuniatS wuldre bitolden 

fsegrum frsetwum mid Feeder ^ngla. [610] 

Ne bis him on fam wicum wiht to sorge, 

wroht ne weSel ne gewindagas, 
15 hiingor se hata ne se hearda ^ J^urst, 

yrmt5u ne yldo : him se setJela Cyning 

forgifeS goda gehwylc, j^eer gsesta gedryht [615"^ 

Hselend h^rga(5 and Heofoncyninges 

meahte msersiaS, singat5 Metude lof. 
20 SwinsaS sibgedryht swega meeste 

hsedre ymb pset halge heahseld Godes; 

blKe bletsia(5 Bregu selestan [620* 

eadge mid ^nglum efenhleot^re ])us : 

" Sib sT l^e, so6 God, and snyttrucraeft, 
25 and |7e J^onc sy j^rymsittendum 

geongra gyfena, goda gehwylces ! 

Micel unmsete ma3gnes str^ngSu^ [625] 

heah and halig ! Heofonas sindon 

fsegre gefylled, Fseder selmihtig, 
30 ealra prymma J^rym, |)Ines wuldres 

uppe mid ^nglum and on eorf5an somod! 

1 MS., b]i)>ain ; Thorpe. ^ 'J'horpe, hearde. ^ MS., stren^u ; Thorpe, 



XXIV. THE PUCENIX. 1 8/ 

Gefreo'Sa usic, frymtSa Scyppend ! pu eart Fseder 

selmihtig, [630] 

in heannesse heofuna Waldend ! " 

pus reordiaS ryhtfr^mmende 

manes am^rede in psere meeran byrig, 
5 cyneprym cySat) ; Caseres lof 

singaS on swegle soSfsestra gedryht : [635] 

'pam anum is ece weorSmynd 

forS butan ^nde ; nges his frj^mS ^fre, 

eades ongyn ! )>eah he on eorSan her 
ro })urh cildes had canned wgere 

in middangeard, hwse^re his meahta sped [640] 

heah ofer heofonum halig wunade, 

dom nnbryce ! peah he deaSes cwealm 

on rode treowe ^ rsefnan sceolde, 
15 pearlic wite, he \>j |?riddan dsege 

sefter lices hryre lif eft onfeng [645] 

purh Fseder fultum. Swa Fenix beacnatS 

geong in geardum Godbearnes meaht, 

])onne he of ascan eft onwsecnetS^ 
io in lifes lif leomum ge[)ungen. 

Swa se Heelend us helpe ^ gefr^mede [650] 

purh his lices gedal, lif butan ^nde, 

swa se fugel swetum his fit^ru tu 

and wynsumum wyrtum gefylleS, 
25 fsegrum foldwsestmum, ponne afysed biS.* 

p8et sindon j^a word, swa us gewritu s^cgaS, [655] 

hleo6or haligra, pe him to heofonum bi6 

to pam mildan Gode mod afysed 

in dreama dream, |?£er hi Dryhtne to giefe 

1 MS., rodetreow ; Ettmiiller, rodetreowe. 

*-* MS., onwsecned ; Thorpe. 3 jvjg^^ q\^q . Thorpe. 



XXIV. THE PHOENIX. 

worda and weorca wynsumne st^nc 

in )>a mseran gesceaft Meotude bringa^ [660] 

in ]78et leohte lif. Sy him lof symle 

J)urh woruld worulda and wuldres bleed, 
5 ar and onwald in pam upllcan 

rodera rice ! He is on ryht Cyning 

middangeardes and msegenj^rymmes [665] 

wuldre biwunden in J^sere wlitigan byrig. 

HafaS us alyfed lucis auctor, 
10 ]>ddt we motun her merueri'^ 

godd^dum begietan gaudia in celo, 

j)ger we motun maxima regna [670] 

secan and gesittan sedibus altis, 

lifgan in lisse lucis et pads, 
15 agan eardinga ahnae letitiae, 

brucan bleeddaga, blandem et mitem 

geseon sigora Frean sine fine, [675] 

and him lof singan laude perenne 

eadge mid ^nglum. Alleluia. 

1 Ettmuller, meruisse ; Grein, mereri. 



APPENDIX I. 



LACTANTIUS DE AVE PHOENICE. 



[The text is that of Eiese (Anthologia Latina, II, Teubner, 18T0; 26. ed. 1906), 
with variants obtained from the edition by Baehrens (Poetae Latini Minores, III, 
Teubner, 1881) and from the edition by Brandt (Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiastico- 
rum Latinorum, XXVII,1893). — A (Eiese, P) = Cod. Parisinus (Sth-9th cent.) ; 
B (Eiese, V) = Cod. Veronensis (9th cent.) ; C (Eiese, L) = Leidensis Vossianus 
(10th cent.). 

The numerals (in parentheses) placed at the right hand of the text refer to the 
corresponding lines of the Anglo-Saxon version.] 



Est locus in primo felix oriente remotus, 

Qua patet aeterni maxima porta poli, 
Nee tamen aestivos hiemisve propinquus ad ortus, 

Sed qua sol verno fundit ab axe diem. 
S Illic planities tractus diffundit apertos, 

Nee tumulus crescit nee cava vallis hiat ; 
Sed nostros montes, quorum iuga celsa putantur, 

Per bis sex ulnas eminet i ille locus. 
Hie solis nemus est et consitus arbore multa 
lo Lueus, perpetuae frondis honore virens. 
Cum Phaethonteis flagrasset ab ignibus axis, 

Ille locus flam mis inviolatus erat ; 
Et cum diluvium mersisset fluctibus orbem, 

Deucalioneas exsuperavit aquas. 
15 Non hue exsangues Morbi,^ non aegra Senectus, 

Nee Mors erudelis, nee Metus asper adest,^ 
Nee Seelus infandum, nee opum vesana Cupido, 

Aut Ira,* aut ardens caedis amore Furor ; 
Luctus aeerbus abest, et Egestas obsita pannis, 
20 Et Curae insomnes, et violenta Fames. 

'A, B, imminet. 2 \^ q^ exsanguis ; C, morbus. 

* MSB. metus ; Baehrens, ira ; Eiese, Cernitur (,/or Aut metus). 

189 



(1-10) 
(11-12) 
(13- 
-2 la) 
(21b- 

-27; 

(28- 
-32) 

(33- 



(39t 



(41b. 
(50- 



-41a) 
-49) 



-56) 

s C, adit. 



I90 APPENDIX 1. 

Non ibi tempestas, nee vis furit horrida venti, (57- 

Nec gelido terrain rore pruina tegit ; 
Nulla super campos tendit sua vellera nubes, 

Nee cadit ex alto turbidus humor aquae. -62^) 

25 Sed fons in medio [est], quern vivum nomine dicunt, (62^- 

Perspicuus, lenis, dulcibus uber aquis, 
Qui semel erumpens per singula tempora mensum 

Duodecies undis inrigat omne nemus. -70) 

Hie genus arboreum procero stipite surgens (71- 

30 Non lapsura solo mitia poma gerit. -84) 

Hoc nemus, hos lucos avis incolit unica Phoenix, (85- 

Unica, sed vivit morte refecta sua. -89) 

Paret et obsequitur Phoebo memoranda satelles : (90- 

Hoc Natura parens munus habere dedit. 
35 Lutea cum primum surgens Aurora rubescit, 

Cum primum rosea sidera luce fugat, -103) 

Ter quater ilia pias inmergit corpus in undas, (104- 

Ter quater e vivo gurgite libat aquam. -110) 

Tollitur ac summo considit in arboris altae (111- 

40 Vertice, quae totum despicit una nemus, 
Et con versa novos Phoebi nascentis ad ortus 

Expectat radios et iubar exoriens. -119) 

Atque ubi Sol p'^pulit fulgentis li'mina portae (120- 

Et primi emicuit luminis aura levis, 
45 Incipit ilia sacri modulamina fundere cantus 

Et mira lucem voce referred novam, -124) 

Quam nee aedoniae voces nee tibia possit (125- 

Musica Cirrhaeis adsimulare^ modis ; 
Sed neque olor moriens imitari posse putetur,^ 
50 Nee Cylleneae fila canora lyrae. -139) 

Postquam Phoebus equos in aperta effudit Olympi (140- 

Atque orbem totum protulit usque means. 
Ilia ter alarum repetito verbere plaudit 

Igniferumque caput ter venerata silet. -145) 

55 Atque eadem celeres etiam discriminat horas (146- 

Innarrabilibus nocte dieque sonis, 
Antistes luci nemorumque verenda sacerdos 

■' A, clere. 2 A, adsimolare ; B, C, assimilare. s B, putatu/ 



LACTANTIUS DE AVE P HOE NICE. 191 

Et sola arcanis conscia, Phoebe, tuis. 
Quae postquam vitae iaiii mille peregerit annos -152) 

60 Ac se reddiderint tempora longa gravem, (153- 

Ut reparet lapsum spatiisi vergentibus aevum, 

Adsuetum nemoris dulce cubile fugit ; -161*) 

Cumque renascendi studio loca sancta reliquit, (161t>- 

Tunc petit hunc orbem, mors ubi regna tenet. 
65 Dirigit in Syriam celeres longaeva volatus, 

Phoenicis nomen cui dedit ipsa vetus,^ -167^) 

Secretosque petit deserta per avia lucos, (167t>- 

Sicubi per saltus silva remota latet. 
Turn legit aerio subliraem vertice palmam, 
70 Quae Graium Phoenix ex ave nomen habet, 
In quam nulla nocens animans prorepere possit, 

Lubricus aut serpens aut avis ulla rapax. -181) 

Turn ventos claudit pendentibus Aeolus antris, (182- 

Ne violent flabris aera purpureum 
75 Neu concreta noto ^ nubes per inania caeli 

Submoveat radios solis et obsit avi. 
Construit inde sibi seu nidum sive sepulcrum ; 

Nam perit, ut vivat : se tamen ipsa creat. -1928') 

CoUigit hinc sucos et odores divite silva, (192^'- 

80 Quos legit Assyrius, quos opulentus Araps, 
Quos aut Pygmeae gentes aut India carpit 

Aut molli generat terra Sabaea sinu. 
Cinnamon hie auramque procul spirantis amomi 

Congerit et mixto balsama cum folio, 
85 Non casiae mitis* nee olentis vimen acanthi 

Nee turis lacrimae guttaque pinguis abest ; 
His addit teneras nardi pubentis aristas 

Et sociats myrrae vim, panacea, tuam. -199*) 

Protinus tinstructo ^ corpus mutabile nido (199t>- 

90 Vitalique toro membra quieta locat. 

Ore dehinc sucos membris circumque supraque 

Inicit exequiis inmoritura suis. 

1 C, fatis. ' B, C, vetustas ; Heinsius, Venus. 

' B, C, iiot(h)us ; Heinsius, notis. * A, mites. ^ b, sociam ; C, socia. 

8 A, instructos ; C, instractis ; B, His protinus structis ; Heinsius, instructo. 



192 APPENDIX I. 

Tunc inter varios animam commendat odores, 

Deposit! tanti nee timet ilia fidem. -207) 

95 Interea corpus genitali morte peremptum (208- 

Aestuat et flam mam parturit ipse calor, 
Aetherioque procul de lumine concipit ignem ; 

Flagrat et ambustum solvitur in cineres. -222 a) 

Quos velut in massam cineres in morte i coactos (222t>- 
loo Conflat, et effectum seminis instar habet. -231) 

Hinc animal primum sine membris fertur oriri, (232- 

Sed fertur vermi lacteus esse color. 
Crescit, et emenso sopitur tempore certo,2 
Seque ovi teretis colligit in speciem ; -234a) 

los Inde reformatur qualis fuit ante figura, (234^- 

Et Phoenix ruptis pullulat exuviis, -242*) 

Ac velut agrestes, cum filo ad saxa tenentur, [242^- 

Mutari tineae papilione solent,^ -259 a] 

Non illi cibus est nostro concessus in orbe, (259t»- 

iio Nee cuiquam inplumem pascere cura subest. 
Ambrosios libat caelesti nectare rores, 

Stellifero tenues qui cecidere polo. 
Hos legit, liis alitur mediis in odoribus ales, 
Donee maturam proferat effigiem. -264) 

115 Ast ubi primaeva coepit florere iuventa, (265- 

Evolat ad patrias iam reditura domus. 
Ante tamen, proprio quidquid de corpore restat, 

Ossaque vel cineres exuviasque suas 
Unguine balsameo myrraque et ture Sabaeo* 
120 Condit et in formam conglobat ore pio. -274a) 

Quam pedibus gestans contendit solis ad ortus ^ (274^-282 a) 

Inque ara residens ponit in aede sacra. (282^-290) 

Mirandam sese praestat praebetque verendam : « (291- 
Tantus avi decor est, tantus abundat honor. 
125 Principio color est, quali est sub sidere Cancri 
tMitia quod corium Punica grana tegit.'^ 

1 Ziehen, generans {for cineres) ; Buecheler, cineres natura; A, B, C, in more: 
codd. recc, in morte. ^ This line according to Eiese. ^ Ejese rightlu 

places 11. 107-8 before 1. 105. * C, soluto. ^ Edd., urbem. e Baehren-^ 

yerendam; edd., videnti. ^ 125-6 according to Brandt. 



LACTANTIUS DE AVE PHOENICE. 193 

Qualis inest foliis, quae fert agreste papaver, 

tCum pandit vestes fFlora rubente jsolo. 
Hoc humeri pectusque decens velainine f ulget ; 
130 Hoc caput, hoc cervix summaque terga nitent. -294) 

Caudaque porrigitur fulvo distincta inetallo, (295- 

In cuius raaculis purpura mixta rubet. 
t Alarum pennas insignit desuper Iris, 

Pingere ceu nubem t desuper acta 1 solet. -299a) 

135 Albicat insignis mixto viridante zmaragdo (299^- 

Et pure cornu gemmea cuspis hiat. 
Ingentes oculi, credas geminos hyacinthos, 

Quorum de medio lucida flamma micat. -304) 

tAptata est toto^ capiti radiata corona (305- 

140 Phoebei referens verticis alta decus. -309) 

Crura tegunt squamae fulvo distincta metallo ; (310- 

Ast ungues roseo tinguit houore color. 
Effigies inter pavonis mixta iiguram 

Cernitur et pictam Phasidis inter avem. 
145 Magnitiem, terris Arabum quae gignitur, ales 

Vix aequare potest, seu fera seu sit avis. -313) 

Non tamen est tarda ut volucres, quae corpore magno (314- 

Incessus pigros per grave pondus habent, 
Sed levis ac velox, regali plena decore : -319) 

150 Talis in aspectu se tenet usque hominum. (320- 

Huc venit Aegyptus tanti ad miracula visus 

Et raram volucrem turba salutat ovans. -330) 

Protinus exculpunt sacrato in marmore formam (331- 

Et titulo signant remque diemque novo. -335 a) 

155 Contrahit in coetum sese genus omne volantum, (335^- 

Nec praedae memor est ulla nee ulla metus. 
Alituum stipata choro volat ilia per altum 

Turbaque prosequitur munere laeta pio. -346a) 

Sed postquam puri pervenit ad aetheris auras, (346^- 
160 Mox redit : ilia suis conditur inde locis. 
At fortunatae sortis Ifelixque volucrum, 

Cui de se nasci praestitit ipse deus ! -355a) 

1 B, C, aura, cf. 44 ; Heinsius, acta. * Eitschl, Aptata est ; C, toto. 



194 APPENDIX I. 

tFemina (seu sexu) seu mas est sive netitrum,i (355t>- 

Felix, quae Veneris foedera nulla colit ! -360) 

165 Mors 11 li Venus est, sola est in morte voluptas : (361- 

- Ut possit nasci, appetit ante mori. -374 a) 

Ipsa sibi proles, suus est pater et suus heres, (374^'- 

Nutrix ipsa sui, semper alumna sibi. -376) 
Ipsa quidem, sed non eadem, quia et ipsa nee ipsa 

est,2 (377- 

170 Aeternam vitam mortis adepta bono. -380) 

1 This line according to Brandt. 

2 This line according to codd. recc, edd. 



NOTES. 



The heaxiy figures refer to the pages ; the ordinary figures to the line number. 



I. EROM THE GOSPELS. 

There is only one known Anglo-Saxon translation of the four 
Gospels (the remaining books of the New Testament were not trans- 
lated into Anglo-Saxon). The dialect is Late West-Saxon. It is not 
known by whom or at what place this translation was made ; its exact 
date is also undetermined, but it is agreed that this must be close to 
the year 1000. The translator's original was one of the Vulgate manu- 
scripts. The translation is for the most part clear and idiomatic in 
style and vocabulary, but a restraining regard for the original has to 
some degree unduly influenced constructions, and occasional errors 
point to misapprehension of the Latin. A critical edition of this ver- 
sion of the Gospels has been published in four volumes of the Belles- 
Lettres Series of D. C. Heath & Co., Boston and London, 1904 f. The 
Introduction to the Gospel of St. John contains a discussion of the 
relation of tne MSS. to each other and of special problems connected 
with the version. 1 

1 For the literary history and criticism and for the complete bibliography pertaining 
to each chapter in this book, the student is here directed, once for all, to Alois Brandl, 
Geschichie der altenglischen Lileratur, 1. Teil : Angelsdchsische Periode his zur 
Mitte des sicolften Jahrliunderts (issued separately from the second ed. of Paul's 
Orv.ndriss^, Strassburg, 1908; and to the first volume of The Cambridge Uistory 
of English Literature, 1907. Important manuals are B. ten Brink's Early English 
Literature (to Wiclif), translated by H. M. Kennedy, New York, 1S83 ; and Stopford 
A. Brooke's English Literature, from the Beginning to the Norman Conquest, 
London and New York, 1898. 

195 



196 NOTES. 

1, 2. — to, as prepositional adverb, governs the preceding him and 
by its position gains the accent of an adverb ; so also in line 5. 

1, 6. — to sawenne. The gerund (the dat. of the inf. with the prep, 
to) expresses the purpose of motion. 

1, 8. — stanscyligean. This substantive use of the adj. agrees with 
the Latin, which has petrosa. The weak form of the adj., however, 
requires a demonstrative (cf . )>a stanscyligean, 2, 15) ; the strong 
form which we should here expect is stanscylige (cf . on staenihte : 
in petrosa, Matt. xiii. 5). 

1, 14-15. — uppstigendne and wexendne Tvaestm : fructum ascen- 
dentem et crescentem. The reading of the MSS. has been changed 
merely for clearness (see § 62, note). 

1, 15. — >ritigfealdne etc. Waestm is understood ; cf . MS. A. 

2, 2. — to gehyranne. The gerund may limit a noun or adjective. 
2, 3-4, — ]?a tw^lfe J?e mid him wseron : hi qui cum eo erant 

duodecim ; some Latin texts have cum duodecim. 

2, 5. — to witanne etc. The gerund clause is here the logical sub- 
ject of an impersonal verb ; a final clause may take the place of this 
construction : eow is geseald J>aet ge witun Godes rices geryne, 
Luke viii. 10. 

2, 6. — ealle H^g etc. : in paraholis omnia fiunt. 

2, 10. — mage ge. For the verbal ending, see § 93, 2. 

2, 15. — And )?a synt gelice : Et hi sunt similiter. 

2, 19. — and hrsedlice etc. has been supplied from Matt. xiii. 21, 
in accordance with the usual Latin text : confestim scandalizantur. 

2, 21-23. — and of yrmaPe and swicdome etc., ' and by the care 
and deceit of worldly weal and of other desires they choke (of J>rys- 
miad* : suffocant) the word, and are become unfruitful.' This use of 
the prep, of, to express means, is unusual (cf . Luke viii. 14, and of 
carum and of welum and of lustum }>yses lifes synt for)>rysmode : 
et a sollicitudinihus . . . uitae euntes suffocantur). 

3, 1. — Cwyst }>u renders numquid, for which the language has no 
equivalent ; and cyma? is a mechanical translation of uenit : Numquid 
uenit lucerna ut sub modio ponantur. 

3, 5. — ac J?aet hit openlice cume : sed ut in palam ueniat. 
3, 12. — god is supplied by the translator. 

3, 16. — liine is the reflexive object of the verb: et cum se prO' 
duxerit fructus. 
3, 17. — for >am J^aet rip aet is : quoniam adest messis* 



NOTES. 197 

3^ 18. — For hwam etc.: cui adsimilahimus. The version de- 
mands quare in tlie place of cui; the correct reading cui would be 
rendered by hwani (cf. Luke vii. 31). 

4, 1. — hi onfengon etc. : adsumunt eum, ita ut erat, in nam. 

4, 3. — he refers to windes. 

4, 5. — Ne belimpS" etc.: non ad te pertinet quia perimus ? 

4, 11. — Hwaet wenst )?a etc. : Quis putas est iste ? In the predi- 
cate hwset may refer to persons ; cf. John i. 19, Hwaet eart }»u • 
tu quis es f 



II. OEPHEUS AND EURYDICE. 

This narrative (also chapters ix, x, and xi, below) is from the sOn 
called Alfredian version of the Be Consolatione Philosophiae of the 
Roman philosopher and statesman Boethius (c. a.d. 480-524). He 
was a man of senatorial rank and of special favor at the court of 
Theodoric, the Ostrogoth. But his downfall was brought about by his 
courageous defence of the consul Albinus, and then of the entire 
senate against a charge of treason. His enemies adroitly turned the 
accusation against himself, misrepresenting him as treasonably com- 
municating with the Emperor Justin at Constantinople. The malig- 
nant purpose of his accusers prevailed, and Boethius was condemned 
and cast into prison at Ticinum (Pavia) . It was during this imprison- 
ment that he wrote his celebrated book on the Consolation of Phi- 
losophy. He was tortured and put to death in the year 524. 

Boethius was a renowned scholar and a skilful and industrious writer. 
He studied Plato and Aristotle with special ardor, and attained an 
authoritative position in the subjects of logic, music, and mathematics. 
His immediate aim was to transmit ancient learning to his contempo- 
raries, but his treatises, abridgments, and commentaries were destined 
to affect the discipline of the mediseval schools, and the speculative 
thought of Europe. "It is certain that for centuries after his death 
the medisBval schoolmen knew Aristotle almost solely through the 
translations and commentaries of Boethius" (Sedgefield) ; equally 
certain is it that the De Consolatione Philosophiae was the " chief 
ethical compend for the earbr Middle Ages." It is preeminent as " a 



198 NOTES. 

work of eclectic pagan moralizing, fused to a personal unity by the 
author's artistic and emotional nature, then deeply stirred by his impris- 
oimient and peril. ... It became par excellence the mediaival source of 
such ethical precept and consolation as might be drawn from rational 
self-control and acquiescence in the ways of Providence " (Taylor). 

The literary form of this philosophic treatise (prose intermingled 
with verse) is that of the Menippean satire, of which the pattern was 
set by the De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii of Martianus Capella ; 
but Boethius exhibits originality in employing this form in philosophic 
dialogue and disquisition. See Adolf Ebert, Allgemeine Geschichte der 
Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlande (Leipzig, 1874-1887). 

The De Consolatione Philosophiae came to be translated into the 
European languages and in many places strongly influenced the de- 
velopment of the vernacular literature. This is clearly observable in 
England, where in two periods of literary significance, the period of 
Alfred and the period of Chaucer, this book was a principal source of 
thought and inspiration. The period of Elizabeth is also to be men- 
tioned in this connection, because the Queen herself ' Englished ' the 
Consolatio (edited by Pemberton ; Early Engl. Text Soc, 113, 1899). 

Of the Alfredian translation only two complete manuscripts have 
become known ; these are, however, later than Alfred's day, and 
represent the late West-Saxon dialect with more or less of an admix- 
ture of non- West-Saxon forms. The better copy (MS. Cotton, Otlio 

A. 6), which was seriously damaged in the fire of 1781, is unique in 
containing a metrical version of most of the poems of the original ; it 
apparently belongs to the middle of the tenth century. The second 
copy (MS. Bodl. 180) is entirely in prose, and as much as a century 
later than the first. Both manuscripts are represented in the edition 
of this version prepared by W. J. Sedgefield (Osfford, Clarendon Press, 
1899). The Latin original is accessible in R. Peiper's edition (Leipzig, 

B. G. Teubner, 1871). Eor a discussion of the character and influence 
of the works of Boethius, see especially II. F. Stewart, Boethius: an 
Essay (Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons, 1891), and H. O. Taylor, 
The Mediaeval Mind (Macmillan & Co., 1911). For a discussion of 
the characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon version and its relation to the 
original, see the Introduction to W. J. Sedgefield's translation of this 
version (1900) ; C. Plummer's The Life and Times of Alfred the Great 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1902) ; and A. Brandl (cited above, p ]95)j 
who gives additional bibliographical references. 



NOTES. 199 

The legend of Orpheus is recited by Boethius in a poem (58 lines) at 
the end of his third book. In the Anglo-Saxon version only the four 
introductory lines are versified in the Cotton MS. (Grein-Wtilker, III., 
40, no. xxiii), thereafter the original poem is rendered into idiomatic 
prose in a free manner and with variations that are characteristic of 
the translator's method throughout the entire work (see, especially, 
JuHus Wirl, Orpheus in der englischen Literatur. Wiener Beitrage 
zur euglischen Philologie XL., 1913). 

5, 7-9. — iS'ser AToldoa to irnan, ' would run there to ' ; notice also 
the prepositional adverb wi3', governing him (cf. Notes, 1, 2). — iSadt 
hi hi. The second hi is the object of onscunedon. 

5, 10. — sceolde acwelan, 'was said to die' (see Glossary for this 
use of sculan, noticeably frequent in this chapter). 

5, 14. — iiihtes. § 54, 2, and Glossary. 

6, 16. — ara hi s^cgaSC ffaet, etc., ' these (or ' who ') they say that 
(they) know no respect for any man.' 

7, 17. — gehwylcne . . . wilnaS". The distributive meaning of 
gehwylcne occasions the singular of the verb after laCara fSe. 



III. ACCOUNT OF THE POET C-^DMON. 

This extract (also 'The Conversion of Edwin,' below) is taken 
from the so-called Alfredian version of Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica 
Gentis Anglorum. Bede (Bseda or Beda) was born in the neighbor- 
hood of Wearmouth about the year 673, and died in the year 735. At 
the age of seven he was placed under the charge of Benedict Biscop, 
abbot of Wearmouth, and while yet a child was transferred to the 
neighboring monastery at Jarrow, where, ordained a deacon at nineteen 
and a priest at thirty, he spent the remainder of his life. He was a 
man of gentle and devout spirit, zealous in religion, and assiduous in 
study, of wide and varied learning, and a voluminous writer. He 
wrote in Latin. By his scientific, theological, and historical works he 
supplied the means for sacred and profane learning. Professor 
Plummer, the latest editor of his most important historical work, the 
Hist. EccL, describes it thus : 

" It is indeed the best known of all his works ; that by which almost 
alone he keeps a place in the thoughts of any besides professed students of 
history or theology. There are scenes in it which live hi the hearts of 



200 2^0 TES. 

every one of us: the "picture of the Anglian slave boys in the Roman 
Forum, whose fair Angelic faces stirred in the heart of Gregory the desire 
to save from the wrath of God the souls that dwelt within such heavenly 
forms [p. 88 f .] ; the story of the Northumbrian thane who gave his voice 
for the introduction of Christianity, in the hope that it would throw some 
light on the dark problems of existence, the whence and the whither of the 
human soul, which seemed to him like a sparrow which flits in winter 
through a lighted hall, passing from darkness into darkness [p. 64] ; the 
description of Oswald, the royal saint, acting as interpreter, while Aidan 
preached to his people [cf . pp. 98 ff .] ; the tale of the cow-herd of St. 
Hilda's monastery, who received his gift of song, ' not of men nor by 
man,' but through the grace of God, and who therefore ever regarded it as 
a sacred deposit, to be used only for the glory of God and the good of his 
fellow-men [pp. 8 ff .] ; — these are things which will live as long as Eng- 
lishmen have any care for their country and their church, as long as the 
story of saintliness and self-sacrifice can awaken an answering echo in 
human hearts." See also Adolf Ebert and H. O. Taylor, works cited. 

The Hist. Eccl. has been edited, with complete critical apparatus, 
by Charles Plummer (Clarendon Press, 1896, 2 vols.). A convenient 
edition, by G. H. Moberly, had issued from the same press in 1881 ; 
and, in the same year, Mayor and Lumby's edition of Books III and 
IV from the Cambridge University Press. See also William Bright, 
Chapters on Early English Church History (Clarendon Press, 1888), 
and William Hunt, The English Church from its Foundation to the 
Norman Conquest (Macmillan & Co., 1899). 

The complete text, according to the best manuscripts, of the Anglo- 
Saxon version of the Hist. Eccl. has been edited in two volumes for 
the Early English Text Society by Thomas Miller (1890-1898). An 
additional edition by J. Schipper represents two groups of the manu- 
scripts in parallel columns {Bihl. der ags. Prosa, IV., 1899). 

Bede's account of the earliest named English poet possesses genuine 
interest ; though clothed in a legend which, with variations, is found 
recurring in literature since the Dream of Hesiod, in other respects the 
details are to be accepted as trustworthy (see ten Brink's Appen- 
dix A) . Caedmon is supposed to have died about the year 680. 

8, 1. — In iJeosse abbudissan mynstre, ' In the monastery of this 
abbess,' i.e. in the monastery at Streaneshalh (Whitby) of its founder 
and first abbess Hild. , 

8, 16. — Qnd he for ffon etc. : unde nihil U7iquam frivoli et super- 
vacui poematis facere potuit ; sed ea tantummodo quae ad religionem 
pertinent, religiosam eius linguam decehant. — leasunge ne idles 



MOTES. 201 

leo]?es, partitive genitive. — ac efne )?a an fSsi SPe etc., ' but just those 
[songs] only which it became his (the) pious tongue to sing ' ; notice 
that the possessive (his) precedes the article ; Sweet changes >a (before 
fef^stan) to >gere (dat.) as required by the usual construction of geda- 
fenian, and regards the ace. as possibly a " slavish following of the 
Latin " (cf . the gloss, at Luke iv. 43 of the Durham Book, oportet 
me: gedsefne'S mec ; March). 

9, 4. — gelyfdre ylde. A predicate genitive may denote a charac- 
teristic of the subject. 

9, 5-6. — J>onne ]?ger waes blisse intinga gedemed etc. : citm esset 
laetitiae causa decretum ut omnesper ordinem cantare deherent. " The 
translator has evidently taken causa for the nom. instead of the abl." 
(Sweet), otherwise he would have written for intingan. 

9, 15. — CedmQn (or Csedmon). The theories respecting this name 
are summed up by Cook (Puhlications of the Mod. Lang. Association 
of America, Vol. VL, p. 9 f.). 

9, 22. — }>a fers Qnd ]>a word etc. Notice the variation from the 
Latin : versus quos numquam audierat, quorum iste est sensus. 

9, 25 f. — Csedmon's Hymn. Bede himself merely translates this 
hymn into Latin, but copies of it in Anglo-Saxon are found at blank 
spaces of Latin MSS. of his History ; of these copies the most impor- 
tant is given at the end of the Moore MS. (Kk. 5. 16, Cam. Univ. Lib.), 
for this is in the Northumbrian dialect and substantially represents, it 
is believed, the hymn in its original form. It is as follows : 

nu scylun hergan hefaeuricaes uard, 

metudses maecti end his modgidanc, 

uerc uuldurfadur ; sue he uundra gihuaes, 

eci dryctin, or astelidse. 

he aerist scop aelda barnum 

heben til hrofe, haleg scepen. 

Tha middungeard moncynnaes uard, 

eci dryctin, sefter tiadse 

firum fold'«i frea allmectig. 

Prima cantavit Caedmon istud carmen. 

This Northumbrian copy is presumably as early as the year 737 (see 
Sweet, TJie Oldest English Texts, London, 1885, p. 148). Eor a list of 
the occurrences of this hymn in MSS., see Miller's ed. of the Anglo- 
Saxon Bede, p. xvii f. The Anglo-Saxon translator of Bede's History 
did not therefore reconstruct the hymn on the basis of Bede's Latin 
version, but inserted it in its current vernacular form (see ten Brink, 
Appendix A). 



202 NOTES. 

10, 7-8. — Qnd Jjsem wordum etc.: et eis mox j^lura, in eundem 
modum verba Deo digni carminis adiunxit. Agreement with the Latin 
is here very close ; we should expect on [or in] J>£eni ilcan gemete 
(Sweet). wyriS'e (= dignus) usually governs the genitive, but other 
instances of its use with the dative are found in the Bede {Englische 
Studien, XV., p. 159 f.). 

10, 14-18. — lussus est . . . indicare somnium, et dicere carmen, ut 
universorum iudicio, quid vel unde esset quod referebat, probaretur. 
Visumque est omnibus caelestem ei a Domino concessam esse gratiam. 

11, 6. — )>aette seolfan J^a his lareowas etc. : (suaviusque reso- 
nando) doctores sitos vicissim auditores sui faciebat. 

11, 26-27. — betynde Qnd ge^ndode : conclusit. — gewitenesse 
Qnd forfffore : decessus. A single Latin word is frequently rendered 
by two synonyms. 

13, 9-13. — Qnd seo tunge . . . betynde : illaque lingua quae tot 
salutaria verba in laudem Conditoris composuerat, ultima quoque verba 
in laudem ipsius [componeret], signando sese et spiritum suum in 
manus eius commendando, clauderet [vitam]. 



IV. CYNEWULF AND CYNEHEARD. 

This chapter is from the famous Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. 

"As a body of history [these annals] extend from a.d. 449 to 1154, — 
that is, exclusive of the book-made annals that form a long avenue at the 
beginning, and start from Julius Csesar. The period covered by the age 
of the extant manuscripts is hardly less than three hundred years, from 
about A.D. 900 to about a.d. 1200. A large number of hands must have 
wrought from time to time at their production, and, as the work is wholly 
anonymous and void of all external marks of authorship, the various and 
several contributions can only be determined by internal evidence " (Earle, 
Anglo-Saxon Lit.) . Earle himself has examined and set forth this evidence 
{Two of the Saxon Chronicles, 1865) ; see especially the edition (based on 
Earle's) by Charles Plummer, Clarendon Press, 1893-1899, 2 vols. 

The annal of 755 (written at least as late as the year 784, and 
apparently entered later than the annal of that year) is a remarkable 
example of early vernacular prose. " We do not meet with so vivid 
and circumstantial a piece of history till more than a hundred years 
later" (Sweet). "The syntax is not more rugged than that of Thu- 
cydides. It corresponds well to the time which produced it, in which 



\ 



NOTES. 303 

brief efforts of diction had been long familiar, but a sustained narra- 
tive not often attempted in writing" (Earle, English Fr'ose, London, 
1890). 

The Tarker MS., from which the text is taken, represents the Early 
West-Saxon dialect, the language of Alfred the Great (see Sievers' 
Grammar, x\.ppendix). 

14, 1. — Her, 'at this place in the annals.' The manuscripts were 
first marked ofl: in spaces or lines for each year, which were to be filled 
in as the compiler might find matter. ' ' Many of these spaces 
remained blank to the last. . . . Out of this mechanical process of 
construction grew the fashion of beginning the aimals with an adverb, 
not of time, but of place" (Earle). 

14, 2. — 'wiotan forms with Cynewulf a compound subject; the 
verb agrees with the first and nearest member of the subject. Cf. 
Abraham forSferde and witegan, 'Abraham and the prophets died,' 
^Ifric, Horn. II., 232, 18. 

15, 8. — The slaying of the king is thus reported in the annal of 
784 (6) : Her Cyneheard ofsloh Cynewulf cyning, Qud he >£er wear> 
ofslsegen gnd Ixxxiiii m^nna mid him. 



V. WAES OE ALFRED THE GKEAT. 

The reign of Alfred the Great (871-901) was begun on the battle- 
field against the incursions of the Danes. The following annals belong 
to the warmest and most detailed narratives of some of the king's mili- 
tary campaigns. "The style assumes a different aspect; without 
losing the force and simplicity of the earlier pieces, it becomes refined 
and polished to a high degree" (Sweet). Freeman's History of the 
Norman Conquest of England, Vol. I., and Green's Conquest of Eng- 
land are important for the history of these times. 

16, 11. — on .aSscesdune, 'at Ashdown' (Berkshire). For com- 
ments on this battle of Ashdown, see Freeman, Old English History 
(London, 1876), p. Ill f., and Green, The Conquest of England^ 
p. 102 f. 

16, 20. — Qnd fela }>nsenda ofslaegenra, 'and many thousands 
[were] slain ' ; ofslaegenra is gen. by attraction and agrees with 
]>aseuda. 



204 NOTES, 

17, 13. — Qnd hine iQnge on dseg gefliemde etc. This " is one of 
those fights in which we read that the Enghsh drove the Danes to 
flight, and yet that the Danes kept possession of the place of slaugh- 
ter. In battles between irregular levies and a smaller but better dis- 
ciplined band of invaders, this result is not so unlikely as it seems at 
first sight" (Freeman). 

17, 27. — on Lymene niu>an. The ancient river 'Limen' has 
altogether disappeared. Mr. Etheridge of the Geological Survey of 
Great Britain says: "I think the great alluvial plain of Komney 
Marsh and Walling Marsh covers up much of the early physical his- 
tory of that coast. There is no reason whatever why, in former times, 
there may not have been an extensive river running up to Appledore 
either from Romney or Rye, or even Hythe " (Notes in Earle's ed.). 

18, 1. — hundtw^lftiges. The genitive with an adjective (lang) 
may denote measure. 

18, 4. — iiii mila fram J>£em inn]>an uteweardum, 'four (ace. 
of extent) miles (partitive gen.) from the outside (the lower part) of 
the mouth ' (cf . 24, 14) . 

18, 19. — gif hie senigne feld secan wolden, 'if they were to 
come out into the open field ' (Sweet). 

19, 8. — ac hi haefdon ]>a heora stemn ges^tenne etc., ' but they 
had then sat out (served) their term of military service and exhausted 
their supplies.' When habban forms a compound tense with the pp. 
of a transitive verb, the pp. is often inflected to agree with the object. 

19, 21. — buton swi>e gewaldenum dtele etc., 'except a very 
inconsiderable body of the people (i.e. self-enlisted volunteers, and not 
strictly a part of the "fierd" ; Earle) [which turned] eastwards.' 

20, 7. — Haefdon hi hiora onfangen, ' they (Alfred and Athelred) 
had received them (the sons of Hsesten) [as godchildren].' 

20, 12. — his (i.e. Hsesten's) cumpaeder. Ethelred (^]>ered) 
being godfather to one of the sons of Hsesten, cumpaeder here ex- 
presses his consequent relationship to Hsesten himself, and not that 
between the two godfathers Alfred and Ethelred (co-sponsors) . 

24, 14. — aet ufeweardum etc. , ' at the upper (inner) part of the 
mouth (estuary) on dry land.' 

25, 12. — £er ealra haligra maessan, 'before the feast of AllhaJ 
lows, or All Saints' (November 1st). 



NOTES. 205 



VI. ALFRED'S PREFACE TO THE PASTORAL CARE. 

In learning and literature Alfred the Great was both patron and 
author; "he writes, just as he fights and legislates, with a single eye 
to the good of his people" (Freeman). The Danes had wrought an 
"intellectual ruin," which, after the treaty at Wedmore in 878,. he 
labored to repair. The literary leadership which once belonged to 
Northumbria was now set up in Wessex. Poetry had flourished in 
the Northumbrian period ; in Wessex the first great period of prose 
was now ushered in. 

In this preface from the king's own hand we have a comment on 
the state of learning in his kingdom, an expression of his theory for 
the education of youth, and an account of his aim and method in 
supplying, by the help of scholars whom he had gathered around him, 
vernacular versions of celebrated books. 

26, 1, 2. — ^Elfred kryning hates'. The third person of formal 
greeting ; hate (first pers.) introduces the discourse (cf. 107, 1, 2) 
The meaning of hatan is here also merely formal. — Waerf erS", bishop 
of Worcester. Alfred intended to send a copy of this work to each 
bishop in his kingdom (29, 5 f.), and accordingly left a blank space 
between gretan and biscep for the insertion of a different name in 
each copy. The Hatton MS. (of the text) is unique in having the 
name of the bishop filled in ; on the first page is also written : Deos 
boc sceal to Wiogora Ceastre. 

27, 26. — wundrade. Notice that this verb governs both the geni- 
tive (-wiotona) and the clause introduced by lafaet. 



Vn. FROM THE PASTORAL CARE. 

Pope Gregory the Great was born about 540 and died in 604. Many 
details of his life are set forth in ^^Ifric's homily given below (XV.). 
His work on the duties and responsibilities of the episcopal office was 
for centuries held in high esteem, and was often at Church Councils 
' ' authoritatively recognized as the standard of life and doctrine for 
bishops ' ' (Bramley) . A convenient summary of the work is given by 
J. Barmby, Gregory the Great [The Fathers for English Readers], 



206 NOTES. 

London, 1879. The text of the original is edited by R. H. Bramley, 
Oxford and London, 1874. The Anglo-Saxon version is edited by 
Sweet for the Early English Text Society (1»71); being preserved in 
two manuscripts (Hatton, 20, Bodl. Lib., and Cotton Tiberius, B. XL, 
Brit. Mus.) which are regarded as contemporary with Alfred, "it 
affords data of the highest value for fixing the grammatical peculiari- 
ties of the West-Saxon dialect of the ninth century [Early West- 
Saxon] " (Sweet). 

30, 1. — >a leofusta bro3'ur. The work is addressed to John, 
Bishop of Ravenna ; Gregory justifies his reluctance in accepting the 
popedom, as well as his composition of this work, by his deep sense 
of the responsibihty of the pastoral office. 

30, 8. — Qnd se fSe hi etc. : et qui incaute exjyetiit, adcptum se esse 
pertimescat. The tense of underfeiige is probably not due to the 
Latin, but is rather in lively anticipation of the completed act. 

31, 13, — craeft. The Latin has arcem, which was possibly "mis- 
read as arte in'''' (Sweet). 

31, 16. — For aCon icfe nan craBft etc. 'Since no art is for him to 
teach who has not first diligently learned it. ' 

32, 4. — ' Hi secaiS" ' etc. Matt, xxiii. 6, 7. 
32, 14. — ' Hie riosedon ' etc. Hosea viii. 4. 

32, 21. — • Hie S'orine etc. : Quos tamen interims judex et jJrovehit, 
et nescAt : quia quos permittendo tolerat, profecto per judicium repro- 
hationis ignorat. The translator has in the last clause deviated from 
the sense of the original. 

32, 23. — Ac ?reali hi etc. Matt. vii. 22, 23 ; Luke xiii. 27. 

32, 27. — ' Da hierdas ' etc. : ' Ipsi pastores ignoraverunt intelli- 
gentiam'' (Isa. Ivi. 11). Quos rursum Dominus detestatur, dicens, 
' Et tenentes legem nescierunt me' (Jer. ii. 8). 

33, 1. — 'Se aPe God' etc.: '-Si quis auten^Jgnorat, ignorahitur' 
(1 Cor. xiv. 38). 

33, 7. — ' Gif se blinda ' etc. Matt. xv. 14. 

33, 9. — sien hlra eagan etc. Ps. Ixviii. 24 (Ixix. 23). The appli- 
cation of these words is representative of Gregory '.s symbolic interpre- 
tation of Scripture ; a more elaborate example is given in the next 
selection. 

33, 28. — ' Ge fortrSdon ' etc. Ezek. xxxiv. 18, 19. 

34, 0. — ' Yfle preostas ' etc. Hosea v. 1 ; ix. 8. 
34, 18. — ' Se iffe aenigne ' etc. Matt, xviii. 6. 



NOTES. 207 

35, 4 — Ha sMTiiafe etc. Lib. II., cap. xi. of the original. 
35, 23. — ' Donae ic cume ' etc. 1 Tim. iv. 13. 
35, 25. — ' Lioca Dry Ii ten ' etc. Ps. cxviii. 97 (cxix. 97). 
35, 28. — ' Wyrc feower hringas ' etc. Exod. xxv, 12 f. 
37, 15. — ' Beoff simle gearwe ' etc. 1 Peter iii. 15. 



VIII. THE VOYAGES OF OHTHERE AND WULFSTAN. 

Tlie Alfredian version of Orosius's Compendious History of the 
"World, like all the Alfredian translations, abounds in variations from 
the original, in contractions, in expansions, and in original insertions. 
Specially important passages have been inserted in the first chapter of 
the first book. 

" They consist of a complete description of all the countries in which the 
Teutonic tongue prevailed at Alfred's time, aud a full narrative of the 
travels of two voyagers, which the king wrote down from their own lips. 
One of these, a Norwegian named Ohthere, had quite circumnavigated the 
coast of Scandinavia in his travels, and had even penetrated to the Whit© 
Sea ; the other, named Wulfstan, had sailed from Schleswig to Frische Haff . 
The geographical and etlmographical details of both accounts are exceed- 
ingly interesting, and their style is attractive, clear, and concrete" (ten 
iiriuk). 

Bosworth's edition of these voyages (1855) is valuable for its anno- 
tations, a map, and R. T. Hampson's "Essay on the Geography of 
King Alfred the Great." The entire Anglo-Saxon version, with the 
Latin original, has been edited by Sweet for the Early English Text 
Society (1883). The Lauderdale MS. (ninth century) belongs to the 
Early West-Saxon period ; the Cotton MS. (Tiberius B. i. Brit. Mus.), 
which is used to supply a gap in the text, belongs to the tenth century. 

Ohthere's First Voyage. — Ohthere set out from his home on the 
western coast of Norway in the northern part of 'Halgoland' (which 
corresponds in part to modern Helgoland, the southern district of 
Nordland). He sailed northward along the coast, and on the sixth 
day doubled the North Cape ; for the next four days his course was 
eastward, along ' Terfinna land,' after which he turned south into the 
White Sea (Cwen See), and in five days more reached the mouth of 
the river Dwina (an micel ea). 



208 NOTES. 

Ohthere's Second Voyage. — Ohthere afterwards sailed from 
' Halgoland ' on a southern voyage ; he followed the west and south 
coast of Norway; entering the Skager Rack, he first landed at 
' Sciringesheal,' a 'port' on the Bay of Christiania. Thence he sailed 
southward, through the Cattegat, along the southern coast of Sweden 
(D^uemearc, i.e. the provinces of Halland, Scania or Schonen, in 
the south of Sweden), through The Sound. At first he had on his 
right Skager Rack (widsae), then Jutland (Gotland), then Zealand 
(Sill^nde) and many islands (iglanda fela) to the south and south- 
west of Zealand. In five days he arrived at the Danish port Haddeby 
(^aet H^J»uin, at or near the present site of Schleswig) . 

Wulfstan's Voyage. — Wulfstan (perhaps a Dane) sailed in the 
Baltic Sea. Setting out from Schleswig (Hae>uin), he coasted to the 
south of the islands Langeland (Langaland), Laaland (Lleland), 
Falster, and Sconey (Scon eg) ; proceeding in the main arm of the 
Baltic he passed south of Bornholm (Burgenda land), leaving also 
on his left the more remote Blekingen and More (Blecinga-eg, 
3Ieore, provinces in the south of Sweden), and the islands Oeland 
(Eowland) and Gothland (Gotland). On his right he had Meck- 
lenburg, Pomerania, etc. (Weonodland, the country of the Wends), 
until he reached the Erische Haff (Estm^re). His voyage of seven 
days ended at the Drausensea (m^re), on the shore of which stood 
'Truso.' 

39, 11. — Beormas. The country of the Permians (Biarmaland) 
was on the eastern coast of the White Sea, north and east of the 
river Dwina. "In the middle ages, the Scandinavian pirates gave 
the name Permia to the whole country between the White Sea and 
the Ural" (Bosworth, n. 42). 

39, 13. — Terfinna land extended from the White Sea to the 
North Cape. "Belonging to Sweden is the tract inhabited by Lap- 
landers called Trennes and Pihinieni, ... In the Trennes we seem 
to have the Terfinns of Alfred" (Hampson). 

40, 19. — wilde moras. The ' waste lands ' correspond to the 
present province of Norrland. 

41, 1. — Cwena land. " The country east and west of the Gulf of 
Bothnia, from Norway to the ' Owen ' or White Sea, including Fin- 
mark on the north" (Bosworth, n. 36). 

41, 15. — iraland. That Ireland can here be meant, is highly 
improbable. Some editors have thought that the text should be 



NOTES. 209 

emended to read Isaland (or Tseland) , ' Iceland ' ; then ]>a igland 
between Iceland and }>issuin lande (i.e. Britain) would be the islands 
of Faroe, Shetland, and Orkney. This is the simplest solution of the 
difficulty, but it has not removed all doubts. Eieger suggests the 
Shetlands, and Brenner {Englische iStudien, IV., p. 457) argues in favor 
of Isederen, in the southwest of Norway, and understands }>issuTn 
lande to refer to the home of Ohthere. Brenner's view is not satis- 
factory. 

42, 13. — WislemuiaPaii. An eastern branch of the Vistula (Wisle), 
the Nogat, on its way to the Frische Haff (Estm^re) is joined, 
north of the Drausensea (m^re), by the Elbing (Ilfing) which then 
gives up its name. Wislemu9'a does not therefore correspond to the 
Weichselmunde of the modern map. 

42, 15. — The country of the Estas, or Esthonians, was to the east 
of the Vistula and extended north to the coast of the Baltic. 

43, 13. — Al^cgaa" hit Jjonne forhwaege on anre mile etc. Bos- 
worth nas designed the following illustration of the plan of these 
races : 

vi V iv iii 11 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 

I I I I I I •••... 

e d c b a 

Where The six parts of the 
the horsemen property placed 

assemble. within one mile. 

"The horsemen assemble five or six miles from the property, at d 
or e, and run towards c ; the man who has the swiftest horse, coming 
first to 1 or c, takes the first and largest part. The man who has the 
horse coming second, takes part 2 or b, and so, in succession, till the 
least part, G or a, is taken." 



IX. IT IS BETTER TO SUFFER AN INJURY THAN 
TO INFLICT ONE. 

This extract is from the fourth book of the Boethius ; see Notes to 
' Orpheus and Eurydice.' 

45, 2. — J»is folc, i.e. the vulgus, just spoken of as indifferent to 
such reasoning (At vulgus ista non respicit); the ' folc ' is again spoken 
of in this manner below (46, 7). 



2IO NOTES 



X. PROVIDENCE AND EATE. 

This extract is also from the fourth book of the Boethius. It is a 
very free paraphrase of the original. 

50, 9 f . — Swa swa on wsenes eaxe etc. The passage in the 
original corresponding to this paragraph contains merely a simple 
figure of concentric spheres, for which the Anglo-Saxon translator has 
substituted the more ingenious and elaborate figure of the wheel. 



XI. THE NATURE OF GOD. 

The translator has here constructed a brief chapter of clear and 
simple statements on the basis of the much fuller and somewhat 
involved discussion at the close of the original. 



XII. THE CONVERSION OF EDWIN. 

Edwin (585 ?-633) , son of ^lla, king of Deira, was the first Chris- 
tian king of Northumbria (uniting Bernicia with his hereditary Deira) , 
with York as the centre of his government. His eventful life as nar- 
rated by Bede embraces legendary incidents. Soon after his father's 
death in 588, Deira was conquered and governed by ^thelric, king of 
Bernicia ; Edwin, in consequence, was compelled to live in exile from 
the third year of his age until the East- Anglian king, Rsedwald, over- 
came ^thelfrith, son and successor of ^thelric, on the banks of the 
Idle (617), and regained for him his father's kingdom. After sub- 
duing Bernicia, Edwin extended his dominions to the north (Edin- 
burgh, i.e. Eadwinesburh, is supposed to preserve his name), to the 
west and to the south, and within nine years became "overlord of 
every English kingdom, save Kent ; and Kent was knit to him by his 
marriage with ^thelburh" (Green). He was ranked as the fifth 
Bretwalda. 

Edwin's conversion to Christianity, after his political successes, is 
made to turn upon a promise which a mysterious visitor had exacted 



NOTES. 211 

from him while in exile at the court of Kaedwald. This visitor came 
upon him while sitting at night meditating upon his troubles. Edwin 
was brought to promise, upon condition of overcoming his enemies 
and securing his father's throne, to obey in all things the injunctions 
of his deliverer ; whereupon the stranger laid his right hand on the 
head of Edwin, and said, ' When this sign shall come to thee, remem- 
ber this hour and these words,' and then vanished as a spirit. 

Edwin's Christian queen, ^thelburh, sister of Eadbald, king of 
Kent, came to her northern residence accompanied by Bishop Pau- 
linus. How the king was finally persuaded to accept the doctrine 
observed by the queen and taught by Paulinus, is described in the 
following vivid and dramatic selection (Bede. Lib. II., cap. xii., xiii.). 
See further. Green's Making of England; Freeman's Old English 
History ; and Bright' s Early English Church History. 

62, 9. — >8et tacen. This is the sign which was to remind the 
king of the promise made to his mysterious visitor while in exile at the 
East- Anglian court. 

63, 13. — ]>uhte Qnd gesewen weere : videretur. 

64, 1. — )>yslic me is gese-wen : Talis mihi videtur. This thought- 
ful and pathetic simile, in striking contrast to Cefi's sentiments of self- 
interest, is reproduced in Wordsworth's 16th Ecclesiastical Sonnet. 

65, 10. — Hwa maeg etc. : Qtds enim ea, quae per stultitiam colui^ 
nunc ad exemplum omnium aptius quam ipse per sapientiam mihi a 
Deo vero donatam destruam ? Cancel ea,fS, which has the appearance 
of a graphic error occasioned by ea. 

66,4. — ©a onfeng Eadwine etc. "The king caused a little 
wooden chapel to be hastily reared at York, on part of the ground now 
covered by the glorious Minster ; and within its walls he went through 
the training of a catechumen, and received baptism on Easter-eve, 
April 11, 627. His nobles were baptized with him ; and among the 
neophytes was his grand-niece Hilda, the future abbess of Whitby. 
Many people followed his example. It was the birth-day of the 
Northumbrian Church" (Bright). 

66, 16. — mid arleasre cwale. Edwin was defeated and slain at 
the battle of Hatfield (638), where he encountered the Welsh king, 
Ceadwalla, and the Mercian king, Penda, who had combined their 
forces against him. The consequences of this defeat were disastrous 
to the Northumbrian State. Queen ^thelburh and Bishop Paulinus 
fled back to Kent, and heathendom revived in the North. 



212 NOTE^. 

QQ, 17. — Oswalde. Oswald restored the Nortlimnbrian state, and 
reintroduced Christianity. See '^Ifric's Life of King Oswald,* below 

XIIL A BLICKLING HOMILY. 

A collection of homilies contained in a unique manuscript at Blick- 
ling Hall, Norfolk, has come to be generally known as the Blickling 
Homilies, the title under which it was published by Morris foi 
the Early English Text Society (1874-1880). A passage in the text 
(Vol. I., p. 119) incidentally fixes the date of the manuscript at 971. 
This date may, however, be due to the transcriber, at least it is not 
safe to infer that all the homilies belong to that year, though they 
were probably composed within a period not extending far back from 
that time; "they were beyond question a product of thought created 
by Dunstan, ^thelwold, and their adliefents"" (ten Brink). 

One of the homilist's favorita themes is the near approach of the 
end of the world, a subject that so filled the mind of the people at the 
close of the tenth century. 

The student is now introduced to the prose writings of the late 
"West- Saxon period, — a direct continuation of the literary activity 
begun by Alfred the Great. 

69, 23. — on Qrne Drihten etc. The text should probably read 
on God and on urne Drihten Hselende Crist, his d'one ac^ndan 
Sunu. The error is obviously due to the scribe. 



XIV. CLERIC'S HOMILY ON THE ASSUMPTION OF ST. 
JOHN THE APOSTLE. 

^Ifric is altogether the most important writer of the late West- 
Saxon period. He was born, probably in Wessex, about the year 955, 
At the age of sixteen he was already an inmate of Bishop ^thelwold's 
monastery at Winchester, where, as pupil, deacon, and priest, he con- 
tinued to the year 987. He was then sent to Cernel in Dorsetshire to 
instruct in the Benedictine Code the monks of the monastery lately 
founded by the royal thane ^thelmaer. During this mission of two 
years, ^Ifric formed the resolution to make translations from the 
Latin into the vernacular, with the view to correct and improve popu- 



NOTES, 213 

lar Christian teaching. Returning to Winchester (989 or 990), he 
wrote his first series of forty homilies, to be used by the clergy in the 
course of a year's administration ; a second series of equal scope 
followed in 993-994. As an aid to the study of Latin, he wrote an 
Anglo-Saxon Latin Grammar (995), a topically classified glossary, 
and an interlinear Colloquium ; he also compiled physico-astronomical 
treatises. The "Lives of Saints" was written about the year 996, 
and then (997-998) followed translations of portions of the Old Testa- 
ment. The "Canons of ^Ifric," a pastoral and liturgical tract, was 
also written about this time. A translation of Alcuin's "Handbook 
upon Genesis " may be assigned to the year 1000. 

^thelmeer afterwards founded a Benedictine monastery at Ensham 
(Oxfordshire), and it was here that ^Ifric, in 1005, was installed as 
abbot, — the highest office attained by him ; he held the abbacy on a 
life tenure. Henceforth his writings were of an occasional nature, but 
they were all directed to the same end of strengthening the discipline 
of the Church and of elevating the religious culture of the people. 
He translated the De Consuetudine Monachorum of his old master 
jEthelwold, and the Hexameron of St. Basil. A homily on Judith 
and a translation of the book of Esther are followed by a treatise on 
the Old and New Testaments (before 1012). The entire list of MMv'.;- 
writings, in Anglo-Saxon and in Latin, has not yet been accur- .cely 
determined. Treatises on the celibacy of the clergy, pastoral letters, 
separate homilies, a Latin Life of ^thelwold, etc., augment the pro- 
ducts of his industrious pen. Two pastoral letters, written for Wulfstan 
of York, about the year 1014, are the last of his works that can be 
approximately dated. It is probable that he was still alive and abbot 
at Ensham in 1020. His death is placed between 1020 and 1025. 

^Ifric's career is conspicuous in its relation to the reform of Dun- 
stan and ^thelwold, and his writings mark a culmination in prose 
style. His language is always clear, and when not forced into an 
artificial alliterative mould, it is flexible and forcible. 

The double cycle of ^Ifric's Homilies is published in an edition 
of two volumes by Thorpe (London, 1843-1846). The homily for 
St. John's Day, Dec. 27th, is the fourth of the first series. 

84, 10-11. — sunnannhtan, 'early Sunday morning,' just before 
dawn. — hancrede, ' cock-crowing ' ; here the last division of the 
night, just at dav/n. — undern, at the third hour of the morning, i.e. 
nine o'clock (mid-morning). 



21,4 NOTES. 



XV. ^LFRIC'S HOMILY ON ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. 

This homily for St. Gregory's Day, March 12th, has, since its first 
publication by Miss Elizabeth Elstob in 1709, been regarded with 
special interest. It is the ninth homily of ^Kric's second series. 

86, 1-2. — on afisum andw«rdan dsege. Pope Gregory died on 
the 12th of March, 601. The death of a saint was commemorated by 
the Church as his true birth, his entrance into the life of bliss. 

86, 7. — ' Historia Anglorum.' The History of Bede is the homi- 
list's chief authority. — ^Elfric bears testimony to the tradition that 
Alfred translated Bede's History. 

86, 15, — Gordianus, and Felix etc. Gregory's father was a rich 
Roman of senatorial rank ; his great-great-grandfather (his fifta faB- 
der: Lat. atavus) was Pope Eelix (526-530), "the third or fourth of 
that name according to different computations ; probably, therefore, 
the word atavus [Bede, Lib. 11. , cap. i.] should strictly be proavus, 
the father of the grandfather" (Moberly). 

87, 6. — Gregorius is Grecisc nama etc. The name is derived 
from the root of eyeipw. Paulus Diaconus interpreted it by vigilator 
seu vigilans (Elstob). ' Yigilantius ' is curiously translated as the 
iS;*^uter comparative by ' Wacolre.' 

'-^7, 21. — J>aet seofoiJe etc. The seventh monastery founded by 
Gregory was ' ' dedicated to St. Andrew, on the site of his own house 
near the church of St. John and St. Paul at Rome " (Barmby). Here 
he himself lived as a Regular (regollice, according to the Benedictine 
rule of the institution) in submission to the government of the abbot. 

88, 3. — mid paellenum gyrliim etc. At the age of thirty, Gregory 
held the high office oiprcEtor urbanus ; this description of rich apparel 
probably refers to his robe of state. 

88, 11. — singallice iintrumnyssa. Gregory speaks of bodily 
afflictions " in his Epistle to Leander, bishop of Sevil " (Elstob). 

88, 14. — }>a undergeat se papa etc. In 577 Pope Benedict I. 
(574-578) ordained Gregory one of the seven deacons of Rome. 
Under Pope Pelagius (578-590) he served as papal apocrisiarius or 
responsalis at Constantinople ; this diplomatic mission kept him at 
the imperial court from 578 (?) to 585. 

ii8, 22. — cypecnihtas. William Thorne, monk of St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, specifies the number of these boys : ' ' Vidit in for* 



NOTES. 215 

J.omano tres pueros Anglicos lactei candoris venalesy X. Script. 
p. 1767. " The date of Gregory's meeting with the English slaves at 
Rome is fixed between 585 and 588 by the fact that after his long stay 
at Constantinople he returned to Rome in 585 or 586. ... On the 
other hand, ^lla, whom the slaves owned as their king, died in 588 " 
(Green, The Making of England^ p. 216, note 2). 

90, 8. — manncwealm. Miss Elstob noticed that Gregory of Toura 
{Hist. Lib. X.) has an account of this pestilence, which resulted from 
the overflowing of the Tiber. 

90, 10. — Pelagium. Pelagius II. died Feb. 8, 590. 

90, 18. — gefaedera. While at Constantinople, Gregory is said to 
have stood sponsor to one of the sons of the Emperor Maurice ; he 
therefore held the relation of compater (cf. 20, 12) to the Emperoi 
himself. The homilist is also, apparently, indebted for this detail to 
Gregory of Tours. 

91, 3. — to papan gehalgod wurde. The day of Gregory's acces- 
sion was Sept. 3, 590. 

92, 2. — ' uton ah^bban ' etc. Lamentations iii. 41. 
92, 5. — 'Nylleic' etc. Ezek. xxxiii. 11. 

92, 20. — Clypa me etc. Ps. xlix. 15 (1. 15). 

93, 1. — seofonfealde letanias. On this occasion Gregory insti- 
tuted the 'sevenfold litanies' {Litania 3Iajor), or processions, after- 
wards observed by the Church on St. Mark's Day, April 25. 

93, 20-21. — Augustinus, Mellitus, etc. Augustine (died in 604 
or 605) became the first Archbishop of Canterbury (cf. 96, 2); he was 
succeeded by Laurentius, who was succeeded by Mellitus (Bishop 
of London), who was succeeded by lustus (Bishop of Rochester). 
Petrus became the first Abbot of the Monastery of St. Peter and 
St. Paul at Canterbury, and lohannes succeeded him. 

94, 15. — On laram dagum etc. The missionaries arrived at the 
court of iEthelberht, king of Kent, in 597. The king, as afterwards 
in the case of Edwin, had a Christian queen ; Bertha, daughter of 
Chariberht, king of Paris, with her Prankish chaplain. Bishop Liud- 
hard, worshipped at Canterbury, in a little church called St. Martin's. 

96, 2. — Etherium. It is supposed that the homilist here follows 
Bede (Lib. I., cap. xxvii.) in erroneously naming Etherius ; Augustine 
was consecrated ' Archbishop of the English ' on the 16th of Novem- 
ber (597 ?) at Aries, by the archbishop Vergilius, not by Etherius, it 
is contended, who was at that time the archbishop of Lyons. 



2l6 IfOTES. 



XVI. JELFRIC'S LIFE OF KING OSWALD. 

Oswald (c. 604-642) was the second son of Edwin's sister and oi 
King ^thelfrith. His father having fallen in the battle of the Idle 
(617), he took refuge among the northern Celts. After Edwin's 
death, Osric, a son of Julia's brother, ^Ifric, ruled Deira, and Ean- 
frith, Oswald's older brother, was placed on the throne of Bernicia. 
Both kings threw off Christianity. "The reigns of these two kings 
lasted one miserable year, a year whose shame was never forgotten 
among the Englishmen of the north " (Green). These kings fell before 
Ceadwalla, and Oswald came from his retreat to assume the leadership 
of his people. He at once collected a small force, with which he met 
and defeated Ceadwalla at Heavenfield (635). Ceadwalla was himself 
slain in this battle, " and the fall of this great hero of the British 
race left the Englishmen of Bernicia supreme in the north" (Green). 
Oswald became one of the greatest of Northumbrian kings, ruling over 
both Bernicia and Deira, and in large measure restoring the political 
work of Edwin. Having been converted to Christianity while in exile 
at Hii, off the western coast of Scotland, where the Irish Columba had 
set up a mission, the king at once began to labor for the conversion 
of his people. He called upon the mission at Hii for preachers, and 
Aidan came and "fixed his bishop's stool or see in 635 on the coast 
of Northumbria, in the island peninsula of Lindisfarne. Thence, from 
a monastery which gave to the spot its after name of Holy Island, 
preachers poured forth over the heathen realm" (Green). It was 
thus that Christianity, first introduced into Northumbria by Paulinus 
of Augustine's mission in the south, was now reintroduced by way of 
the Irish-Scotch mission of the north. The beneficent reign of Oswald 
is in many of its features a striking parallel to that of Edwin. Both 
kings became the nucleus of popular legend. Oswald reigned as Bret- 
walda, and finally fell in battle against Penda at Maserfield, on the 
oth of August, 642. 

^Ifric's chief source for the Life of King Oswald was Bede's 
Ecclesiastical History (Lib. HI.). The text is obtained from Sweet's 
Anglo-Saxon Beader, where it was published for the first time ; it has 
since been published, with readings from other MSS., by Skeai, in 
^Ifric's Lives of Saints, Part III. (Early English Text Society, 
1890). 



NOTES. 217 

98, 1. — Augustinus, sent by Gregory the Great on his mission 
to England. 

98, 8. — and twegen his aefterg^ngan, namely Osric and Ean- 
frith. 

98, 14. — Oswald j>a arserde ane rode etc. According to Bede, 
the king supported the cross with his own hands while his men fas- 
tened it in the earth. 

99, 6. — sum man etc. Bede is specific, and says it was a man 
named Bothelm, one of the brethren of the church at Hexham. 

99, 12. — Heofenfeld, ' Heavenfield,' is the name afterwards given 
to the place where this battle was fought ; it was near Hexham, but 
has not been exactly identified. 

101, 9. — He fulworhte on Eferwic etc., cf. 66, 17. 

101, 19. — On >am ylcan timan etc. Soon after the battle of 
Heavenfield, the conversion of the West-Saxons was begun by Birinus, 
who was sent by Pope Honorius. The king, Cynegils, was baptized 
in the presence of Oswald, who had come to the West-Saxon court to 
receive the daughter of Cynegils in marriage. Birinus, the first bishop 
of the West- Saxons, was afterwards established at Dorchester on the 
Thames. 

102, 28. — Oswig, 'Oswiu,' the third son of ^thelfrith, in 642 
became king of Bernicia only (Oswine, the son of Osric, ascended the 
the throne of Deira); after some years, however, he too gained the 
sovereignty of the entire Northumbrian realm. 

103, 7. — His bro>or dohtor. This was Oswiu's daughter Osthryth, 
queen of Mercia. 

105, 33. — Eft se halga Cua^berht etc. This vision of Cuthbert 
is here somewhat abruptly introduced, though the historic connection 
of events is close enough. Aidan was grieved at his favorite king 
Oswine's fall before Oswiu, and died soon after. 



XVII. CLERIC'S PREFACE TO GENESIS. " 

in this preface we catch an interesting view of ^Ifric as the earnest 
single-minded teacher of the people. He was with difficulty persuaded 
to translate the Genesis, fearing that a popular knowledge of the poly- 
gamy under the old law might have a disturbing influence. 



2l8 NOTES, 

^Ifric's Old-Testament translations are edited by Grein : Bihliothek 
der Angelsdchsischen Prosa^ Cassel and Gottingen, 1872. 

107, 1. — .^Ifric niunuc gret ^ESfelwaerd. gret, the third person 
of formal greeting ; cf. note to 26, 1, 2. — ' ^Selweard' was a noble 
ealdorman, descended from the house of Alfred the Great ; he was a 
friend and patron of ^Ifric, and himself, though a layman, the author 
of a Latin chronicle. 

108, 7. — sum oSCer man. Nothing is known of this translator, 
whose fragmentary version, it is assumed, ^Ifric touched up and 
joined to his own. See ten Brink. 



XVIII. THE LEGEND OF ST. ANDREW. 

The only complete copy of this prose legend is preserved in MS. 198 
of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge ; the introductory portion is also 
found in the Blickling Homily MS. It was first published by C. W. 
Goodwin, The Anglo-Saxon Legends of St. Andrew ajid St. Veronica, 
Cambridge, 1851, and afterwards by Morris, The Blickling Homilies, 
Part II., London, 1876. There is also an Anglo-Saxon poetic version 
of this legend (Grein, Vol. II., p. 9 f. ; Grein- Wulker, Vol. II., p. 1 f. ; 
Baskervill, Andreas: A Legend of St. Andrew, Boston, 1885). A 
common source establishes a relation between these two versions ; 
this source is a Latin original, in prose, of which only a few frag- 
ments have been found (Zupitza, Zeitschrift fur deutsches Alterthum, 
Vol. XXX., p. 175 f., and Lipsius, Erganzungsheft, p. 29). The 
Greek version of the legend (from which, however, the Anglo-Saxon 
versions vary in many details) is published in Tischendorf's Acta 
Apostolorum Apocrypha, Leipsic, 1851, p. 104 f. The legends of the 
apostles are exhaustively treated by Lipsius, Die apokryphen Apos- 
telgeschichten und Apostellegenden, Braunschweig, 1883-1890. The 
Anglo-Saxon prose version is assigned to the tenth century, although 
MS. C probably belongs to the latter part of the eleventh. 

113, 5. — Marmadonia. The scene of the principal incidents of 
this legend, 'Marmadonia' (or ' Mermedonia '), a city among the 
anthropophagi, is supposed to be the MvpixrjKidov, or Mvp/uLtjKia, in the 
Crimea (Chersonesus Taurica), mentioned by Strabo (Lipsius, Vol. L, 
p. 604). 



NOTES. 219 

115, 7. — Achaia here denotes a region on the eastern coast of the 
Black Sea ; in some forms of the legend it is confounded with Achaia 
in Greece (Lipsius, Vol. I., p. 609 f.). 

116, 1. — Se halig-a Andreas etc. Immediately preceding these 
words in MS. B., the following fragment of the Latin original is 
inserted: Tunc Sanctus Andreas surgens mane abiit ad mare cum 
discipulis suis, et uidit nauiculam in litore, et intra naue sedentes tres 
niros. 

121, 16. — eastdSle, i.e. of the Black Sea, although the local tradi- 
tions of Sinope (on the southern shore) place the mount (dune), on 
which Peter is found, on an island near that city (Lipsius, Vol. I., 
p. 611). 

122, 10. — strael. The poetic version (1. 1191) has >a deofles 
str«l. Zupitza regards strael as the rendering of sagitta (or telum), 
which in the Latin copy was occasioned hy erroneously giving to BeXla 
(Belial) the meaning of ^iXos. 

123, 30. — blseston. It may be better to read rsesdon, ' proceeded 
with violence, or scoffingly ' (Holthausen). 

127, 10. — bisceope. In the poetic version (1. 1653) this bishop 
is named Platan, i.e., nxdruv of the legend of St. Matthew. 



XIX. THE HARROWING OF HELL. 

Among once popular literary sources the apocryphal Gospel of 
Nicodemus holds an important place. Christ's Descent into Hell was 
a favorite theme in Anglo-Saxon poetry, and afterwards in the Mysterj" 
Plays of the early drama. A sketch of the relations of this Gospel to 
the literature of western Europe is given by Wiilker: Das Evangelium 
Nicodemi in der abendldndischen Literatur, Paderborn, 1872. The Apoc- 
ryphal Gospels (Latin and Greek) are edited by Tischendorf, Leipsic, 
1853 ; recent English translations are by B. Harris Cowper, London, 
1867, and Alex. Walker [Ante-Nicene Christian Lib.], Edinburgh, 1870. 

The Anglo-Saxon prose version of this apocryphal book belongs, 
probably, to the eleventh century. The orthography of the best MS. 
(Camb, Univ. Lib. li. 2. 11) is characteristic of the Late West-Saxon 
dialect at least half a century after ^Ifric's time. The entire version 
is printed in Heptateuchus, Liber Job, et Evangelium Nicodemi; 
Anglo- Saxonice. etc., edited by Thwaites. Oxford, 1698. 



220 NOTES. 

The substance of tlie narrative introductory to the extract here given 
is as follows : Joseph assures the high priests Annas and Caiaphas 
that Jesus did not only rise from the dead, but that he also raised 
many others w^ith himself, among whom' are the two sons of Simeon, 
named Karinus and Leucius ; these can now be seen at Arimathea. 
"Then the chief priests, Annas and Caiaphas, arose, and Joseph, and 
Nicodemus, and Gamaliel, and others with them, and went to Arima- 
thea, and found those whom Joseph had said." Karinus and Leucius 
are brought to Jerusalem and led into the temple, where they are ad- 
jured to reveal the mysteries they have seen and heard ; in compliance 
they sit down and write. 

129, 17. — >a ic cwselSf etc. Isa. ix. 1, 2. 

130, 5. — ]>one ]>e ic baer etc. Luke ii. 28 f. 

130, 13. — Ic eom lohannes etc. Matt. iii. 1 f. ; Mark i. 2 f. 

130, 17. — Ger^ce J>ynum bearnum etc. How this legend of Seth 
was afterwards connected with the legends of the cross may be seen 
in Legends of the Holy Rood, edited by Morris for the Early English 
Text Society, 1871, p. xii. f. 

131, 17. — ' and myn sawl ' etc. Mark xiv. 34. 

132, 16. — and nu aet nextan etc., et in proximo est eius mors, ut 
(var. et) perducam eum ad te etc. (Tisch. p. 375). Holthausen cor- 
rects the text as follows : and nu aet nextan [isj hys deaff, and ic 
Tvylle [hine] to Se etc. 

133, lb. — ''Tollite portas'' etc. Ps. xxiii. 7 (xxiv. 7). 

133, 27. — and J^a haeftiuga gehealdaS" etc. ; cf. ne captivemus 
tenentes captivitatem (Tisch. p. 876), and Fs. Ixvii. 19 (Ixviii. 18). 

134, 3. — ' Andettaar ' etc. Ps. cvi. 15 f. (cvii. 15 f.). 
134, 9. — >aet deade m^n etc. Isa. xxvi. 19. 

134, 25. — >aet se sylfa Drihten etc. Ps. ci. 20, 21 (cii. 19, 20). 

137, 24. — Singaiaf Drylitne etc. Ps. xcvii. 1, 2 (xcviii. 1, 2). 

138, 15. —ac wyt seeolon etc. 1 Thess. iv. 17; Rev. xi. 3-12; 
1 John ii. 18, iv. 3. 

139, 3. — Eala Dryhten etc. Luke xxiii. 42, 43. 

141, 1. — gret. The third person of formal greeting (cf. 26, 1). 



XX. C^DMON'S GENESIS: THE OEFERING OF ISAAC. 

Anglo-Saxon literature first flourished in the Anglian territory (north 
of the Thames). In this first period, which culminated about the 



NOTES. 221 

middle of the eighth century, the greater part of Anglo-Saxon poetry 
was produced. However, these Anglian productions (except in the case 
of a few fragments, like the Hymn of Csedmon, see p. 201) are pre- 
served only in copies made in the south during the tenth and eleventh 
centuries. By repeated transcription these poems were brought into 
more or less exact conformity with the later language of the ?outh, 
and therefore now represent no dialect in its purity, but a com- 
bination of chiefly Early and Late West-Saxon with a residuum of 
Anglian forms. The case resembles that of the Homeric poems, 
which are in the Ionic dialect with an admixture of Aeolic forms sur- 
viving, as is conjectured, from the dialect in which the poems were 
originally composed. An almost complete collection of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry is contained in Grein's Bihliothek der angelsachsischen Poesie, 
Gottingen and Cassel, 1857 1, re-edited by AViilker, Cassel, 1881 f. 

Although the poems preserved in MS. Junius, XI., Bodl. Lib. corre- 
spond in character to Bedels description (see p. 11) of Csedmon's com- 
positions and were therefore once all attributed to CEedmon, criticism 
has shown that these biblical poems are the work of different authors. 
The " Genesis" alone (after eliminating a long interpolation, 11. 235- 
851) is still claimed for Csedmon (see ten Brink, Appendix A). 

The Episode of the Offering of Isaac has the additional interest of 
being one of the most pathetic and best-handled themes in the Mystery 
Plays of the early drama. 

142, 10. — hrincg ]>8es hean landes, ' the (elevated) border of 
the highland' ; Bouterwek's emendation hrycg 'ridge ' is not required. 

142, 11. — gegaerwan, more strictly gegeerwan. Anglian. 

143, 1. — Waldend (Waldend). Anglian; S. 158, 2. 

143, 17. — hea dune. Rhythmically the contracted form hea is 
here dissyllabic. 

143, 18.— Aldor (Aldor). Anglian. 

144, 3. — gedeede. Anglian ; S. 429, n. 1. 

144, 8. — hean is rhythmically dissyllabic ; cf. 143, 17. 

144, 16 f. — :^re sc^ncan etc. The MS. has s^ncan, which the 
editors have attempted to justify ; however, the substitution of 
sc^ncan, 'to pour out liquor for drinking,' releases the passage of 
all difficulties. The literal translation is : 'to give drink to the fire 
with (by means of) kin's blood.' 

145, 7. — brolgror Arones. The name of Abraham's brothw: Ha- 
ran (Gen. xi. 26 f.) is here strangely obscured. 



222 NOTES. 

145, 10 f, — brynegield onhread etc. This disputed passage may 
be translated, ' He adorned (reddened) the sacrifice, the reeking altar, 
with the ram's blood.' 



XXI. THE BATTLE OE BRUNANBURH. 

JEthelstan, grandson of Alfred the Great, reigned from 925 to 940. 
He was king not only of the West- Saxons and of Mercia, but by a 
brilliant execution of the policy of his father, Eadweard, he added 
Northumbria to his realm, and "thus became immediate king of all 
the Teutonic races in Britain, and superior lord of all the Celtic prin- 
cipalities" (Freeman). The poem on the Battle of Brunanburh com- 
memorates the most famous battle of his reign. In the year 937, 
Anlaf (or Olaf), a son of the former Northumbrian Danish king Siht- 
ric, came again from Ireland and stirred up the Northumbrian Danes 
to another rebellion against their West-Saxon king. "The men of 
the northern Danelaw found themselves backed not only by their 
brethren from Ireland, but by the mass of states around them, by the 
English of Bernicia, by the Scots under Constantine, by the Welsh- 
men of Cumbria or Strath- Clyde " (Green), ^thelstan and his brother 
Eadmund marched with their forces to the north, and in a victorious 
battle ended the rebellion. The site of Brunanburh has not been cer- 
tainly determined ; Bosworth locates it "about five miles southwest 
of Durham, or on the plain between the river Tyne and the Browney " 
(Bos worth-Toller, Dictionary ; for other opinions, see Green, The Co7i- 
quest of England, p. 254, note 1). 

" The poem does not seem to have been written by one who saw the 
battle. At least we learn from it no more in substance than might have 
been put down in a short entry of the Chronicle. The poem lacks the epic 
perception and direct power of the folk-song, as well as invention. The. 
patriotic enthusiasm, however, upon which it is borne, the lyrical strain 
which pervades it, yield their true effect. The rich resources derived from 
the national epos are here happilj' utilised, and the pure versification and 
brilliant style of the whole stir our admiration " (ten Brink). 

This battle-piece is the most important of the poetic insertions in 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles. The manuscripts furnish many variant 
readings ; the text here given represents the poem in its generally 
accepted form. 



NOTES. 223 

146, 12. — feld dennode etc., 'the field became slippery with the 
blood of warriors.' This interpretation of dennode is merely conjec- 
tural. Holthausen suggests dunnade, ' became darkened (stained).' 

147, 1. — 3Iyrce. The Mercians belonged to the forces of ^thel- 
stan. 

147, 31. — on Dinges m^re has not been satisfactorily explained. 
Dlnges, as a proper name, is very doubtful ; the variant readings are 
dynges, dyniges, dinnes. See Glossary. 

148, 4 f. — Leton him behindan etc. In a conventional figure of 
the poets the raven, eagle and wolf are attendants of the battle-field ; 
cf. 152, 23-24; 162,28. 



XXII. THE BATTLE OF MALDON. 

The supremacy of the West-Saxon kings was broken in the disastrous 
reign of ^thelred. The Northmen invaded England anew, and ulti- 
mately placed a Danish king upon the English throne. The invaders 
met the bravest resistance at the Battle of ^Maldon. In 991 they 
attacked the eastern coasts of England ' ' seemingly with the intention 
of making a settlement. This seems to have been a Norwegian expe- 
dition ; the leaders were Justin and Guthmund, sons of Steitan, and 
there seems every reason to believe that Olaf Tryggvesson himself was 
present also" (Freeman). They first plundered Ipswich, and then 
proceeded into Essex ; the East-Saxon eaidorman Brihtnoth promptly 
collected his forces, and gave the invaders battle on the banks of the 
Blackwater (then called Panta) near Maldon. "The town lies ou a 
hill ; immediately at its base flows one branch of the river, while 
another, still crossed by a mediaeval bridge, flows at a little distance 
to the north. The Danish ships seem to have lain in the branch 
nearest to the town, and their crews must have occupied the space 
between the two streams, while Brihtnoth came to the rescue from 
the north. He seems to have halted on the spot now occupied by the 
church of Hey bridge, having both streams between him and the town " 
(Freeman). 

The poet has described this battle with the fidelity of an eye-witness. 
From the minuteness of details it is to be inferred that the poem was 
composed soon after the event ; these details relate exclusively to the 
English side, even the names of those in command of the enemy 



224 NOTES. 

being, apparently, unknown to the poet. In dramatic incident and 
in patriotic fervor this poem is unsm-passed in Anglo-Saxon litera- 
ture ; it also furnishes a graphic and effective picture of a lord and 
his followers united by the spirit of the comitatus. 

The brave ealdorman Brihtnoth was also distinguished aR a liberal 
patron of monastic foundations, especially of Ely and Ramsey. After 
his fall at Maldon, the enemy having carried off his head as a trophj^ 
his body was taken to Ely and there buried, with a ball of wax to 
supply the loss of the head. His widow ^thelfiaed is said to have 
wrought his deeds in tapestry. 

The only manuscript copy of this poem (Cotton Otho, A. xii.) was 
destroyed by fire in 1731, but Hearne had transcribed and published 
it in 1726 (Johanr^As Glastoniensis Chronica^ Oxford). The text is 
incomplete both at the beginning and at the end, but it is probable 
that not more than a few lines have thus been lost. 

149, 2. — hwaene here means ' a certain one,' though it has wrongly 
been supposed to be equivalent to gehwilcne, 'each' (cf. 153, 15). 

149,4. — hiegan to handum etc., 'to be active and of good 
courage ' (cf. 149, 13-14, and the Finnsburg Fragment, 1, 10 f.). 

149, 5. — Offan mseg, the 'kinsman of Offa,' who is the first to 
respond to the call of his lord ; Offa himself is also mentioned in the 
poem. 

149, 6. — se eorl, i.e. Brihtnoth himself, to whom alone the poet 
applies the title eorl. — yrhSfo, ' cowardice ' on the part of his men ; 
some editors prefer to read yrmiSfo, ' dishonor ' at the hands of the 
invaders. 

149, 7. — he let him )>a of handon etc. he (i.e. Offan maeg) 
abandons the sport of fowling with his favorite (leofne) hawk to join 
the campaign. 

149,11. — Eadric, another faithful retainer. Ettmiiller, errone- 
ously, would introduce the line by ac (for eac) and identify Eadric 
with Offan maeg. 

149, 12-13, — tor's beran gar to gu>e, *to go armed to war.' 
beran is frequent in expressions of military motion ; cf. 151, 10, 15 ; 
152, 16, etc. 

150, 7. — )>aer he on ofre stod. he refers to ar. 
150, 19. — us. Reflexive dative with a verb of motion. 

150, 25. — hi willaiy eow to gafole garas syllan. Cf . Genesis 2070, 
and the similar expression in Marlowe's Jew of Malta, Act II., sc. 2 : 



»l 



^^OTES. 225 

Governor. So will we fight it out ; come, let's away : 
Proud, daring Calymath, instead of gold, 
We'll send thee bullets ivrapt in smoke and fire: 
Claim tribute where thou wilt, we are resolved, 
Honour is bought with blood and not with gold. 

In the very year of this battle, however, iEthelred afterwards began 
the fatal practice of buying off the iDvaders with money. 

151, 17. — se aesch^re, i.e. the forces of the Northmen, the 'ship- 
army ' ; this unusual epithet w^as apparently occasioned by the require- 
ment of the alliteration. 

151, 22. — haeleffa hleo, i.e. Brihtnoth. 

151, 27. — }>Sr stodon mid Wulfstane etc. Wulfstan was the 
efficient leader of his kin (cafne mid his cynne) to which, appar- 
ently, ^SElfhere and Maccus belonged ; his son, Wulfmser, is men- 
tioned farther on (154, 11). 

152, 9. — Byrhtelmes bearii, i.e. Brihtnoth. 

152, 23-24. — hr^mmas wundon etc. Cf . 148, 4 f. 

152, 30. — Wulfmser, the son of Brihtnoth's sister. 

153, 7. — his afeoden, i.e. Brihtnoth ; cf. 154, 14. 

153,21. — su>erne gar, 'a southern dart,' i.e. a dart from the 
south ; the enemy were to the south, hence this epithet, apparently 
coined for the sake of the alliteration. 

154, 28. — For the missing half-line Korner suggests: hleoffrode 
eorl. 

155, 11. — Oddan beam, 'the sons of Odda,' i.e. Godric, Godrinc 
(or, as some editors prefer, Godwine), and Godwig. 

156, 2. — ogfer twega, ' one of two things.' 

156, 4. — ^Elfrices. It is possible that this was ^Ifric the ealdor- 
man of Mercia (Freeman, History of the Norman Conquest, Vol. I., 
p. 272, note 4, and Green, Conquest of England, p. 372 f.). 

157, 13. — Starm^re, "a lake or fen in Essex" (Freeman); more 
probably the mouth or estuary of the Stour (Korner). 

158, 20. — Gaddes mseg, i.e. Offa. Korner believes that Gaddes 
is a Danish name and that the poet therefore in this single instance 
names one of the enemy. This opinion is not to be accepted, nor is it 
necessary, as Zerniel suggests, to transpose the order of lines 20 and 21. 

159,3. — ser him Wigelines beam. him, reflexive dative; 
Wigelines beam, i.e. Wistaii (<Wigstau), Wigeliu (or perhaps 
Wigeling), being another name for J>urstan. 



226 NOTES^, 



XXm. THE WANDERER. 

The poem entitled the "Wanderer" is representative of the lyrics 
produced in the first (Anglian) period of Anglo-Saxon literature. The 
dominant note is that of sadness. The poet is full of the sorrows of 
bereavement and of exile ; he laments the death of protectors and of 
friends, the -passing away of the joys of comradeship ; his delusive 
dreams of past happiness deepen by contrast the gloom of the desolate 
reality wrought by death, change and devastation. But although a 
man cannot withstand fate, he can in distress practise the restraint 
and resignation of the true hero. In the " Battle of Maldon" the 
relation between, d, lord and his men is seen under the severest test ; 
the *' Wanderer," by 'the indirect touches of longing recollection, draws 
a picture of the comitatus in the joyous hall of the gift-dispensing 
lord. 

The authorship of the poem is undetermined ; there is no reason for 
assigning it to Cynewulf. 

160,7. — hryre. We should expect hryres, gen. depending on 
gemyndig (Holtha^sen). 

161, 4. — minne wisse is perhaps best translated by *may show 
(witan) favor.' There is difficulty with the unusual' word miime. 
Thorpe first suggested mlnne (for MS. mine), and Sievers, on metrical 
grounds, has accepted it; Kluge, however, substitutes mildse, and 
Holtbausen suggests mildne. Sweet, in violation of metrical require- 
ments, retains mine (or myne), to which he gives the meaning 
* memory', love.' 

162, 28-29. — fugel . . . se hara wulf. The poet has in mind 
the raven, the eagle, and the wolf feasting on the bodies of the 
slain; cf. 148, 4-9; 152, 23-24 (Modern Language Notes, KlU., 
176 f.). 

163, 1.— »lda (»lda), AngUan ; S. 159, 2. 



XXrV. THE PHCENIX. 

The first part of the Anglo-Saxon "Phoenix" (11. 1-380) is an 
adaptation or paraphrase of a Latin poem attributed to Lactantius 
Jirmianus (4th century). In Teuffel's History of Latin Literature 



I^OTES, 227 

(5th ed. 1890), the much disputed question as to the authorship of 
the Latin poem is confidently decided in favor of Lactantius. The 
Anglo-Saxon poet has added a second part (11. 381 to the end) in 
which the myth of the phoenix (in a twofold application, to the right- 
eous and then to Christ himself) is made to symbolize the Christian 
doctrine of the resurrection. This allegorical portion is apparently 
not based on any literary source, though there is some resemblance 
to passages in the writings of Ambrosius, and in one instance perhaps 
a direct influence of Bede's Commentary on Job. The entire poem 
therefore affords the material for a twofold study of the author's work- 
manship : his method of translation and adaptation can be compared 
with the character of his original composition. See H. Gaebler, 
Angha, III., 488 ff. and 0. Schlotterose, Bonner Beitrdge zur Aug- 
listic, XXV (1908). 

The "Phoenix" belongs to the Anglian period of poetry, but it is 
almost certainly not to be attributed to Cynewulf. In grace and 
simplicity of style, in the elaboration and clearness of figure, in lyric 
beauty and in richness of description, this poem must be classed with 
the best poetic productions of Anglo-Saxon times. The originality 
and the feeling of the poet are particularly manifest in his transfor- 
mation of a cold and artificial prototype into a ]X)em of warmth and 
beauty. 

165, 1-6. — Hgebbe Ic gefrugnen etc. The opening formula, 'I 
have heard,' is characteristic of Anglo-Saxon poems. Even the first 
few lines reveal the poet's free treatment of his original in eliminating 
notions foreign to the Anglo-Saxon mind, and in recasting the poem 
in a Christian mould. 

166, 4. — hleonaS". The metre may be corrected by substituting 
an Anglian dissyllabic form of the personal endmg (see S. § 414, 
n. 2). 

166, 12. — sunbearo lixeff. — sunbearo, 'sunny grove,' corre- 
sponds to solis nemus (Lact. 1. 11), but there is an avoidance of the 
heathen notion of the Sun-god (Gaebler). — lixeS". It is a mark of 
the Anglian origin of the poem that the rhythm requires the full per= 
sonal ending -etS (so also at lines 39, 61, 80, 89, 99, 110, 144, 187, etc.); 
a West-Saxon poet would have made free use of the syncopated forms. 
S. 358, n. 1. 

166, 18-28. — ne Mm lig sc^ffeiaf etc. In this passage, correspond- 
ing to Lact. 11. 11-14, the final destruction of the world and Noah's 



•228 NOTES. 

flood are substituted for the adventure of Phaeton and the flood of 
Deucalion (Gaebler). 

168, 4. — fseger. The rhythm of Anglo-Saxon verse often requires 
faeger (Sievers); so here and at lines 125, 182, 232, 807. 

168, 5. — Fenix, rhythmically always Fenix (Sievers) ; see lines 
218, 646. 

168, 11. — glaedum. Sievers has observed that in the rhythm of 
the "Phoenix " the primary syllable of this adjective is always long; 
see lines 289, 303, 593. 

168, 15. — ahyded. The full pp. ending -ed with verbs in -t, -d, is 
another mark of the Anglian dialect ; see lines 96, 181, 231, 418, 491, 
550. S. 402. 

169, 27. — swanes feffre. In attributing music not to the ' dying 
swan' (olor moriens, Lact. 1. 49), but to the 'swan's feathers,' the 
poet employs a form of the myth which is also found in No. viii. of 
the Anglo-Saxon Riddles (Dietrich). 

170, 26. — }»egn and ]?eow J>eodne mserum. In characteristic 
variation from the original, the Anglo-Saxon poet introduces the 
relationship of the comitatus. 

173, 15 f. — sumes onlice etc. (cf. Lact. 1. 107 f.). This expanded 
figure is particularly noteworthy, since similes are very unusual in 
Anglo-Saxon poetry. 

174, 8. — nihte. The substitution of niht, the earlier form of the 
dat. (S. 284, n. 1), will restore the true rhythm (Sievers). 

175, 6. — sunnan segn, 'the sign of the sun' = 'the sun,' just as 
the sun is also called tacen (1. 96) and beacen (1. 107) ; the same 
figure is merely varied in expression to suit the alliteration. 

179, 8. — toiaCas idge. It is highly probable that to9'as (see the 
variants) is here correct, but idge is very doubtful. Hart, on the 
analogy of idseges (or igdaeges), suggests idfege, 'that same day.' 
It is also possible that idge is the remnant of an adjective like 
gr^dige, 'greedy.' 

184, 6 f. — lobes gieddinga! etc. Job xxix. 18: In nidulo meo 
moriavy et sicut palma multiplicaho dies. Gaebler notices that Bede, 
in his Commentary on Job, follows the Jewish tradition in interpre- 
tating palma as denoting the plicenix. It may therefore perhaps be 
inferred that the poet knew Bede's work. 

185, 20. — hremige, rhythmically hremge (Sievers). 

186, 25, -r-sy, Rhythmically sie (dissyllabic) is required (Sievers). 



APPENDIX II. 



ANGLO-SAXON VEKSIFICATIOK^ 

Anglo-Saxon poetry is composed in a kind of blank-verse, in lon^ 
unrimed (but alliterative) and ungrouped {i.e. stichic) lines. 

A. GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 

1. Every line consists of two parts, the first half -line and the sec- 
ond half-line ; these half-lines are separated by a caesura and united 
by alliteration (i.e. initial rime ; end-rime occurs occasionally, but 
merely as an incidental ornament). 

2. Every half-line has two rhythmic stresses, or accents, and con- 
sequently two rhythmic measures, or "feet" ; it is a structural unit 
and has a scansion of its own, independent of that of its complemen- 
tary half-line. In contrast to the second half-line, the first half-line is 
more favorable to the expanded and heavier forms of the foot. 

3. The ^'■foof'' (or measure) in its simplest form consists of two 
parts, an accented and an unaccented part (arsis and thesis). How- 
ever, two additional forms are employed : a foot of one part only (an 
arsis), which is employed in combination with a foot of three parts, o: 
which one is an arsis (having the chief rhythmic stress), another has a 
secondary stress, and the third is unaccented, being the true thesis. 

4. The arsis (or rhythmic stress) requires a long syllable (the vowel 
must be long in quantity, or, if short, the syllable must be closed with 
a consonant) or the equivalent of a long syllable. This equivalent is 
called a resolved sti^ess and consists of two syllables, of which the first 
(with one of the word-accents) is short in quantity and the second is 
light enough in accent to combine with the first to produce with it the 
metric equivalent of a long syllable. But there are special conditions 
under which the arsis consists of a short syllable. 

5. The thesis (or unstressed part of the foot) consists of a varying 
number of syllables, which are either unaccented or subordinate in 

1 For the wider relations of this system of versification, see Eduard Sievers, 
Altgermanische Metrik, Halle, 1893. 

229 



230 APPENDIX 11, 

emphasis. No metric distinction is made between long and short sylla- 
bles in the thesis. 

6. Alliteration (initial rime, consisting in the agreement of the ini- 
tial sounds of words or syllables) is employed to unite the two half- 
lines into the larger rhythmic unit of the complete line. Alliteration 
is restricted to syllables in the arsis (and marks the most emphatic of 
these) ; any additional alliteration that may occur in the thesis is to be 
regarded as accidental and therefore without significance in the struc- 
ture of the line. The alliterating syllables have the same initial con- 
sonant (but the initial combinations sf, sp, and sc are exceptional in 
alliterating only each with itself, not with any other initial s) , or they 
have an initial vowel sound, any vowel or diphthong alliterating either 
with itself or (more commonly) with any other vowel sound. 

The alliterating syllables are distributed as follows : (a) In the sec- 
ond half-line it is only the first arsis that shares in the alliteration. 
(6) In the first half -line both the first and the second arsis may allit- 
erate ; or the first only ; or (less frequently) the second only.i 

7. The rhythmic stress, or the ictus, which distinguishes the arsis, 
coincides in general with the emphasis required by the sense. The 
four stresses of a complete line are therefore on the four most signifi- 
cant words or syllables of the line. These are not restricted to sylla- 
bles with the primary word-accent, but may include syllables with a 
secondary word-accent, such as the radical syllable of the second mem- 
ber of a compound noun or adjective and the more important formative 
and derivative syllables (see Outline of Grammar, § 5, note"). 

The words that are made prominent by the rhythmic stress (of 
which some are made still more emphatic by the alliteration), being 
logically or rhetorically the most significant words in the line, are 
chosen according to the gradation of sentence-accent. Thus, nouns, 
adjectives, infinitives, and participles, intrinsically significant in a sen- 
tence, are employed only with rhythmic stress (primary or secondary) 
and are excluded from the true thesis. Next in this order may be 

1 The instances in which the four stresses of a line alliterate are few in number and 
may be regarded as accidental. This non-structural form of alliteration may be in the 
order ab \ ab (Hwaet, we Gardena | in geardagum, Beowulf l) ; or in the 
order ab \ ba (Heebbe ic gefrugnen, | J>0ette is feor heonan, Phoenix 1). 
Tae art of versification begins to decline towards the close of the Anglo-Saxon period. 
A poem as late as The Battle of 3[aldon, therefore, contains infringements of the 

strict rules of alliteration (e.gr. me s^ndoD to )>e | ssein^n snelle, 29). 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSIFICATION, 23 1 

placed the adverbs, which are, as a class, accented in the sentence 
and are, therefore, usually in the arsis. As to the verb, in its finite 
forms, it has normally a weak accent in the principal clause, but is 
more or less strongly accented in the subordinate clause. This dis- 
tinction is lo some extent reflected in the gradations of the rhythmic 
stress. Although the verb of the principal clause is not excluded from 
an emphatic arsis (with alliteration), it is very frequently placed in 
an arsis of weaker stress (such as the last arsis of the line) ; and it is 
often relegated to the thesis. The remaining grammatical categories 
are subject to the usual exigencies of sentence-accent, rhythm, or em- 
phasis. An ictus on a personal or demonstrative pronoun, or on a 
preposition, for example, must be warranted by special conditions. 

B. RHYTHMIC TYPES.i 

The structure of the half -line, the primary structural unit in Anglo- 
Saxon versification, is represented in the following five types : 

1. Type A. j: x | ^ x 

In type A the rhythm, in its simplest form, is trochaic : 

stiS'uin wordum, Gen. 2848% Iy. \ l x 

heorsafgeneatas, M. 204% ^ x j ^ x 

wundorlice. Ph. 359^, ^ x | ^ x 

With resolved stress : 

eaforan >inne, Gen. 2915% ^ x | ^ x 

feorh geu^rede, Br. 36^, . ^ x [ u>< x 

haeleSfa mQnegum, Ph. 170'', ux x [ ux x 

The second (or final) thesis (as also in type C) never exceeds one 
syllable. However, the first thesis (as in B and C) admits a varying 

1 In the following- paragraphs the symbol - denotes the long syllable of an arsis ; X a 
syllable of the thesis, of which the ' quantity ' is disregarded ; and \^ a resolved stress. 
A secondary word-accent is indicated by the usual symbol 0), but when it is raised to 
the function of a primary rhythmic stress it is represented accordingly ('). 

The abbreviations employed are : B. {Beotculf) ; Br. {Battle of BrunanhurK) ; 
Gen. (Genesis): M. {Battle of Maldon) ; Ph. {Pho&nix) ; W. {Wa7iderer). The 
numerals refer to the continuous numbering of the lines of the poems ; and the superior 
letters, a and &, attached to the numerals, denote, respectively, the first and the second 
half-lines. 



232 



APPENDIX II. 



number of syllables. Most frequently this thesis has either one or 
two syllables ; not unusually three ; but seldom four or five : 



fysan to fore, Gen. 2860^, 
efste afa swiafe, Gen. 2872% 
flotena and Scotta, Br. 32% 
yrmafu aefter sete, Ph. 405% 
sealde J>ara J>e he wolde, B. 3066^, 



Jl X X 
^ X X 
^ X X 
XXX 
XXX 



-1 X 

1 X 

1 X 

1 X 

1 X 



There is a limited use of anacrusis^ an unstressed syllable (seldom 
two) at the beginning of a half-line that is not required by the 
structural type : 

ne sunnan hsetu, Ph. 17% 
geslogon set saecce, Br. 4% 
bibaSfaiaf in )»ani burnan. Ph. 107"^, 
geAviten under ^vaS'eman, Ph. 97*1, 
abr»gd >a mid 9"y blUe, Gen. 2931^, 



Ne forsset he >y siSTe, Gen. 2859s 



1 X 
v^Xx 

<!3 X 

X X 



1 X 
1 X 
1 X 
uxx 
1 X 
1 X 



The thesis may be the second member of a substantive compound, 
which has a secondary word-accent (or it may be the second word of 
a substantive collocation, which is accented like a compound). This 
renders the foot heavy ; and if the heavy foot be the first, it may, in 
compensation, be followed by a foot made lighter by a short arsis : 

glsedmod gyrne9'. Ph. 462^, ^ i 

feeges feorhhus, M. 297% l x 

bord and brad swurd, M. 15% i x 

gar and god swurd, M. 237*, s x 
feriafloca freorig, W. 33*, ^ x x 

brimcald brecaS", Ph. 67*, i l 

heahmod h^fe^, Ph. 112% ^ i 1 o x 

edgeong wesan, Ph. 435'*, ^ i I o x 

The first half -line admits a notable form of type A. The alliteration 
is restricted to the second arsis, because of the light character of the 
first arsis. The lightness of the first foot is also favorable to an in- 
creased number of syllables in the thesis : 

J>a >ses rinces. Gen. 2845*, j: x | ^ x 

on Q'issum wicum, Gen. 2881*, ^ x x I .£ x 

sindon }>a bearvvas. Ph. 71*. ■ ^ x .< \ i x 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSIFICATION, 23? 

1 X 



X X 
XXX 
XXX 

X X 



S X 

j: X 

1 X 
^X 
1 X 



nis >«r on )>ain Ipnde, Ph. 50% s x 

nu eow is gerymed, M. 93% 

gyf >u >aet geraedest, M. 36*, 

o'S jfset he geseceaf. Ph. 166^, s x 

hi leton )?a of folmum, M. 108% jl x x x x 

ne mihte >aer for waetere, M. 64% .^ x x x x 

to ra)>e hine gel^tte, M. 164*, .r x x x x x 

With anacrusis : 

gewat him )>a se aeafeling. Gen. 2884*, x | ^ x x x | '^x 

2. Type B. x ^ | x ^ 

In type B the rhythm, in its simplest form, is iambic : 

)>iii agen beam, Gen. 2851 , k l \ x 1 . 

ne winterscor, Ph. 18^, x .^ | x ^ 

)»urh meotudes meaht. Ph. 6% x^\ x 1 

ne hriines dryre. Ph. 16^, x .£ | x*^ 

ne d^ne ne dalu. Ph. 24*, x -^ | x u)j 

There is freedom in the number of syllables constituting the first 
thesis ; in the second thesis this number varies between one and two. 
With one syllable in the second thesis : 

]?onne sorg and slsep, W. 39% x x .^ | x j: 

nis se foldan sceat, Ph. 3^, x x Z | x ^ 

is >8et 8e>ele iQnd, Ph. 20^, x x'^\ x 1 

ser >8es beacnes cyme, Ph. 107^, x x .^ | x-^ 

J^onne on'vv8ecne9' eft, W. 45% x x x ^ | x .i 

on }>one aelffelan w^ng. Ph. 281% x x x\j><| x .i 

)>ara }>e )?^r guQ" fornam, B. 1124'', x x x x j: | x ^ 

>onne h«, of greote his. Ph. 267'', x x x x ^ | x .i 

With two syllables in the second thesis : 

on healfa gehwam. Ph. 206*, x 1 \ x x ji 

and )>riwa ascsecea". Ph. 144% x .^ ( x x«^ 

hwider hre)»ra gehygd, W. 72% x x j: | x x ^ 

ofer wa)>ema gsbind, W. 57% x x '^| x x z 

se hit on frym>e gesceop. Ph. 84% x x x j: | x x i. 

]>£et >u him ondrsedan ne >earft, B. 16751*, xxxxj:|xxj: 
J?ara >e hit mid muudum be wand, B. 1462% XXX xx^ | x x i- 



■234 APPENDIX II, 

In type B the exclusive alliteration of the second arsis (in the first 
half-line) is exceedingly rare : 

gesiha" him beforan, W. 46^, • x i \ x x ^ 



3. Type C. x 1 \ 1 x 

The juxtaposition of the two stresses gives to the rhythm of type C 
a peculiar character. In the first half-line double alliteration is not 
rare ; but alliteration is oftenest restricted to the first arsis, which has 
always the stronger stress : 

on flot feran, M. 41^, x ^ 1 ^ x 

on lides bosme, Br. 27^, x '^ | j: x 

The first thesis admits of a varying number of syllables, but the 
final thesis, as in type A, never exceeds one syllable : 

on Iffys iglande, Br. 66*, x x i \ i x 

>aet hi fora" eodon, M. 229^, x x ^ I ^ x 

swa se fugel swetum, Ph. 652^, x x ux [ ^ x 

. . l>e, hi >aet gyfl J>egun, Ph. 410^, x x x ji | j x 

, . .J>on.ne.,8efre,..byFe niQnnes, Ph. 128'', x x x x '^| j: x 

>ara l>e he him mid hsefde, B. 1626^, xxxxxjij^x 

In compensation for this juxtaposition of the two stresses, the second 
stress isoften.on a short syllable: 

ofei* deop wseter. Gen. 2875^, x x .£ I u x 

het l?a bord beran, M. 62*, x x z | u x 

onbleot J>8et lac Gode, Gen. 2933*, x x x z | u x 

Type C is especially favorable to the employment of the adjacent 
word-accents (primary and secondary) of a substantive compound as 
the two required rhythmic stresses. In ' quantity ' the syllable with 
the secondary word-accent may be long or short: 



his ealdcyaae. Ph. 351*, . , x i 

in geardagum, W. 44*, x l 

on holtwuda. Ph. 17P, x l 

geond lagulade, W. 3*, x '^^ 

ne to hraedwyrcle, W. 66^, x x j: 

}>onne dea^raeced. Ph. 48'', x x l 



1 X 
u X 
u X 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSIFICATION. 



255 



As the secondary word-accents of substantive compounds are availa- 
ble for ictus, so too are the secondary word-accents of significant syl- 
lables of formation and derivation (see General Principles, 7). Some 
of the most important of these syllables are : -ende (of the pres. ptc.) ; 
-en (of the past ptc. and other derivatives) ; -ra and -est (of the com- 
parative and superlative adjectives) ; -ig, -ing (-ung), -lie (-lice), 
-nes, -sum ; and the post-radical syllable of the forms of the verbs of 
the second weak conjugation : , 

}>8er com flowende, M. 65*, x x 

oiS >aet lie >asende, Ph. 151% x x x 

unbefohtene, M. 57», x x 

on l^nctenne, Ph. 254% x 

>a swetestan. Ph. 193% x 

swa se geseeliga, Ph. 350% x x x 

on >a \vicingas, M. 322^, 
hu hi fgerlice, W. 61*, 
and wynsumra, Ph. 133% 
nu mseg cunnian, M. 215*, 
geseah Wifigan, Gen. 2877*, 



>us reordiaS", Ph. 632% 
and gefeterode. Gen. 2902% 



X X 
X X 

X 
X X 
X X 

X 
X X 



4. Type D : (a) Di. l \ ^ x x ; (&) D2. j: | ^ x x 
In type D the first foot consists of an arsis only ; in compensation 
for this brevity, the second foot has three parts : an arsis, a secondary 
stress, and a thesis. Tti is structural requirement of a secondary stress 
(which in strictness may be regarded as belonging to a specially- 
constituted thesis ; it never alliterates) proves the observance in the 
language of a large class of secondary word-accents. Although the 
secondary word-accent is here usually used as a secondary stress of the 
rhythm, it is, of course, also available for ictus (cf. C). Type D (as 
also E) is a heavy form, and is especially favorable (in the first half- 
line) to double alliteration. The type is subdivided according to the 
character of the second foot. 

(a) T>^. 1 \ IX X 
In D^, which is the basal form of the type, the second foot is consti- 
tuted thus: ^ ^ X (the 'quantity' of the second syllable varies, and 
might be represented by x ; but it is of tenest long.) : . ^ . 



236 APPENDIX 11. 

eald inwitta, Br. 46% ^ | ^ 1 x 

grlnim gad'plega, M. 61% s | ^ u x 

■wadan wraeclastas, W. 5% ^ | ^ 1 x 

lie leoffucrteftlg, Ph. 268% - .i | ux 1 x 

lucon lagustreamas, M. 66% \t3 \ "^ - y- 

hriff hreosende, W. 102% ^ | ^ 1 x 

brimlij>endra, M. 27", .i | ^ 1 x 

bring gyldenne, B. 2810% s. \ l 

rsed senigne, B. 3081% z \ L 

griff f^stnian, M. 35b, ^ j ^ 

ham siffie, M. 251% l \ L 

wic weardiaS", Ph. 448*, jl \ ± 

hand wisode, M. 141^, ^ | l 

bord hafenode, M. 309% l \ ^ 

woruld staffelode, Ph. 130*», ux j 6x 

There is a rare occurrence of a short second arsis : 

heahcyninges, B. 1040% - 1 <j 

andswarode, B. 258**, - I vj 



2. x 

1 X 

u X 

u X 

u X 

u X 

u X 



:. X 

u X 



The form with three prominent words is also not frequent (c/. D'^) t 

wit eft cumaff. Gen. 2881% 1 \ 1 h x 

leomu lie somod. Ph. 513*, \jx | z u x 

Di is often expanded by a syllable after the first arsis (expansions 
are generally more frequent in the first half-line). There is a restricted 
use of the form with three prominent words (cf. D^) : 

beorna beahgifa, Br. 2*, 1 x \ l u x 

inecum mylenscearpum, Br. 24*, j: x | '^ 1 x 

caldum eylegicelum, Ph. 59% ^ x | ux -ix x 

greteff gliwstafum, W. 52% 1 x \ s u x 

sunu and swses faeder, Ph. 375% ^ ux x | j: o x 

sohte s^le dreorig, W. 25=^, .£ x | ^ l x 

With anacrusis : 

onbryrded breostsefa, Ph. 126*, x ! ^ x [ 1 u x 

ongietan sceal gleaw haele, W. 73*, >^ I '^ x I - ^ >^ 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSIFICATION. 237 

In rare instances this expansion of D^ consists of two 6r three sylla- 
bles after the first arsis : 

f^rede in forffwege, W. 81% ^i^ x x 1 1 u x 

■woriaS' }>a winsalo, W. 78*, j: x x x [ j: u x 

wintra dsel in woruldrice, W. 65*, ^ x x x | «jx 1 x 

(6) D2. i\ix^x 

Here the secondary stress is on the final syllable : 

3iar hilderinc, M. 169% ^ | ^ x 1 

wis ealdorman, M. 219% ^ | Z x 1 

flet innanweard, B. 1977% l\ l x ^ 

However, in D'^ (as also in E) the form often consists (in most in- 
stances exclusively) of three prominent words. The last two of these 
words (in E the first two) are the more closely related to each other 
grammatically, and thus constitute an accentual unit (resembling in 
accentuation the substantive compound) with, therefore, the primary 
stress on the first word of the unit and the secondary stress on the 
second : 

wer wintrum geong. Gen. 2888% ^ I ^ x 1 

earn seses georn, M. 107*, ^ | Z x 1 

fareiar feaTrum snell. Ph. 123% u>j j ^ x 1 

clufon ceUod bord, M. 283% «^ I ^ x 1 

sweord £er gemealt, B. 1616'', ^ I Z x 1 

bleed wide sprang, B. 18^, ^ | ^ x 1 

cnead cnear on flot, Br. 35% j: | ^ x 1 

D2 is also often expanded by a syllable after the first arsis : 

werig wiges saed, Br. 20*, - x I - x 1 

dreorig daroiSfa laf, Br. 54% ^ x ] \jx x l 

wod >a wiges heard, M. 130% ix \ j: x 1 

wyrd biO" ful arsed, W. 5^, s.x\ 1 x'i. 

With anacrusis : 
o^ffleogeiar feffrum enel, Pb. 347% x | J x | .£ x i 



238 APPENDIX II. 

■ The~ preceding forms of D^ occur sometimes with two unstressed 
syllables after the second arsis : 

eald ^nta ge"weorc, W. 87% ^ | z x x 1 

hleor bolster onfeng, B, 689^, jl I ^ x x 1 

cyning ealdre beneat, B. 2397^, 'jx [ j: x x 1 

onw^ndeS" Avyrda gesceaft, W. 107% x [ jI x | 1 x x 1 

oferswam >a sioleiS'a bigQng, B. 2368*, xxj^xl'^xxi 

5! Type E. ^ x x [ z 

In type E the foot of three parts precedes the foot of one part. 
This type is closely related to type D, consisting in most cases of the 
same elements in the inverse order. 

With substantive compounds in the first foot : 

andlangne dseg, Br. 21», z l x ] z 

hrimcealde see, W. 4 , 

weatacen nau, Ph. 51^, 

fyrngearum frod. Ph. 219% 

gylpwordum spraec, M. 274^, 

eastdtelum on, Ph. 2*, 

heaaforofes bus, Ph. 228% 

wuduholtum in. Ph. m^^, 

ginfsestum gifum. Gen. 2919% 

wineuisega hryre, W. 7^, 

Syrwara iQnd, Ph. 166^, 

SSard^na folc, B. 463^, ^ ^^ x \ 1 

With the secondary stress on significant syllables of formation and 
derivation (c/. C and D) : 

fleotendra fer3', W. 54*, .£ l x I z 

Scyppendes giefe. Ph. 327^ ^ l x | ux 

agenne eard. Ph. 264*, ^ \ x \ ± 

blodigne gar, M. 154^, jl l x | ^ 

ofstlice sceat, M. 143^, jl 1 x j z 

When the form consists of three prominent words, the first two o^ 
these words are the more closely related to each other grammatically, 
and thus constitute an accentual unit ^resembling in accentuation the 



1 - 


X 


-1 


_^ N^ 


X 


z 


1. 1 


X 


L 


JL 1. 


X 


L 


1. 1 


X 


± 


v5xi 


X 


■f- 


^1 


X 


- 


± 1 


X 


<L 


uX 1 


X 


<L 


± u 


X 


L 



ANGLO-SAXON VERSIFICATION. 259 

substantive compound) with, tlierefore, the primary stress on the first 
word of the unit and the secondary stress on the second (c/. D^) : 

feorh geong onfon, Ph. 192^, z 1 x | ^ 

Godes candel beorht, Br. 15^, ^ 1 x | z 

daeges >rid.dan up. Gen. 2875% ux 1 x | ^ 

tw^lf sTffum Mne, Ph. 106^, ^ 1 x | ^ 

wyn eal gedreas, W. 36^, ^ 1 x | ^ 

The thesis may be expanded by an additional syllable : 

wifhades >e ^veres, Ph. 357*, ji 1 x x | '^ 

drymendra gedryht, Ph. 348% 1 \ y. x \ 1 

sorgfulran gesetu. Ph. 417% jl l x x | '^ 

eadigra gehwylc, Ph. 381^, .£ l x x j ^ 

sellicran gecynd. Ph. 329^, ^ 1 x x j ^ 

searolice bes^ted, Ph. 297% ux 1 x x [ \^ 

An exceptional form of E is produced by the admission of an unac 
cented syllable immediately after the first arsis. But this syllable is 
oftenest one in 1, r, n, or m, and is, therefore, easily slurred in tne 
rhythm : .... 

restaar iucit her. Gen. 2880t>, z x 1 x [ ^ 

fifelcynues eard, B. 104^, .1 x l x [ ^ 

ealdorlangne tir, Br. 3^, I x l x | ^ 

middangeardes weard, Daniel^ 597«, Z x 1 x I _1 

irenbendum faest, B. 999^, jl x 1 x | z 

maS'inhorda in»st. Exodus^ 368*, -(x)i x | 1 

f6dorJ>ege gefean. Ph. 248^, ^ x l x x ] ji 

hrasan heolster biwrah, W. 23*, j: x 1 x x | j: 

Very rarely an inversion of the parts of D^ occurs, producing what 
flight, therefore, be called E^ : 

moraCorb^d stred, B. 2437^*, .i x 1 I ^ 

geomorgidd wrecen, Andreas, 1548*, j: x 1 I '^ 

6. Hypermetric Forms. 

A special modification of the preceding types is occasioned by the 
introduction of an additional foot at the beginning of a rhythmically 
aormal half-line. In the first half-line the additional foot shares the 



240 APPENDIX II, 

alliteration of the line ; in the second half-line it usually does not 
alliterate. These hypermetric forms are mostly employed in groups, 
and add dignity to the sense and movement of the passage. 

For the hypermetric forms occurring in the texts of this Reader, 
the following scansion may be adopted : 

Gen. 2854-2858 : 



^xUx 


1 ^ X 11 


.i X X joxx 


1 X 


:: X X 1 :i X 


1 ^ X 11 


- X X I - X 


1 X 


1 x\ S. X 


1 - X 11 






^x 1 1 X 


1 ^ X 11 


^ X X 1 ^ X 


ZX 


^xUx 


1 :: X II 


^ X U X 


1. X 



Gen. 2865-2868 : 



1 y.\ 1 -K 1^x11 .ixxxljlxjjix 

»^xx|j:x I'iiXxll x|.ixx \\^X \ S. X 

\jXx|^x l-lxll S.xx\lx\ix 

A -\ --x|| ^xxl^xl^x 



W. 111-115 



^x|jixxlj:xllx| ^x|j:xx|j:x 

^xxxx|^xxl^x||^xxxx| ^xl'^x 

^xx|^xx1j:xI|j:xxxx1 S X \ 1 X 

jIxIjIxxIjIxII^xxxxJ .£x|^x 

j:xx|\^x I^^xxII jixxxl ^x|j:x 

Ph. 10, 630: ' 

^x|^x jjlxll ^xljfxxf^x 

xl^xxlzx |.ix|| -xj^ 1^1* 



GLOSSAET. 



The vowels a and cs have the same position; ^ (J?) follows t; otherwise the order 
is strictly alphabetic. The abbreviations employed (exclusive of the most obvious; 
are the following : The numerals in parentheses, (1), (2), etc., indicate the classes of 
the ablaut verbs; (W. I.), (W. H.), (TV. IH.), those of the weak verbs; (R.) the 
reduplicating, and (PP.) the preterltive present verbs. — ger. (= gerund) ; imp. (^ 
imperative); pp. (= perfect participle); ptc. (= present participle); S. (=:Sievers' 
Grammar, translated by Cook). 



A, 2E.. 

a (5), adv., aye, ever, always : 39,10; 

73, 4 ; 85, 19 ; 6 (oo) 166, 4 ; 167, 21. 
ae (sew), 1, laic : ns. 28, 5 ; 107, 13 ; 

ds. £6 (S. 269, n. 3) , 107, 12 ; as. 32, 

28 ; 35, 5 ; 35, 26. [Ger. Ehe.] 
abbod, m., ahhot : gs. abbodes 87, 

22. [Lat. abbatem.] 
abbudisse, f., abbess : ns. 10, 25 ; 

gs. abbudissan 8, 1 ; ds. 10, 11. 

[Lat. abbatissa.] 
a-beodan, -bead -budon -boden 

(2), enjoin, announce : pret.3 sg. 

150, 6 ; imp. 2 sg. 150, 28. 
aberan, -baer -baron -boren (4), 

hear, endure : inf. 54, 25. 
H-bidan, -bad -bidon -biden (1), 

abide, remain : inf. 105, 9. 
ii-bls^an (-by.sgian) (TV. II.), en- 
gage, occupy : pp. abisgod 20, 19 ; 

35, 5; -ad 35, 16. [bysig.] 
a-bisgung, t, occupation : ns. 35,18. 
abl^ndan (VT. I.), make blind, 

darken : pp. abl^nd 135, 26 ; pi. 

abl^nde 52, 24. [Ger. blenden.] 



a-blinnan (<be-linnan), -blann 
-blunnon -blunnen (3), cease: 
3 sg. ablin« 80, 11. [li«e.] 

a-brecan, -breec -brgecon -brocec 
(4), break down, destroy: pret 
3 .sg. 20, 14 ; 3 pi. 18, 5 ; 19, 31. 

a-bregdan. -brsegd -brugdon -brog 
den (3): 1. smite (intr.); pret. 3 
sg. 145, 10. — 2. wlthdrau:(tr2ins,l)\ 
imp. 2 sg. abregd 144, 24. 

a-breoiSraTi, -brea-^ -bru^on -broken 
(2): \. frustrate, ruin (trans.). 
— 2,. fail, pensh (intr.); opt. t 
sg. abreo^e 157, 6. 

a-bywan (W. I.), p/repjare, equip, 
adorn : pp. pi. abywde 184, 2. 
i [buan.] 

; ac (ab), conj., but: 2, 17; 3, 5; 
5, 13; 7, 11. 

a-c^nnan ( W. 1.), beget, bring forth: 

pp. ac^nned 81, 14 ; 86, 14 ; sg. 

I ac^ndan 09, 24 ; pi. ac^nde 174, 

Achaia, f., Achaia : ds. 115, 7. 
a-colian (W. II.), become cool: 
I pp. acolad 173, 1. 

24.1 



242 



GLOSSARY. 



Scsian (ahsian, axian, ascian) ( W. 

II.), ask : 1 sg. acsige 53, 9 ; 2 sg. 

ahsast 69, 13 ; 3 sg. asca-5 37, 8 ; 

1 pi. acsiaS 135, 13 ; alisia'5 136, 

5 ; pret. 3 sg. axode 89, 8 ; ahsode 

62, 8 ; 3 pi. axodon 2, 3 ; acsedon 

138, 7. 
fi-cw^ccan (W. I.), shake (trans. 

and intr.): pret. 3 sg. acw^hte 

157, 19 ; 159, 13. 
a-cwelan -cwsel -cwselon -cwolen 

(4), die: inf. 5, 10; pret. opt. 

3 sg. acwEble 75, 10 ; pp. 21, 7. 
acw^llan (W. I.), kill: inf. 115, 

4 ; imp. 2 sg. acw^l 124, 7 ; 2 
pi. acw^lla^ 122, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. 
acwselde 122, 2 ; pp. acweald 75, 
14. [cwelan.] 

a-cweiSfaii, -cwse'S -cw^don -cwe- 
den (5), speak: 3 sg. acwi-S 163, 
7. 

a-cy]>an (W. I.), reveal, proclaim : 
inf. 164, 2. [ell's.] 

ad, m., fire, funeral pile : ns. 145, 

I ; 177, 24 ; ds. ade 43, 10 ; 173, 
3; 144, 24; as. ad 142, 11; 144, 

II ; is. ade 182, 18. [0. H. G. 
eit, Gr. cddos.'] 

ad-leg, m., flame of the pyre : ns. 

172, 25. 
a-dilegian (-dylegian) (W. II.), 

blot out, obliterate : pret. 3 sg. 

adilegode 92, 9 ; pp. pi. -dylegode 

80, 15. [Ger. tilgen.] 
adl, f, (n.), disease: ns. 91, 14; 

gs. adle 91, 15 ; ap. adla 68, 6. 
adlig, adj., diseased, sick: ns. 

105, 25 ; adliga 99, 9 ; dp. 103, 

28. 
a-dr^fan (W. I.), drive away, 

expel : inf. 14, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 

adrdefde 14, 5 ; 3 pi. -don 81, 5. 



aidre, adv., forthwith, quickly: 
144, 14. 

S-dreogan, -dreah -drugon -drogen 
(2), endure, experience, practice : 
inf. 55, 24 ; pret. 3 sg. 105, 4 ; 1 
pi. 91, 27. 

a-drifan, -draf -drif on -drif en (1), 
drive away : 3 sg. adrift 57, 22 ; 
pp. pi. adrifene 31, 12. 

a-dweescan (W. I.), quench, ex- 
tinguish: pret. 3 sg. adw^scte 
98, 12; pret. opt. 3 sg. 81, 17. 

a-dydan (W.I.), put to death: 
pret. 3 sg. adydde 90, 10. [dead.] 

a-dylegian, see a-dilegian. 

a-^bbian (W. II.), ebb away, re- 
cede : pp. ah^bbad 24, 23. 

a-fandian (W.II.), make trial of, 
experience : pp. sg. afandode 91. 
9. 

a-faran, -for -foron -faren (6), 
go, march: pp. 19, 29. 

a-f£eran (W. I.), make afraid, ter- 
't^ify- PP- afSred 18?, 11. 

ge-fsestnes, f., j^iety : ns. 62, 5 ; 63, 
18 ; ds. £ef^stnisse 8, 3 ; 9, 1. 

a-feallan, -feoU -feollon -feallen 
(R.), fall : ptc. afeallende ; 3 sg. 
afiel5'35, 20; opt. 3 sg. afealle 
82, 8 ; pp. 28, 24 ; 155, 27. 

a-fedan (W. I.), feed, sustain: 3 
sg. afede'S 174, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 
afedde 75, 26 ; 85, 12. 

sefen, m. n., evening: ns. 3, 28; 
ds. sefenne 12, 5 ; 125, 7. 

gefen-giefl, n., evening repast, sup- 
per : dp. 32, 6. 

aefest (aefst), f. n., disfavor, envy^ 
malice: ns. 179, 2. [sef-est, S. 
43, n. 4 ; 0. H. G. abunst] 

^-f^st, see £ew-faest. 

ie-f^stues, see se-fsestnes. 



GLOSSARY. 



243 



a-fleou,-fleah -flugon -flogen (2): 
l.Jly (iiitr.): inf- 133, 5.— 2. fly 
from (trans.) : 3 sg, aflyh^ 170, 
16. 

a-fligan (W. I.), put to flight: 
pret. 2 pi. afligdon 78, 18 ; pp. 
pi. afligde 103, 26. [fleon.] 

fi-flyman (W. I.), cause to flee, 
drive out: pret. 3 sg. aflymde 
141, 9 ; 157, 7. [fleam.] 

a-forhtiaa (W. 11.) , frighten : pp. 
pi. aforhtode 135, 8. 

sefre, adv., ever: 28, 1 ; 31, 17. 

seftan, adv., from behind, behind : 
148, 7. 

aefter, prep. (w. dat.j : 1. after 
(time and place): 7, 14; 8, 6 ; 8, 
11 ; aefter Sissum, after this (adv.) 
17, 7; 97, 2; tefter 'Ssem, there- 
after (adv.) 18, 7. — 2. along 
(place): 18, 20. — 3. according 
to : 87, 17 ; — prep. adv. 33, 17 ; 
27, 22; 53, 4.-4. adv., after- 
vjards : 10, 4. 

sefter-fyligan (W. III.), folloic 
after: ptc. pi. -fyligende (w. 
dat.) 138, 4 ; ds. -fylgende, suc- 
cessor, 66, 17; opt. 3 sg. -fylige 
(intr.) 64, 12. 

sefter-g^nga, m., successor: np. 
-g^ugan 96, 27 ; dp. 56, 3. 

a-fyllan (W. I.), fill : inf. 74, 11 ; 
75, 4 ; pp. afylled 85, U. [full.] 

a-fyllan (W. 1.), cause to fall, 
destroy : inf. 98, 18. [feallan.] 

a-fyrhtan {W . I.) , frighten : pp. 
(adj.) pi. afyrhte 9;], 24; 103, 
17 ; 129, 8. 

a-fyrran (W. I.), remove, take 
away : 3 sg. afyrS 2, 13 ; afyrrel? 
126, 11 ; opt. 3 sg. afyrre 56, 22 ; 
pp. afyrred 165, 5. [feorr.] 



a-fysan (W. I.), 1. hasten forth 
(intr.): inf. 149, 3. — 2,. incite 
to go (trans.): pp. afysed 174, 
20 ; 187, 25 ; 187, 28. [fus.] 

seg, n., egg : ds. ^ge 173, 6. 

agan (PP.), j9ossess; inf. 152, 4; 
184, 16; ger. agenne 70, 16; 1 
sg. ah 154, 31 ; 3 sg. 46, 14 ; 46, 
15 ; opt. 3 sg. age 162, 11 ; pret. 
3 sg. ahte 71,2; 155, 14. [Mod. 
ow^n.] 

a-gan, -eode -gan (S. 430), ^0; 
pp. pi. agane 24, 15 ; 131, 5. 

agen, see ongean. 

agen (pp.), adj., own: ds. agnum 
32, 16 ; as. agen 27, 18 ; agenne 
15, 13; gp. agenra 30, 21. 
[agan.] 

a-geotan, -geat -guton -goten (2), 
pour, shed: ptc. ageotende 131, 
1 ; pret. 1 sg. 79, 28 ; pp. 103, 
24. [Ger. giessen.] 

a-getan (W. I.), injure, kill: pp. 
ageted 146, 18. 

a-gifan (-giefan -gyfan), -geaf 
-geafon -gifen (5), give, relin- 
quish, return : inf. 7, 6 ; pret. 
8 sg. 10, 23 ; 20, 5 ; agef 20, 10 ; 
pret. opt. 3 pi. ageafen 6, 4 ; pp. 
143, 23. 

geg-hwa, pron. , each, every : gs. 
Sghwses, adv., in every respect, 
entirely : 166, 23; 175, 30. 

seg-hwser, adv., everyiohere : 60, 
29. 

geg-hwaeffer (tegSer, a^er), 1. 
pron., each (one of two or of 
more) : ns. SgSer 33, 5 ; 40, 14 ; 
44, 8 ; 53, 8 ; 153, 20 ; gs. ^g'Sres 
55, 17 ; ds. ^gSrum 50, 23 ; as. 
^gherne 18, 19. — 2. conj ., ?eg- 
liW8e>er ge . . . ge, both , . . and, 



244 



GLOSSARY. 



63, 4 ; seg^er ge . . . ge, both 

. . . and; 5, 14; 22, 1; 24, 10; 

26, 4; 53, 9; a^^er o««e . . . 

otiSe, either . . . or ; 40, 17. 
geg-liwilc, pron., each: ns. 40, 11 ; 

113, 8 ; 156, 29. 
£eg-hT\^Qnaii, adv., /rom all sides, 

on all sides : 72, 23 ; 72, 25, 
aglseca (^gl«ca), m., monster, 

fiend: np. aglsecan 180, 17. 

[Goth, aglaiti.] 
agnian (W. II.), possess, assume 

as one's own: 3 pi. agnia'S, 31, 
^ 13. [ageii.] 
segiSer, see aeg-hwseS'er. 
a-gyldan (-gieldan), -geald -guidon 

-golden (3) : 1. repay, requite : 

inf. 70, 30. — 2. punish : pp. 

ageald (?) 179, 9. 
a-gyltan (W. I.), offend, sin: 

opt. 3 pi. agylten 34, 13 ; pret. 

1 pi. agylton 80, 31 ; 91, 26 ; pp. 

agylt 140, 21. 
ah (ac), conj., hut: 69, 11. 
a-h^bbad, see a-^bbian. 
a-h^bban, -hof -hofon -hafen (6), 

heave, lift, raise, exalt: inf. 92, 

2; 2 pi. ah^bbe 61, 4; imp. 2 

pi. ah^bbaS 133, 17 ; opt. 3 pi. 

ah^bben 55, 20 ; pret. 3 sg. 62, 

18; 144, 13; 1 pi. 156, 8; pp. 

31, 5 ; 96, 21 ; 152, 23. 
a-hon, -heng -hengon -hangen 

(R.), hang (trans.): inf. 25, 6; 

imp. 2 sg. ahdh 35, 28 ; pret. 2 sg. 

ahenge 136, 26 ; 3 sg. 104, 18; 

132, 16; pp. 104, 24; 137, 10. 
a-hr^ddan (W. I.), save, deliver, 

rescue : ger. ahr^ddenne 98, 20 ; 

1 sg. ahr^dde 92, 21 ; opt. 3 

sg. ahr^dde 98, 18 ; pret. 3 sg. 

ahr^dde 110, 19 j 3 pi. -don 19, 5. 



a-hreosan, -hreas -hruron -brojen 

(2), fall: opt. 3 sg. ahreose 32, 

18 ; pret. 3 sg. 82, 21. 
ahsian, see acsian. 
£eht, L, possession, property: ap. 

^hta 77, 7 ; gp. 76, 6 ; 76, 10 ; 

dp. 39, 29. [agan.] 
£eht-ge-streon, n., possession, 

riches : ap. 182, 21. 
a-hydan (W. I.), hide : pp. ahyded 

168, 15. 
a-Tdligan (W. I.), profane: inf. 

65, 9. [idel.] 
a-liedan (W. I.), 1. lead, conduct 

(trans.): inf. 23, 5; 3 sg. aliede'S 

114, 20 ; alEet 120, 25 ; imp. 2 sg. 

alged 115, 8; pp. alaedd 138, 

12; np. aleedde 89, 13. — 2. 

proceed, grow (intr.); inf. 173. 

24 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. alsede, 173, 

6. 
selan (W. I.), kindle, burn (trans* 

and intr.): 3 sg. Eele^S 172, 25; 

183, 12; pp. ^Iedn7, 25. 

selc, pron. subst. and adj ., each, any : 
ns. 4, 11 ; 45, 6 ; gs. gelces 6, 18 ; 
ds. ^Icum6, 17; 19, 6; gelcon 135, 
14; 136,3; Ulcere 135, 14; as. gelc 
59, 5; is. ^Ice 18, 23; 41, 13; 49, 3. 

Eelde (ielde, ylde), m. pi (S. 264), 
men: gp. aelda 163, 1; 172, 1; 

184, 3; dp. 182,24. [eald.] 
alflor, see ealdor. 
aldor-iriQim (ealdor-), m., chief, 

magistrate: ns. 15, 9; 16, 3; 
gs. -mgnnes, 15, 25 ; as. 14, 3 ; 
14, 6 ; np. -m^n 64, 15. 
a-l^cgan (W. I.), lay down, allay, 
overcome, refute : inf. 75, 8 ; 3 pi. 
al^cgaS 43, 13 ; 43, 31 ; pret. 
3 sg. alede 83, 24 ; 3 pi. aledon 
98,24; pp.aled43,15. [licgan.J 



GLOSSARY. 



245 



»led, m., fire: ns. 183, 8; as. 

144, 11. 
a-lefan, see a-lyfan. 

a-leogan, -leali -lugon -logen (2), 
lie, deny (w. dat. of pers. and 
ace. of thing): 3 sg. alilrS 105, 26. 

sel-lr^iiied, see ^1-freined. 

ael-gylden, adj., of pure gold: ap. 
-gyldene 35, 28. 

all, see call. 

aelmes-georn, adj., liberal of alms, 
charitable : ns. 75, 25 ; 100, 17 ; 
np. -georne 68, 23. 

selmesse, f., alms: ds. almyssan 
100, 26; as. 100, 25; selmessan 
180, 28. [(Gr.) Lat. eleemo- 
syna.] 

sel-militig, adj., almighty : ns. 10, 
5 ; 82, 14 ; aelmehtiga QA,Q; gs. 
selmelitigan 57, 24 ; ds. aelmiht- 
egiim 27, 2. 

sel->eodig, see ^l-]?eodig. 

aeI-J>eodlsc, see ^l-J^eodisc. 

a-lybban (W. III.), live : inf. 131, 
18. 

alyfan (-lef an) ( W. I. ) , allow, per- 
mit, grant (w. dat. of pers. and 
ace. of thing): inf. 152, 7; pp. 
alyfed 65, 17 ; 188, 9 ; alefed 57, 
17. 

a-lysan (W. I.), loosen, release, 
ransom : pret. 3 sg. alysde 74, 
20 ; alesde 72, 4 ; pp. pi. alysede 
85, 16. 

ainaug, see on-ge-mQng. 

ainbor, m., measure: gp. ambra, 
40, 13. [Ger. Eimer.] 

ambyre (<and-byre), adj., favor- 
able : as. ambyrne 41, 13. 

H-m^rian (W.I.), free from dross, 
purify, refine: pp. pi. am^rede 
184, 1 ; 187, 4. 



a-metan (5), measure, estimate: 

inf. 61, 1. 
a-myrran (W. I.), mar, destroy, 

hinder: pret. 3 sg. amyrde 154, 

21. 
an, see unnan. 
an, num. adj., 1. one, certain one 

(indef. art.), a («7i) : ns. an, 1, 15 ; 

14, 5 ; 17, 21 ; ds. aniim 21, 3 ; 

15, 5 ; anre 21, 19 ; as. genne 33, 
8; anne 14, 9; 17, 12; an 18, 5; 
26, 19 ; on an, right on, continu- 
ously, 144, 2 ; gp. anra gehwses, 
of each one, 182, 2. — 2. alone: 
ns. ana 2, 3 ; 35, 1 ; 62, 3 ; 62, 
7 ; as. anne 27, 9 ; dp. 69, 1 ; ap. 
ana 79, 11 ; an 8, 17 ; — }>8Bt an, 
only that, 114, 16. 

an-be-stingan (3), thrust in, in- 
sert : pp. pi. -stungnan 36, 18. 

an-bidan, see on-bidan. 

and (qnd), conj., and. 

anda, m., zeal, indignation, mal- 
ice, injury : ds. andan 57, 12 ; 
132, 12 ; as. 5, 17. [Ger. ahnden.] 

and-bidian (W. 11.), wait: pret, 
opt. 1 sg. -bidode 84, 20. 

and-efn, f., fitting amount, pro- 
portion : ns. 43, 13 ; ds. andefne 
46, 23. 

andetnis, f., confession : as. -nysse 
92,1. 

andettan (^ndettan) (W. I.), 
confess, acknoivledge : inf. 69, 
23 ; ptc. (jndettende 65, 2 ; 1 sg. 
andette 63, 10 ; Qndette 64, 24 ; 
imp. 2 pL andetta'S 134, 3. [and- 
hatan.] 

and-f^nge, adj., acceptable : np. 
71,28. [fon.j 

and-giet (-git), n., intelligence, 
reason, sense, meaning : ns. 121, 



J46 



GLOSSARY. 



2 ; gs. andgites 59, 6 ; ds. and- 

giete 28, 29 ; as. andgit 28, 29 ; 

108, 11 ; Qiidgit 32, 27. 
and-gitfull, adj., intelligent: ns. 

53, 10. 
and-gitfullice, adv., intelligibly : 

Supl. , -gitfullicost 29, 4. 
and-lang, adj., continuous, entire : 

as. -langne 146, 21. 
and-leofen (-lifen),f., living^ food, 

sustenance: ds.-leofne 173, IG. 
an-dri5dan, see ou-driedan. 
Andred, m., the ' irm/fZ' (the great 

forest in Kent and Sussex) : ns. 

17, 29; as. 14, 4. 
and-s^va^iaa, see Qnd-s'warian. 
and-swaru (gnd-), f., ansii-er : as. 

-sware 9, 21 ; 150, 23; dp. 96, 

14. 
and-weard, adj., present: ns. 60, 

12 ; 60, 14 ; gs. andweardan 55, 

25 ; ds. 30, 6 ; -werdan 86, 2 ; 

dp. -werdum 88, 12 ; Qndwear- 

dum 10, 14. 
and-wlita, m., countenance^ ap- 
pearance : ns. 77, 18 ; gs. -wlitan 

88, 23; as. 48, 6; 49, 7; 83, 13. 

[wlitan ; Ger. Antlitz. ] 
and-wyrdan (W. L), answer: 

pret, 1 sg. andwyrde 27, 30 ; 3 

sg. 76, 22 ; 81, 1. 
an-faldnes (-fealdnes), f., unity, 

simplicity : gs. -nesse 48, 10. 
an-feald, adj., one-fold, single, 

unmixed, superior : ns. 49, 16 ; 

49, 25 ; 53, 7 ; ds. anfealdan 48, 

5; 50, 6. [number: 110, 12. 

an-fealdlice, adv., in the singular 
an-for-l^tan, -let -leton -l^ten 

(R.), leave, abandon: 1 pi. -ab 

68, 12; pret. 3 pi. 180, 13; pret. 

opt. 3 sg. anforlete 10, 27. 



Angel, n., Anglen (Denmark): ds. 

Angle 41, 25. 

Angel-cynne ((^ngel-), n., Angle 
kin, English people, England: 
ds. -cynne 26, 16; 89, 24; as. 
-cynn 26, 4 ; 27, 14 ; -cyn 23, 
15 ; (^ngelcyn 25, 13. 

an -ge- weald (=an-weald),poioer, 
dominion : as. 136, 16. 

an-ginn, see on-ginn. 

Angle, m. pi., the Angles, Angli- 
cans, English : np. 89, 9 ; 101, 7. 

au-grislic, adj., grisly, hideous, 
horrible : ns. 131, 13. 

an-grysenlice (-grisenlice), adv., 
hideously : 132, 19. 

an-haga (-hoga), m., solitary, re- 
cluse, wanderer : ns. 160, 1 ; 168, 
6 ; as. anhagan 161, 17. 

anhangen, see on-lion. 

anig, adj., only : ns. anga 179,24. 

senig, pron. adj. (S. 348), any : ns. 
38,9; ds.Snegum 33,11; as.genig, 
12,14; genigne 18,19; 27,2; 34,18. 

an-lTc, see on-lic. 

sen-lie, adj., imique, peerless, ex- 
cellent: ns. 5, 4; 165, 9; 175, 
30 ; 183, 22. 

an-licnes, see on-licnes. 

an-lipig(£en-lipig an-lepe), adj., sin- 
gle, individual : ns. 17, 18; as. an- 
lepne 26, 21; np. genlipige 91, 13. 

an-medla (on-), m., arrogance: 
np. -median 70, 25. [mod.] 

an-modlice, adv., unanimously: 
75, 15; 80, 19; 90, 15. 

an-modnes, f., unanimity: as. 
-nesse 36, 17. 

an-nis, 1, unity: ns. 110, 10; as. 
-nysse 81, 30. 

an-rsed (on-), adj., resolute: ns. 
150, 23 ; 153, 19. 



GLOSSARY, 



247 



an-raednis, f., constancjj : ds. 

-nysse 93, 26. 
aii-s^ttan (W. I.),2)ut itpon^ im- 
pose : inf. 64, 27. 
an-streoes (gen.), adv., continu- 
ously: 21, 18. 
aii-sund, see on-sund. 
an siindnis, see on-suudiiis. 
an syu, see on-sien. 
Ante-cryst, m., Antichrist: gs. 

-crystes 138, 10. 
an-9'r5ece, see onffrsece. 
an-weald, see on-^veald. 
apostol, m., apostle : gs. apostoles 

00, 9 ; 75, 7 ; ds. apostole 77, 8 ; 

as. apostol 75, 11 ; np. apostoll 

113, 2; gp. apostola 11, 15; ap. 

apostolas 108, 21. 
apostolic, adj., apostolic: ds. 

-ITcan 90, 28 ; as. -lice 88, 14. 
seppel, m., apple : gs. seples, 173, 

3 ; as. seppel 55, 9 ; 179, 4. 
sepplian (W. II.), make into the 

form of apples, emboss : pp. sg. 

Eepplede 182, 21. 
Apulder, ra., Appledore (Kent): 

ds. Apuldre 19, 27. 
ar, f. : 1. honor, favor, mercy : ns. i 

188, 5 ; gs. are 100, 1 ; ds. 32, 

9 ; as. 6, 17 ; 33, 22 ; 55, 12 ; 02, 

18. — 2i. property, possessions: ns. 

40, 7; as. are 70, 8. [Ger. Ehre.J 
ar, m., messenger : ns. 150. 5 ; gs. 

ares 144, 20. [Goth, airus.] 
ar, f., oar : gp. ara 24, 4. 
ser, comp. adj., fornipr, preceding : 

ap. ffirran 7, 24. — Supl., ns. 

iereste 11,9. 
ser, 1. comp. adv. (S. 323), earlier, 

formerly, before: 7, 3; 11,28; 

15, 10. — Comp., Sror 81, 12; 

140, 25. — Supl., gerest 3, 14 ; 10, 



1 ;11, 7;18, 28; 28, 5. — 2.conj. 
ere, before that )usually followed 
by the opt.) : 14, 13 ; ^r ger 49, 
12 ; ffir t5Sm «e 27, 13; ^r San -Se 
91, 10.— 3. prep. (w. dat.) before 
(time): 28, 24; 00, 10; 88, 2; 91,4. 

a-ried, adj., inexorable : ns. 160, 5. 
a-rSdan (W. I.), read: inf. 28, 

21 ; 28, 25. 
a-raefnan, (-refnan) (W. I,), per- 

form, endure : inf. 120, 1 ; imp. 

2 sg. jirsefna 120, 1 ; arefna 119, 
19 ; pret. 1 sg. arsefnede 119, 23. 

a-rgefnian (W. II.; S. 405, 5), 
endure : 1 sg. arsefnie 123, 15. 
[sefnau.] 

a-raeman (W. I.), arise: pret. 3 
sg. arsenide 143, 10. 

a-raeran (W. I.), raise, erect, 
build: inf. 92, 4; ptc. ar^rende 
102, 4 ; 2 sg. ar^rst 83, 17; opt. 3 
sg. ar^re 75, 28; 80, 14; pret. 3 sg. 
ar^rde 87, 20; 3 pi. -don 83, 32; 
pret. opt. 3 sg. 79, 18. [risan.] 

serce-bisceop (arce-), m., arch- 
bishop: ds. -biscepe 29, 1. 

ier-daeg, m., former day : dp. 179, 
15. 

a-r^ocean (W. I.), expound, trans- 
late, recount : inf. 20, 19 ; 29, 4 ; 
ar^ccan 57, 18. 

a-redian (W. II.), arrange: 3 sg. 
aredaS 35, 0. 

seren, adj., made of brass, brazen : 
as. Eerne 121 , 22 ; ap, Srcnan 133, 
25; 134, 5. [ar, Goth, ais.] 

serende, n., errand, message : as. 
110, 14 ; 143, 22 ; 150, 7. 

serend-faest, adj., bound on an 
errand : ns. 104, 14. 

8erend-ffe-wr1t, n., message, leU 
ter : as. 20, 19 ; -gewrytl40, 28. 



248 



GLOSSABT. 



terend-raca (-wreca), m., messen- 
ger : ds. -racan 90, 24 ; dp. -wre- 
cum 26, 7 ; ap. 96, 5. 

ar-fsest, honorable, virtuous, mer- 
ciful : lis. 75, 17 ; -fiesta 92, 17. 

ar-f88stnis, i.^^virtue : ds. -nisse 8, 4. 

ar-h^^aet, adj., eager for glory: 
np. -hwate 148, 17. 

arian (W. II.), 1. honor, show 
favor: inf. (w. dat.) 80, 30; 3 
sg. ara'S (w. ace.) 54, 4. — 
2. desist, cease : imp. 2 sg. ara 
126, 14. 

a-risan, -ras -rison -risen (1), 
arise : inf. 12, 28 ; 3 sg. arise)? 
68, 2; imp. 2 sg. aris 75, 28; 
2 pi. arlsa'S 118, 17 ; opt. 2 sg. 
arise 79, 29 ; 3 sg. 3, 12 ; 35, 22 ; 
2 pi. aiison 83, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. 
4, 6 ; 10, 6. 

serist, m. f . n. , resurrection : gs. 
seristes 69, 28 ; 84, 7 ; as. ^riste 
182, 10. 

ar-leas, adj., dishonorable, wicTced : 
ds. -leasre 66, 16; np. -leasan 
133, 2. 

am, see yrnan. 

aernan (W. I.), cause to run, ride, 
gallop : 3 pi. serna^S 43, 20 ; 43, 
31 ; pret. 3 pi. aerndon 155, 16. 
[yrnan.] [ing ; as. 92, 25. 

£erne-inerigen, m., early morn- 

arortlice, adv. , quicldy, vigor- 
ously : 37, 11. 

s&v-wa.co\,'di.Ci]., early awake: 84,10. 

ar-wurff (-weor S), icorthy of honor, 
venerable : as. arwurSne 99, 24. 

ar-wui-arian (-weorSian) (W.II.), 
honor: pret. 3 sg. arwurSode 
102, 12. 

ar-wuraflice, adv., honorably, 
reverentially : 99, 32 ; 103, 4. 



ar-wurS'nis, f., reverence, honor: 

ds. -nysse 102, 31 ; 103, 18. 
ass, n., food, prey, carrion: gs. 

£eses 148, 7; 152, 24. [Ger. 

Aas.] 
a-sa^van (H.), sow: pp. asawen 

2, 14 ; 3, 22. 
aesc, m. , 1. ash, spear : as. 150, 22 ; 

gp. asca 163, 15. — 2. boat, ship 

(of Danish ships) : ap. aescas 24, 

3; dp. 24, 1. 
asce (axe), f., ashes: ds. 173, 4; 

178, 3 ; as. 175, 3 ; 185, 4. 
a-sceacan, -scoc (-sceoc) -scocon 

(-sceocon) -sceacen (6), shake: 

ptc. asceacende 133, 4 ; 3 sg. 

ascseceS 170, 5 ; pret. 3 sg.asceoc 

156, 25. 
aesc-h^re, m. (ash-), spear-army, 

ship-army: ns. 151, 17. 
aesc-holt, n., spear-shaft: as. 156, 

25. 
ascian, see acsian. 
a-scinan, -scan -scinon -scinen 

(1), shine: pret. 3 sg. 127, 18. 
a-scnfan, -sceaf -scufon -scofen 

(2), shove, push : inf. 25, 2. 
a-scyran (W. I.), make clear, 

transparent : pp. ascyred 69, 17. 

[scTr.] 
a- slogan (W. III.), say, relate: 

pret. 3 pi. asffidon 141, 17. 
a-s^Tidan (W. I.), send : pret. 2 sg. 

as^ndest 84, 33 ; 3 sg. as^nde 

75, 8 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. as^nde 90, 

1 ; 130, 21 ; pp. as^nd 75, 19 ; 

130, 28. 
a-s^ttan (W. T.), set, place, trans- 
port oneself, go: opt. 3 sg. 

as^tte 44, 6 ; pret. 3 pi. as^ttan 

17, 25; pp. as^tt 3, 2; 3, 3. 

£sittan.J 



GLOSSARY. 



249 



a- slogan (3), sing: pret. 3 sg, 

asQng 10, 23. 
a-sittan, -saet -s^ton -seten (5), 

sit fast, ground (of ships): pret. 

3 pi. 24,^9; pp.24, 20. 
a-slean (6), strike, ait off: inf. 

102, 26 ; pp. aslagen 103, 6. 
a-snii>ian (W. II.), forge, ivork : 

pp. asmijpod 103, 4. 
a-sp^ndan (W. I.), spend, expend : 

pret. 3 sg. asp^nde 87, 25 ; pp. 

asp^nded 43, 27. 
se-spring, n., spring of water, 

fountain : ds. sespringe 168, 23. 
a-springan (3), spring up, spread : 

pret. 3 sg. asprang 104, 29 ; 3 pi. 

asprungan 81, 13. 
a-standan (6), stand : 3 pi. astand- 

a> 69, 16. 
sestel, m., hook-mark : ns. 29, 7 ; 

as. 29, 8. [Lat. hastula.] 
a-st^llan (W. I.), set up, restore, 

establish : 3 sg. ast^lleS 182, 26 ; 

pret. 3 sg. astealde 110, 25. 
a-sterian, see a-styrian. 
a-stlgan, -stag(-stah) -stigon -sti- 

gen (1), ascend, mount (trans. 

and intr.), spnng up, enter or 

leave a ship, go : ml. 117, 6; 3 

sg. astih^ 3, 22 ; imp. 2 sg. astig 

115, 22 ; 2 pi. astiga^ 116, 16 ; 

pret. 3 sg. astag 115, 25 ; astah 

86, 3 ; 117, 1 ; 1 pi. 117, 20. 
a-stingan {2>), pierce: pret. 3 pi. 

astungon 113, 10; 113, 15. 
a-str^ccan (W. I.), stretch, extend, 

prostrate : opt. 3 sg. astr^cce 91, 

25 ; pret. 3 sg. astr^lite 79, 16 ; 

pp. astr^ht 103, 14 ; dp. 84, 16. 
5-styrian (-sterian) (W. I.), stir, 

agitate, move (trans.): 3 sg. 

astereS 52, 10; pp. pi. asterede 



55, 1 ; astyrode ( W. II. ; S. 400 
n. 2) 135, 21. 

a-siindrian (W. II.), separate 
(trans): pp. asundrad 173, 15; 
pi. asyndrode 52, 1. 

a-sundron (-simdran), adv., asun- 
der, apart, privately : 3, 27. 

a-sw^bt>an (W. I.), put to sleep ; 
quiet: pp. asw^fed 171, 17; pi. 
-ede 147, 7. [swefan.] 

a-syndrode, see a-sundrian. 

set, prep. (w. dat.), 1. at, in (time, 
place, circumstance); 1, 1; 17, 2 ; 
75, 15; 90, 22; 146, 8;— prep, 
adv., 3, 17; 9, 14.— 2. of,from(y,\ 
verbs of asking, receiving, tak- 
ing, buying); 11,6; 63, 22;' 90, 23. 

8&t,m.f.,l.anything to heeaten,food: 
gs.^tes 79,6; as.179,2.— 2. ^/ieaci 
of eating : ds. ^te 179, 6. [etan.] 

set-bregdan, -brsegd (-brsed) 
-brugdon (-brudon). -brogden 
(-broden) (3), take away, deprive, 
release: pret. 3 sg. setbreed 74, 
18 ; 86, 5 ; pp. setbr5den 3, 10 ; 
78, 15 ; pi. -brodene 91, 20. 

aet-eawed, see aet-eowian. 

a-t^Ilan (W. I.), tell, relate: pret. 
3 pi. atealdon 140, 23. 

a-teon, -teah -tugon -togen (2), 
draw : inf. 136, 7 ; 3 sg. atyht5 

131, 22 ; 133, 12 ; opt. 3 sg. ateo 

132, 20; pret. opt. 3 sg. atuge 
11, 20 ; pp. 36, 27 ; 131, 21. 

a-teorian (W. II.), fail, become 
exhausted : pp. ateorod 74, 10. 

set-eowian (W. II., -eowan, W. 
I.), appear (intr.), shov), mani- 
fest (trans.): ger. seteowenne 
119, 10 ; pret. 1 sg. a;teowde 
119, 8; 3 sg. Eeteowode 84, 2; 
118, 21; pp. Eeteawed 65, 28; 



250 



GLOSS ABT. 



pi. fPteo"wde 67, 18 ; seteowode 

85, 15. [Goth, at-augjan,] 
set-foran, prep. (w. dat.), before: 

82, 17 ; 83, 5 ; 149, 16. 
set-gaedere, adv., together : 12, 12 ; 

20, 21; 100, 21. 
aet-lntian (W. II.), lurk out of 

sight, hide: pret. 3 sg. -liitode 

91, 2. [cf. Mod. loiter.] 
a-tredan (5), tread: pret. 3 sg. 

atrjed 136, 14. 
aet-sQinne, adv., together: 12, 4; 

63, 8. 
set-standan (6), stand, remain: 

pret. 3 sg. setstdd 104, 24. 
attor (ator), n., poison: as. 82, 

27 ; 82, 29 ; 113, 10 ; is. atre 

180, 24. [Ger. Eiter.] 
attor-bgere, adj., poisonous : as. 

-b;lran 83, 8. 
gettren (^tren), adj., poisonous: 

ns. «tterne 154, 2 ; ap. ^ttrynae 

150, 26. 
aet-^vitan (o5-), -wat -witon -wit- 
en (1), twit, reproach (w. dat.): 

inf. 156, 15; 157, 14. [cf. ed- 

wit.] 
aet-ywan (-Twan) (W. I., cf. £et- 

eowian), appear (intr.), show, 

manifest (trans.): 3 sg. 8etywe5' 

61, 12 ; imp, 2 sg. setyw 130, 10 ; 

pret. 3 sg. Eetywde 117, 20 : 118, 

27 ; atiwde 127, 19. 
ad", m., oath : ap. aSas 18, 12 ; 20, 

8. [Ger. Eid.] 
seSfel-boren, (pp.) adj., of nohle 

lirth: 87, 2 ; ds. -borenre 86, 13. 
0e3'el-borennls, f., nohJeness of 

hirlh : as. -nysse 87, 3 ; 88, 1. 
seiffele, adj.. noble, excellent: ns. 

146, 16 ; ds. ceSelum 74, 12 : as. 

se'Selan 154, 7 ; ap. leSeie 39, 



21. — Supl., ns. se-Selast 165, 2; 

dp. 180, 6. [Ger. edel.] 
seffele, adv., nobly: 181, 5. 
seififeling, m., noble, prince : gs. 

seSelinges 142, 3; as. 14, 9; dp. 

6Q, 4. 
aeafellice, adv., 7iobly : 88, 24. 
8eJ>elnes, f., nobility: ns. 72, 16. 
se^elo, f., nobility: as. 156, 11. 
seffel-st^nc, m., excellent fra- 
grance: gp. -st^nca 171, 26. 
se 3" el-tun go 1, n. m., noble star: 

gp. -tungla 175, 8. 
a-H"iaii (W. II.; S. 400 n. 2), 

stretch out: pret. 3 sg. ab^nede 

125, 10 ; 137, 7. [Ger. dehnen.] 
aS'er, see fceg-li\vse9'er. 
a-9'lndan, -Sgnd - bundon -Sunden 

(3), swell, puff up : pp. 31, 5. 
a-iafistrian (W. II.), become dark, 

obscured: 3 pi. aSistria^ 33, 17 ; 

pp. pi. aSistrode 33, 9. [5eos- 

tru.] 
A>ulfing (;— .E^elwulfing), m., 

son of JEthelwuJf : ns. 25, 12. 
a-}>wean (6), ivash : pret. 3 sg. 

ajnvoh 103, 23. 
fcew, see je. 
a-wseenan (S. 392, n. 1), awakb 

(intr.) : pret. 3 sg. awoc 104, 11. 
a-w^gan (W. I.), annid : inf. 

105, 24. 
a-Av^ccan (W. I.), aimke, aroiise. 

incite : opt. 3 sg. aw^cce 127, 3 ; 

pret. 3 sg. aw^eahte 118, 17 ; pret, 

opt. 3 sg. aw^hte 11, 21 ; 3 pi, 

aw^hton 4, 5; pp. aweaht 177, 

26 ; awr^ht (S. 407, n. 3) 75, 30; 

pi. aw^hte 132, 12. 
a-wedan (W. I.), rage: pret. 3 

sg. awedde 93, 6. [v^^5d.] 
a-weg, see weg. 



GLOSSABT. 



251 



a-wegan (5), carry: inf. 84, 15. 

a-w^iidan (W. I.), turn, direct, 
change, translate: inf. 92, 11; 
111, 20; 11^, 10; pret. 1 sg. 
iiw^nde 29, 5 ; 3 sg. 7-1, 13 ; 86, 
9 ; 88, 2 ; pp. aw^nd 86, 12 ; 77, 
18. 

a-weorpan (-wurpan) , -wearp 
-wurpon -worpen (3), cast, over- 
throw, reject: inf. Ill, 27; 112, 
1 ; pret. 3 sg. 4, 3 ; 65, 13 ; 99, 
26 ; pp. 34, 20. 

a-westan (W. I.), lay waste, de- 
stroy : pp. pi. aweste 90, 12. 

sew-faest (tl-fsest), adj., law-ob- 
serving, pious: ns. »wi8es5 32, 
2 ; ^f^st 11, 22 ; ap. ^f^ste 8, 
12; dp. 32, 1. — Supl., np. gew- 
fsestoste 32, 1. 

a-wiht (auht), pron., aught, any- 
thing : ns. 69, 17 ; ds.auhte 51, 7. 

«vvisc-niod, adj., ashamed, 
abashed : np. -mode 147, 33. 
[Goth, aiwiski.] 

a- woe, see a-waecnan. 

a-wr^lit, see a-w^ccan. 

a-writau, -wrat -writon -writen 
(1), lorite, compose : 1 sg. awrlte 
30, 5 ; pret. 3 sg. 75, 13 ; 81, 9 ; 
3 pi. 129, 1 ; pp. pi. awritene 
27, 18. 

a-wunian (W. II.), abide, con- 
tinue : ptc. 68, 9. 

a-wyrdan (W. I.), destroy: opt. 
3 sg. awyrde 173, 20. 

a-wyrgan (W. I,), curse: pp. pi. 
awyrigedan 80, 4. [wearg.] 

axian, see acsian. 

a-ydlian (W. II.), annul: pp. pi. 
ay diode 75, 16. [idel.] 



B. 

baec, n., back : a.v under bcec, back- 
boards, 7, 8 ; 7, 10 ; 7, 15 ; ofei 
baec, backwards, 158, 9. 

baee-bord, n., left side of a shipj 
larboard: as. 38, 11; 39,11; 41, 
17 ; 42, 0. [Ger. Backbord ; Fr. 
babord. ] 

bael, n., Jire, funeral pyre : ns. 172, 
19 ; gs. bseles 166, 26 ; is. b^le 
172, 30; 175,2; as. bsel 144, 13. 
[O. N. bal.] 

b£el-:^r, n., bale-fire, funeral or 
sacrificial fire : as. 142, 12. 

bfeel->racu, f., violence of fire : ds. 
-Jjrsece 174, 16. 

batn, see begen. 

ban,n.,&owe ; ds.bane40,9; as. ban 
44, 2; np. ban 71, 16; ap. 39, 21; 
71,20; 102,7; 174,16; 174, 17. 

bana, m., murderer: ns. 159, 2; 
banan ds. 15, 17. [Mod. bane.] 

ban-feet, n., {bone-vessel) body: 
ns. 173, 2 ; ap. -fatu 183, 6. 

beer, f., oier . as. bsere 75, 27. 
[beran. ] 

Bardan-ig, f., Bardney (Lincoln- 
shire) : gs. -ige 103, 9. 

baernan (W. I.), burn (trans.): 
inf. 46, 17. 

Basingas, pi. m.. Basing (Hants.): 
dp. -engTim 16, 23. 

basu, adj., purple {crimson) : ns. 
175, 14. [Goth, -basi 'berry.'] 

bsetan (W.I.), bridle: inf. 143, 6. 
[bitan.] 

baeS", n., bath, font : ds. bse'Se QQ, 
6 ; 75, 6 ; gp. baSa 168, 28. 

ba>iaii(W.II.),&a^/ie.- inf. 161, 24. 

be (bi, big), prep. (w. dat. and 
inst.) : 1. (nearness) by, near, 
along, on: 20, 22; 22, 18; 38, 



252 



GLOSSABT. 



7 ; 38, 10 ; 39, 2 ; 76, 1 ; bi 18, 
21 ; 39, 5 ; — prep, adv., big 155, 
7; — be eastan, prep. w. dat., 
east of, 20, 28 ; be westan 20, 
28 ; be norhan 20, 29 ; 38, 9 ; 
be su«an 17, 17 ; 27, 1. — 2. 
(metaph. proximity) by, loith, 
according to : 6, 17 ; 9,7; 9, 15 ; 
60, 10; — prep, adv., bi write, 
copij, 29, 14; big 36, 12; — be 
)5am, bij that, 149, 9; by ]>y 48, 
16 ; be fullan, fully, perfectly, 
27, 28; — concerning, 5, 5; 11, 
7; bi 11, 8; 11, 9; be 68, 13 ; 
— prep, adv., big 68, 13; — be 
■Sam, concerning this, 32, 3; bi 
'5ys ilcan, 35, 26. 

beacen, n., beacon {the sun) : gs. 
beacnes 168, 26. 

beacnian ( W. II.) , typify, indi- 
cate, show: 3 sg. beacna'S 178, 
19; 185,3; 187, 17. 

beadu, f., battle: ds. beaduwe 
155, 10. [O. N. bQ« bQ-hvar.] 

beadu- craef tig, adj. , valiant : ns. 
175, 4. 

beadu-rses, m., rush of battle, on- 
slaught: ns. 152, 28. 

beadu-weorc, n., ivork of battle: 
gp. -weorca 147, 25. 

be-seftan (bseftan), prep. adv. 
(w. dat.), behind: 15, 8; 15, 
10. 

beag (beali), m., riiig, bracelet, 
collar, crown : ns. 186, 4 ; ap. 
beagas 150, 10 ; 154, 16. [bugan.] 

beah-gifa (beag-), m., ring-giver, 
lord, king : ns. 146, 2 ; ds. -gifan 
158, 23. 

bealcettan (W. I.), belch, send 
forth, utter : pret. 3 sg. -ette 87, 
16. 



beald (bald), adj., bold: ns. (w. 

gen.) 69, 8; 181, 3. 
bealdlice (bald-), adv., boldly: 

baldlice 159, 14. — Supl., baldlic- 

ost 151, 26. 
bealo (bealu), n., bale, evil, mis- 
chief: gs. bealwes 69, 8. 
bealo-sorg, f., baleful sorroiv : as. 

-sorge 179, 10. 
beam, m., tree : ns. 180, 22 ; ds. 

beame 169, 12 ; as. beam 169, 2 ; 

np. beamas 166, 14 ; gp. beama 

171, 8. 
Beam-fleot, m., Benfleet (Essex): 

ds. -fleote 19, 24 ; 19, 28 ; 20, 11. 
beam, n., child, son: ns. 152, 9; 

dp. 10, 1 ; 20, 1 ; ap. beam 68, 

25; 84,26. [beran.] 
bearo, m., grove, wood: ds. bear- 

v^^e 180, 7 ; as. bearo 167, 16 ; 

np. bearwas 167, 20 ; gp. bearwa 

167, 29. 
beatan, beot beoton beaten (R.), 

beat .', ptc. beatende 140, 20. 
be-bai5ian (bi-) , ( W. II.) , bathe : 

3 sg. bibat^a'S 168, 26. 
B^bban-burg, f., Bamborough 

(Nortlmmbria) : ds. byrig 103, 5. 
be-beodan, -bead -budon -boden 

(2), 1. command, bid\^. dat.): 

1 sg. -biode 27, 3 ; 29, 7 ; pret. 

3sg. 4, 6; 7,7; 12,10; 35,27; 

68,24; 3 pi. 10,19; pp. 36, 22. 

— 2. offer, commit, entrust: inf. 

142, 14; ptc. bebeodende 13, 

12 ; pp. 9, 12 ; 10, 23. 
be-ts^od, n., command: as. bebod 

116, 20; gp. -boda 31, 27; ap. 

-bodu 32, 29; 33, 25; 62, 17;' 

-boda 105, 4. [beodan.] 
be-byrgan (W. I.), bury: ger. 

-byrgenne 79, 14 ; 3 sg. -byrgetS 



GLOSSARY, 



253 



175, 4 ; pp. -byrged 102, 6 ; 141, 

14. 
be-ceapian (AY. II.), sell: inf. 

76, 19. 
be-cierran (-cirran -cyrran) (W, 

I. ) , turn (trans.) : pp. -cierrecl 

34, 24. 
be-clyppan (bi-) (W. I.), embrace, 

seize: 3 sg. biclyppeS 174, 23. 

[Mod. clip.] 
be-clysan (W. I.), inclose, shut 

in, imprison: pp. beclysed 131, 

26 ; pi. -clysde 133, 10. [clfise ; 

Lat. clausus.] 
be-cuman (4), come, arrive : 3 sg. 

-cymS 34, 26; 53, 7 ; 55, 14; 

3 pi. -cuma'S 32, 9; opt. 3 sg. 

-cume 30, 15 ; pret. 3 sg. cw5m 

13, 9; com 71, 5 ; 77, 10; 2 pi. 

-comon 151, 6; 3 pi. 27, 7; pret. 

opt. 3 sg. -c5me 46, 26. 
be-deelan (bi-), separate, deprive 

of: pp. bidseled (w. inst.) 160, 

20. 
b^dd, n., bed: ds. b^dde 3, 2; 

99, 7. 
be-diglian (-dyglian, -deglian) 

(W. II.), obscure, bedim, conceal, 

keep secret : pp. -digled 69, 18 ; 

-dyglod 140, 25 ; -degiad 168, 17. 

[digol.] 
be-^bbian (W. IL), leave aground 

by the ebb, strand: pp. pi. be^b- 

bade, 24, 25. 
be-fsestan (W. 1.), fasten, fix ; 2^ut 

in safe keeping, entrust : inf. 27, 

6 ; opt. 2 sg. -fpeste 27, 7 ; 3 sg. 

30, 21 ; pret. 3 sg. -fseste 74, 19 ; 

3 pi. -on 21, 17 ; pp. befaest 

23, 7. 
be-feallan (R.) , fall : opt, 2 sg. 

^fealle 96, 23. 



be-feolan (3), apply oneself (w. 

dat.): inf. 28, 18. [Ger. be- 

fehlen.] 
be-fon (bi-) (R.), surround, en- 
velop, clothe, cover: imp. 2 sg. 

-fob 36, 3; pp. -fangen 88, 6 ; 

pi. -f^ngne 36, 23 ; bif^ngen 174, 

5; 178, 10. 
be-foran, prep. (w. dat.), before : 

7,4; 31,4; 33,16; 61,16; 117, 

2 ; 148, 11. 

be-forau, adv., before: 33, 18; 
139, 26. 

be-fran, see be-frignan. 

be-frignan (3), ask: pret. 3 sg. 
befran (S. 389, n.) 88, 25 ; 89, 
3. 

be-gan (S. 430), 1. practice, per- 
form, serve, occupy oneself with : 
inf. 68, 12 ; opt. 3 sg. bega (w. 
reflex, ace.) 30, 8 ; pret, 1 sg 
beeode 65, 11 ; 3 sg. 70, 29; 1 
pi. -eodon 63, 19 ; -eodan 64, 21 

3 pi. bieodon 65, 7.-2. sur- 
round : pret. 3 sg. 14, 13. 

be-gang, m., undertaking, busi- 
ness: dp. 71, 30. 

begen (beggen) ,. num. adj., both: 
nom. 20, 20; 33, 8 ; 83, 28 ; lii 
bii (S. 324, n. 1) 179, 3 ; hie 
butu 17, 3 ; gyt biitu 137, 2 ; unc 
bam 132, 27. 

be-geondan (-giondan) , prep. (w. 
dat.), beyond: 66, 29; -giondan 
26, 20. 

be-gietan (-gitan, -gytan)'(5), get, 
obtain, find: inf. 26, 15; pret, 
2 pi, -geaton 80, 8 ; 3 pi. 27, 20 ; 
148, 17 ; -geton, 23, 13. 

be-ginnan (3) , begin : pret. 3 sg. 
begann 80, 2 ; pp. begunneu 101, 
10. 



254 



GLOSSARY, 



be-gyrdan (W. I.), bcf/ird, siu^- 
round: pp. begyrdd 3(5, 10. 

be-liat, n., promise: ds. -hate 84, 
9 ; ap. -hat 94, 24. 

be-hatan (K.), jyromise : 3 sg. 
-htet 105, 24. 

be-healdan (bi-) (K.) : 1. JioId,oc- 
cupy, guard, protect : 3 sg. bi- 
healdeS 168, 6. — 2. behold, look, 
observe : mf. bi-108, 9 ; imp. 2 sg. 
beheald 114, 2 ; 114, 11 ; pret. 3 
9g. -heold 88, 24 ; 3 pi. -on 83, 12. 

be-helan (bi-) (4), conceal: pp. 
sg. biholene 171, 1. [Ger. 
hehlen.] 

be-heonan (-hionan), prep. (w. 
dat.), 071 this side of: -hionan 
26, 17. 

be-hindan, adv., behind: 19, 12; 
123, 10. 

be-hindan, prep. (w. dat.), be- 
hind: 148, 4. 

be-hofian (W. II.), behoove, re- 
quire : pret. 3 pi. -hofedon 95, 9. 

be-hreosan (bi-), -hreas -hruron 
-hroren (2), (fall upon) cover: 
pp. pi. bihrorene 162, 24. 

be-h^eo^vsian (W. II.), rue, re- 
pent of: 1 pi. -hreowsiaS 81, 1 ; 

3 pi. in, 9. 

be-hreowsung, f., repentance : ns. 

92, 9 : gs. -iinge 91, 17 ; ds. 91, 6. 
be-h-\vyrfan (W. I.), change, con- 
vert : pret. 3 pi. -hwyrfdon 76, 

8 ; pp. -hwyrfed 76, 3. 
be-hydan (bi-), hide, conceal : pp. 

-hydd 3, 4 ; bihyded 179, 19 ; sg. 

bihydde 171, 1. 
be-limpan (3), concern, pertain, 

belong (intr.): 3 sg. -limp^S 4, 5; 

-limped 42, 15 ; pret. 3 pi. -lum- 

pon 8, 4 ; 9, 1. 



be-lucan (2), lock, lock up, shut 
in: imp. 2 pi. -liicalS 133, 24; 
pp. -locen 15, 12 ; 109, 8. 

hen, i., prayer, petition : gs. bene 
92, 3 ; 93, 10 ; np. bena 71, 27 ; 
ap. bena67, 14. [cf. Mod. boon.] 

b^nc, f., bench: ds. b^nce 156, 8. 

b^nd, m. f. n., bond, fetter: dp. 
133, 11 ; 136, 8. 

be-niman (bi-) (4), rob, deprive 
of (w. ace. of pers. and gen. or 
inst. of thing): 3 sg. -nim^ 42, 
21 ; pret. 3 sg. -nam 14, 1 ; pp. 
pi. -nmnene 22, 1 ; 182, 3. 

b^nn, f., wound: np. b^nne 161, 
26. [bana.] 

beodan, bead budon boden (2), 
offer, announce, command : 3 sg. 
beodeS 182, 12 ; pret. 3 pi. 15, 18. 

beon (bion) (S. 427), be, exist, be- 
come : inf. 24, 8; bion5, 13; 6, 10; 
ger. beonne 31, 9 ; bionne 57, 15 ; 
2sg.byst 71, 23; bist, 96, 24; 3sg. 
bi«3,8; 31,19; 60,12; Ipl.beo 
we 117, 11; 3pl. be0(5 2, 17; 2,19; 
bio'531, 20 ; imp. 2 sg. beo 35, 23 ; 
2 pi. beot) 78, 6 ; opt. 3 sg. beo 3, 
2; bio 50, 24; 2 pi. beo ge 93, 24 ; 
8 pi, bion 45, 3. — eom, lam : 12, 
24 ; 71, 23 ; earn 115, 15 ; 2 sg. eart 
12, 17 ; 3 sg. is 2, 12 ; ys 2, 14 ; 
8 pi. synd 2, 21; synt2, 5; sindon 
31, 7 ; siendon 29, 11 ; syndon 63, 
21 ; opt. 3 sg. sie 27, 2 ; 29, 13 ; 
30, 18; 32, 3; sy 3, 3 ; sig 110, 
18 ; 131, 25 ; 3 pi. sien 28,13 ; 29, 
10; 31,27; sin 2, 9 ; syn2,8; — 
(with negative) nis (<ne is) 3, 
3; 13, 1; 31, 16; nys 105,28.-^ 
wesan : inf. 122, 1 ; 122, 23; 180, 
10 ; 3 sg. wese'S 178, 3 ; imp. 2 sg. 
wes 114, 14; pret. 3 sg. wees 1, 



GLOSSABT. 



255 



2 ; 1, 3 ; wes 141, 14 ; 3 pi. w^ron 
1,4; wjerun 14, 14 ; w*raii 15, 
5; pret. opt. 3 sg. wSre, 6, 12 ; 
7,9; 10, 15 ; — (with negative) 
pret. 3 sg. nses (<ne wses) 60, 
26; 3 pi. ii^ron 24, 6; 27, 18; 
pret. opt. 3 sg. nsere 15, 16 ; 60, 
26; 3 pi. nSron 24, 6; 27, 18; 
pret. opt. 3 sg. nSre 15, 16; 60, 

' 26; 3 pi. n^ren 26, 20; 31, 8; 
56, 3. 

beorg (beorh), m., hiU, mountain : 
np. beorgas 165, 21 ; gp. beorga 
166, 10. 

beorg-an (byrgan), (W. I.), taste, 
partake of: 3 sg. beorge'5 168, 28. 

beorgan, bearg burgon borgen 
(3), protect, preserve (w. dat.) : 
pret. 3 pi. 155, 19. [Ger. bergen.] 

beorh-st^de, m., mound : ds. 175, 2. 

beorht (biorht), adj., bright, shin- 
ing, glorious: ns. 114, 9; 146, 
15 ; 163, 10 ; ds. beorhtre 82, 17 ; 
is. beorhtan 169, 18 ; np. beorhte 

166, 10. — SupL, ns. beorhtast 

167, 29. 

beorhte (biorlite), adv., brightly: 

85, 4 ; biorhte 36, 25. 
beorhtnis, f., brightness : ns. -nys 

129,3; ds, -nysse 129, 12. 
Beormas, m. pi. Permians : np. 

39, 11. 
beorn, m., man, retainer, hero, 

chief: ns. 147, 22 ; gs. beornes 

153, 18 ; 154, 16 ; ds. beorne 

154, 10; np. beornas 152, 9; dp. 
152, 18; ap. 149, 17; 151, 10. 

beornan, (bgrn barn), beam bur- 
non bornen (3), burn (intr.) : 

3 sg. byrne-S 172, 17; 182, 17; 
183, 17. 

beot (<*bT-hat), n., boast: as. 



beot 149, 15 ; on beot, boastfully, 

150, 6; ap. beot 156, 8. 
beotian (W. II.), boast: pret. 3 

sg. beotode 158, 23. 
be-p«ean (W.I.), deceive, entice: 

pp. bep«ht 90, 22. [facen.] 
beran, bser b«ron boren (4) bear : 

inf. 35, 27 ; 36, 5 ; 149, 12 ; ger. 

beranne 36, 13; 37, 19; 2 sg. 

byrst 138, 27 ; 3 sg. byrtJ 43, 27 ; 

50, 10; berets 3, 14; biereS 172, 

2 ; imp. 2 pi. bera« 12, 17 ; 81, 2 ; 

opt. 3 sg. bere 36, 19 ; pret. 1 sg. 

130, 5 ; 3 sg. 1, 13 ; 75, 23 ; 79, 

13; 3 pi. 151, 15. 
be-reafian (W. II.), bereave, rob, 

despoil, dispossess (w. ace. of 

pers. and gen. of thing) : 3 sg. 

-reafa-S 55, 18. 
beren, adj., of a bear: as. berenne 

40, 13 ; beren 40, 13. 
be-ridan (1), pursue, surround, 

overtake: pret. 3 sg. -rad 14, 12. 
be-rowan (R.), row past or round 

(trans.) : inf. 25, 4. 
berstan, baerst burston borsten 

(3), burst: pret. 3 sg. 158, 17. ' 
be-rypan (W. I.), despoil of, plun- 
der (w. ace. of pers. and gen. of 

thing) : 3 sg. beryj)1S 79, 8. 
be-scufan (2), shove, push: inf. 

75, 5. 
be-seon (-sion) (5), see, look 

(intr.): inf. 134, 26 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-seah 76, 26 ; — (vr. reflex, ace.) 

opt. 3 sg. besio 7, 19 ; pret. 3 sg. 

7, 15; pret. opt. 3 sg. besawe 

7, 9. 
be-s^ttan (bi-) (W.I.), beset, oc- 
cupy, surround, adorn: 3 sg. 

bis^te« 183, 16; pp. -seted 175, 

15 ; bi- 175, 22. 



256 



GLOSSARY. 



be-sittan, -sset -sseton -seten (5), 
besiege : pret. 3 sg. 19, 7 ; 3 pi. 
21, 2; pp.20, 16; 22, 10. 

be-slean (6), strike, cut off, de- 
prive : pp. beslsegen 147, 19. 

be-smitennis, f ., defilement : as. 
-nysse 84, 21. 

be-standan (6), stand round, sur- 
round, beset : 3 pi. -standa-S 91, 
21; pret. 3 pi. -stodon 151, 16. 

be-s"wicaii (bi-), -swac -swicon 
-swicen (1), deceive, betray, of- 
fend, overcome : 3 sg. besuicS 
34, 19 ; pret. 3 sg. bi- 179, 14 ; 
pp. pi. beswicene 157, 2. 

be-swician (W. II.), evade, es- 
cape : pp. sg. beswicade 62, 13. 

be-tsecan (W. I.), commit, com- 
mend, entrust: 1 sg. -tsece 84, 
26 ; pret. 3 sg. -tgehte 102, 23. 

betan (W. I.), amend: inf. 140, 
20. [bot.] 

be-teldan (bi-), teald tuldon tolden 
(3), cover, hem in, surround: 3 
sg. bitelde-5 174, 19; 3 pi. -telda« 
176, 27 ; pp. bitolden 184, 12 ; 
186, 11. [cf. Mod. tilt; Ger. 
Zelt.] 

b^tera, see god. 

b^trung, f., betterment, improve- 
ment : ns. 46, 28. 

b^tsta, see god. 

be-t-weoh (-twih, -twuh, -tuli, 
-tweobx, -twux, -tux), prep. (w. 
dat.), between^ among: 60, 4; 
betwuh 18, 17; 57, 5; betuh 41, 
25; betweohx 107, 20; betwux 
88, 22 ; 96, 8 ; 100, 15 ; betwux 
•Sisum, meanwhile, 96, 1 ; betux 
41, 15. 

be-tweonum (-tweonon, -twynum, 
-twynan), prep. (w. dat.), be- 



tween; among : 113,3; -tweonon 
42, 29 ; 68, 25 ; 120, 15 ; -twynum 
115, 3; 125, 8; -twynan 135, 22. 

be-tynan (bi-) (W. I.), close, end ; 
enclose, imprison : pret. 3 sg. 
-tynde 11, 26; 13, 13; 115, 1; 
3 pi. -on 123, 20 ; pp. betyned 
126, 6; bityned 179, 20. [tun.] 

be-J?^ccan (bi-) (W. I.), cover: 

■ pp. pi. be)?eahte 186, 7 ; bi- 182, 
6. [Ger. decken.] 

be->ringan (bi-) (3), beset, en- 
circle : pp. bij^rungen 176, 29. 
[Ger. dringen.] 

be-urne, see be-yrnan. 

be-Avaw^an, -weow -weowon -wa- 
wen (R.), blow upon: pp. pi. 
biwaune 162, 23. [Ger. wehen.] 

be-weaxan (bi-) (R.), over-grow : 
pp. -weaxen 99, 9 ; bi- 175, 28. 

be-wepan (R.)? weep over, be- 
wail : inf. 91, 19. 

be-windan (bi-) (3), encircle, sur. 
round: pp. biwunden, 188, 8. 

be-witan (PP.)? oversee, have 
charge of, administer : pret. 3 sg. 
bewiste 100, 25. 

be-witigan (-witian) (W. II.), 
observe : inf. 168, 11. 

be-wlitan (1) look: pret. 3 sg. 
-wlat 145, 4. 

be-yrnan, -arn -urnon -urnen (3) 
run : pret. 2 sg. beurne 79, 27. 

bi-, bi, see be-, be. 

bidan, bad bidon biden (1) : 1. 
abide, remain : 3 sg. bide)? 69, 12. 
— 2. await, expect (w. gen.) : inf. 
13, 2 ; 38, 19 ; pret. 3 sg. 38, 16. 

biddan, bsed bsdon beden (5), 
ask, request (w. ace. of pers. and 
gen. of thing) : inf. 6, 4 ; byddan 
130, 20; ptc. biddende 79, 17,- 



GLOSSARY, 



257 



3 pi. biddab 67, 15; imp. 2 pi. 

biddaiS 61, 10 ; 80, 12 ; opt. 3 sg. 

bidde 37, 16 ; pret. 2 sg. bgede 

107, 2 ; 3 sg. 6, 23 ; 12, 5 ; 65, 

14 ; 3 pi. 12, 22 ; 152, 4 ; pret. 

opt. 3 sg,. bsede 12, 8 ; 46, 12. 
bi-dreosan, -dreas -druron -droren 
(2), {cause to fall away) de- 
prive (\v. instr.) : pp. pi. bi- 

drorene 162, 26. [cf. Mod. dross, 

dreary.] 
bifian (beolian), (W. II.; S. 416, 

n. 5), leaver, tremble: ptc. pi. 

bifigendan 67, 12; pret. 3 pi. 

bifedon 5, 15. [Ger. beben.] 
big-, see bi-. 
bigan (biegan, bygan) (W. I.), 

bend: 3 sg. bige^ 181, 4. [bug- 

an.] 
bi-g^nga, m., inhabitant: ns. 170, 

9. 
bi-gQDg (bi-gang, big-g^ng), m., 

ivorship : ns. 63, 14 ; 82, 20 ; gs. 

bIgQnges 65, 26 ; ds. bigange 63, 

20 ; 64, 22. 
bi-leofa (big-), m., sustenance, 

food: ns. bigleofa 85, 13; ds. 

bigleofan 87, 25 ; as. 95, 1 ; 78, 

29. [libban.] 
bile-wit (bil-), adj., innocent, 

pure, simple: ds. -witre 13, 7. 

[cf. Ger. billig.] 
bile-witnes, f., innocence, purity : 

gs. -nesse 48, 10 ; -nysse 95, 

14. 
bill, n., sword: as. bill 154, 18; 

is. bille 145, 10; dp. 153, 1. 

[Ger. Bille.] 
bill-gesliht, n., clashing of 

swords : gs. -geslihtes 147, 22. 
bindan, bgnd bundon bunden (3), 

bind : 3 pi. bindalS 160, 18 ; opt. 



3 sg. binde 160, 13 ; pret. 3 sg. 

band 104, 12. 
biunan (binnon), prep. adv. (w. 

dat.), within (time and place): 

23, 6 ; 36, 9 ; 98, 9 ; binnon 85, 4 ; 

138, 18 ; — adv., binnan 19, 31. 
bisceop (biscop, biscep), m., 

bishop : ns. 17, 6 ; 23, 20 ; ^" 12 ; 

62, 1 ; gs. bisceopes 100, 3 ; ds. 

biscepe 29, 1 ; as. bisceop 64, 18 ; 

np. biscepas29, 10; ap. bisceopas 

97, 2. [Lat. episcopus.] 
bisceop- seffl (-setl), n., episcopal 

residence: as. biscop- QQ, 11. 
bisceop-stol, m., episcopal seat, 

bishoptric: ds. -stole 96, 4; 102, 2; 

biscepst51e 29, 5 : as. -stol 93, 15. 
bismer (bismor, bysmer), n. m.. 

mockery, derision, insult: ds. 

bismre 123, 25. 
bismerian (W. II.), mock, deride : 

ptc. bismriende 123, 25. 
bi-sorgian (W. II.), care for, 

fear : 3 sg. bisorgalS 177, 27. 
bl-spell (big-), n., parable, ex- 
ample, proverb : ds. bigspelle 3, 

19 ; as. -spell 50, 2 ; 53, 18 ; big- 

2, 3 ; 2, 10 ; ap. bigspell 2, 10 ; 

dp. 2, 6. [Ger. Beispiel.] 
biter (bitter), adj., bitter, severe, 

disastrous, fierce: ns. 152, 28; 

bitter 179, 5 ; as. biterne 53, 22 ; 

ap. bitere 152, 2. — SupL, as. bit- 

terestan 114, 7. 
biternes, f., bitterness, grief: ds. 

-nesse 72, 26. 
bi-wist (big-), f., sustenance: as. 

bigwiste 105, 31. [wesan.] 
bi-wreon, -wrah (-wreah) -wrigon 

(-wrugon) wrigen (wrogen) (1., 

S. 383); cover, envjrap : pret. 3 

sg. biwrah 160, 23. 



258 



GLOSSARY. 



blsec, adj., black: dp. blacum 

175, 14. 
blacung, f., turning pale, pallor : 

ds. blacunge 83, 18. 
blfced (bled), f., blossom, fruit : gs. 

blede 179, 3 ; np. blede 166, 14 ; 

dp. bledum 166, 17; 172, 10; 

ap. bleda 137, 9. [blowan.] 
bleed, m., blast, breath, inspira- 
tion; prosperity, riches, glory, 

honor: ns. 161, 10; 188, 4; as. 

blSd 178, 21 ; 184, 6. [blawan.] 
bl£ed-daeg, m., prosperous day: 

gp. -daga 188, 16. 
blandeu-feax, adj., grizzly-haired: 

ns. 147, 22. [blgndan.] 
blaest, m., blaze, flame : ns. 165, 

15 ; as. 180, 9. 
blsestan (W. L), blow (?) : pret. 

3 pi. blffiston 123, 30. 
Blecinga-eg, f., Blekingen : ns. 

42, 11. 
bled, see bleed, 
bleo-brygd, n. (?), combination 

of colors : dp. 175, 10. [bregdan ; 

Mod. blee.] 
bletsian (W. II.), bless: 1 sg, 

bletsige 128, 2. [blod.] 
bletsung, f., blessing : ds. -unge 

74, 12. 
blican, blac blicon blicen (1), glit- 
ter, shine: 3 sg. blice'S 171, 17 ; 

opt. 3 sg. blTce 169, 5. [Mod. 

blink ; Ger. bleichen.] 
blind, adj., blind: ns. blinda 33, 

7 ; as. blindan 33, 7 ; dp. 78, 14; 

ap. blynde 131, 21. 
bliss (<bli5s), f., bliss, joy : gs. 

blisse 9, 5 ; ds. blisse 2, 16 ; 

blysse 100, 31 ; 138, 5 ; as. blisse 

94, 9 ; dp. 169, 16. 
blissian (blissigan) (W. II.), re- 



joice : inf. blissigan 96, 18 ; ptc. 

blissigende 80, 5; 104, 19; ds. 

blissigendum 96, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 

blissode 84, 9. 
blii3'e, adj., blithe, glad, friendly : 

ns. 104, 13 ; ds. blT«um 100, 3 ; 

as. bll-5e 12, 19 ; np. blltSe 12, 

23. — Comp., ns. bll^ra 154, 2. 
bliO'e-mod, adj., blithe of mood, 

friendly : ns. 12, 24 ; np. -mode 

12, 22. 
blod, n., blood: ns. 110, 14; as. 

113, 8; is. blode 145, 11. 
blodig, adj., bloody : as. blodigne 

154, 10. 
blQndan (R.), blend, mix, mingle : 

pp. geblanden 113, 11 ; gebl^nden 

175, 12. 
blostma (blostm), m., blossom, 

bloom ; fruit : np. blostman 167, 

23 ; dp. 165, 21. 
blotan, bleot bleoton bloten (R.), 

sacrifice : inf. 142, 12. 
blowan, bleow bleowon blowen 

(R.), bloom, flourish : inf. 69, 22 ; 

ptc. blowende 72, 13 ; 78, 6 ; pp. 

geblowen 165, 21 ; 166, 6 ; 173, 

13. 
boc, f., book : ns. 11, 9 ; 86, 9 ; gs. 

bee 31, 11 ; 60, 6 ; ds. bee 29, 9; 

30, 6 ; 80, 15 ; as. boo 28, 27 ; 29, 

9 ; np. bee 86, 6 ; gp. boca 11, 12 ; 

27, 15 ; dp. bocum 33, 22 ; ap. bee 

27,28; 28,8. 
bocere, m., learned man, scholar, 

scribe : ap. boceras 8, 5. 
boclic, adj., relating to books : dp. 

87, 8. 
boda, m., messenger: ns. 150, 28. 

[Ger. Bote.] 
bodiau (W. II.), proclaim, an- 
nounce, preach : ptc. bodiende 



GLOSSABY, 



259 



36, 16 ; 3 sg. boda« 62, 20 ; pret. 

3 sg. bodade 62, 1 ; 64, 19 ; pp. 

bodad 63, 16. 
bodung, f., preaching : ns. 93, 18 ; 

as. -Luige 75, 7 ; 100, 3. 
bog (b5h), m. (arm, shoulder), 

bough, branch : ap. bdgas 3, 23. 
boga, m., boiv : np. bogan 152, 27. 
bolster, m. n., bolster, pillow : ds. 

bolstre 13, 4 ; as. 4, 4. 
bord, n., {board) shield: gs. 

bordes 158, 17 ; as. bord 149, 

15 ; 150, 21 ; dp. 152, 18 ; ap. 

bord 151, 10. 
bord-weall, m., imll of shields, 

testudo, phalanx: as. 146, 5; 

158, 10. 
bosm, m., bosom: ds. bosme 147, 4. 

bot, f., boot, advantage ; repara- 
tion, remedy : ds. bote 103, 25 ; 
as. bote 164, 2. 

brad, adj., broad: ns. 18, 2; 40, 
23 ; 149, 15. — Comp., ns. bradre 
40, 24 ; brgedre 40, 23. — Supl., 
ns. bradost 40, 22. 

brged, f. (?), young bird (?) : ns. 
173, 13. [bregdan.] 

briedan (W. I.), extend, spread: 
inf. 161, 24. [brad.] 

brastlian (W, II.), crackle: ptc. 
dp. brastligendum 80, 9. [Ger. 
prasseln.] 

breahtm, m., noise, revelry, mu- 
sic : ds. breahtme 169, 24 ; gp. 
breahtma 163, 2. [Ger. Pracht.] 

brecan, brsec brsecon brocen (4), 
break, destroy ; break forth : 3 
sg. bricetJ 182, 19 ; 3 pi. breca-S 
167, 16 ; pp. 149, 1. 

Ltregd, n. (?) , trick, fraud, deceit : 
gp. bregda 69, 8. [bregdan.] 

bregdan, braegd (brsed) brugdon 



(brudon) brogden (bregden) (3) , 

1. brandish, draw: opt. 2 pi. 

bregde ge 37, 18 ; pret. 3 sg. br^d 

154, 10; 154, 18. — 2. braid, 

weave : pp. bregden 175, 24 ; 

brogden 186, 4. 
brego (breogo), m., chief leader, 

lord, king : ns. 147, 10 ; 182, 12 ; 

as. brego 184, 25. 
brember, m., bramble : dp. brem- 

brum 145, 7. 
br^ngan (W. I., of. bringan), 

bring : inf. 22, 27 ; 23, 1 ; 3 sg. 

brings 49, 17 ; opt. 3 sg. br^nge 

51, 17 ; 64, 14. 
breost, n., breast : ds. breoste 87, 

14; dp. 143, 6; 153, 31 ; ap. 

breost 140, 19 ; 145, 3 ; 175, 10. 
breost-cofa, m., breast-chamber, 

heart, mind : ds. -cofan 160, 18. 
breost-sefa, m., mind, heart : ns. 

169, 16. 
Bret-walas, m. pi., the Britons of 

Wales : dp. 14, 8. 
brice (bryce) , m., fragment : ap. 

bricas 76, 24 ; 76, 25. [brecan.] 
bricg-Treard (brycg), m., bridge- 
guard : ap. -weardas 152, 2. 
bridd, m., young bird: ns. brid 

173, 8 ; gs. briddes 178, 2. 
brim, n., ocean : ap. brimu 148, 15. 
briin-cald, (-ceald), adj. ocean- 
cold: as. 168, 29 ; np. 167, 16. 
brlm-fugol, m., sea-bird: ap. 

-fuglas 161, 24. 
brini-li}>end, m., seafarer, pirate : 

gp. -ll}>endra 150, 6. 
brim-mQnn, m., sea-man, pirate : 

np. -m^n 158, 28 ; gp. -manna 

150, 28. 
bringan (W. I., cf. bringan, S. 

407, n. 7), bring: 3 sg. bringl? 



26o 



GLOSSARY. 



35, 3 ; 3 pi. bringat5 2, 25 ; opt. 

3 sg. bringe 112, 19 ; pret. 3 sg. 

brohte 1, 15 ; 6, 13 ; 8, 8 ; 3 pi. 

brohton 20, 1 ; 39, 21. 
broc, n., injurij, affliction, disease : 

ds. broce 55, 21 ; 104, 12 ; as. 

broc 54, 26. [brecan.] 
brocian (W. II.), oppress, injure, 

afflict : 3 pi. brociaS 56, 9. 
brohte, see bringan. 
brQud, m., brand; burning , fire : 

ns. 172, 19 ; gs. brgndes 175, 1. 
brosnian (W. II.), crumble^ waste 

aicay, wither^ decay : 3 pi. 

brosnia'5 166, 17 ; pp. gebrosnad 

174, 16 ; pi. -ode 71, 26. [cf. 

Ger. Brosam.] 
brosnung, f. decay: ds. -unge 

101, 2 ; 103, 3 
broSfor, m., brother: ns. 8, 1 ; 

brd'Sur 14, 11 ; broker 108 1 ; gs. 

bro^^or 102, 29 ; ds. bre-Ser 119, 

12 ; np. broSor 12, 28 ; broSru 

155, 16; ap. brS^or 114, 17. 
bracan, breac brucon brocen (2), 

brook, %ise, enjoy, possess (w. 

gen.) : inf. 79,6; 148, 7 ; 170, 9 ; 

3 sg. brTc« 78, 27 ; 3 pi. bruca'S 

56, 26 ; pret. 3 sg. (w. ace. ?) 

161, 21. 
bron, adj., brown: ns. 175, 14. 
Briinan -burh, f., Brunanburh 

(Durham ?) : as. 146, 5. 
brun-^cg, adj., broicn edged (of a 

sword) : as. 154, 19. 
"brycg (bricg), f., bridge : as. bricge 

151, 22 ; 151, 26. 
bryd, f., bride: as. bryde 74, 15. 
bryhtm, m., glance, twinkling: ns. 

64, 9. [cf. breahtm.] 
bryne, m., burning; fire, fiame : 

ns. 173, 2 ; 183, 6. 



bryne-gield, n., burnt offering, 
sacrifice : ds. -gielde 144, 1 ; as, 
-gield, 145, 10. [148, 15. 

Bryten, 1, Britain: as. Brytene 

brytta, m., distributor^ dispenser : 
ns. 143, 7; gs. bryttan 161, 2. 
[breotan.] [np. 101, 7. 

Bryttas (Brittas), pi. m., Britons : 
np. 101, 7. 

bryttigan (bryttian) (W.II.), di- 
vide, share : inf. 148, 4. 

Bryttisc (Brittisc), adj., British: 
ds. Bryttiscmn 15, 6. 

bu, see begen. 

boan, (bugan) (S. 396, n. 2) : 1. 
dioell (intr.) : ptc. dp. bugigend- 
um (inhabitants) 90, 13; 3 pi. 
bugeaS 19, 15 ; pret. 3 sg.^^bude 
38, 2; 41, 9.-2. occupy, culti- 
vate (trans.) : 3 pi. buga'S 170, 
18 ; pp. sg. byne 40, 21 ; bynum 
40, 20 ; gebun 39, 6 ; gebud 39, 12. 

bufon (buf an ; < be-uf an) , prep., 
1. (w. dat.) above : 22, 18 ; 85, 3. 
— 2. (w. ace.) on, upon : 83, 19. 

bugan, beag bugon bogen (2), 
bow, bend, turn : inf. 158, 9 ; 

1 sg. buge 82, 8 ; pret. 3 sg. 38, 
14 > 39, 1 ; 3 pi. 155, 10. 

bune, f ., cup : ns. 163, 10. 
Bunne, f., Bononia, now Boulogne 

(France): ds. Bunnan 17, 25. 
bnr, m., boicer, chamber: as. bur 

14, 13. [buan.] 
burg (burh), f., fort, borough, 

city : ns. burh 42, 25 ; gs. byrig 

22, 23 ; ds. byrig 15, 11 ; 22,^23 ; 

as. burg 20, 16 ; burh 90, 6 ; 102, 

2 ; dp. 18, 24 ; 97, 3 ; 178, 19 ; 
ap. burga 18, 27. 

Burgenda, gp. m., Bnrgundians: 
Burgenda land, Bornholm, 42, 
8. 



GLOSSARY. 



261 



burg-leode (burh-),pl. m., burgh- 
ers, citizens : dp, burh- 123, 3. 
burg'-tvare (burh-), pi. m., in- 
habitants of a ' burg ' ; burghers, 
citizens : gp. -wara 22, 19 ; dp. 
19, 23; ap. -ware 22, 11. 

burna (burne, f.), m., bourn, 
stream, fountain : ds. burnan 
168, 20. 

bur->eii (->egn), m., chamberlain : 
ds. ->ene 153, 8. 

bute, conj., but: 24, 7 ; 54, 1. 

buton (butaii), prep. (w. dat.), 
1. excejJt: 14,2; 15, 5; 17, 17; 
18, 26.-2. loithout: 2, 23; 3, 
26; 12, 19; 70, 2; butaii 128, 
14. — 3. outside: 21, 24. 

buton (butan), conj., 1. (w. opt.), 
unless: 7, 24; 29, 12; 35, 12. 
— 2. (w. indie), except, ex- 
cept that, but only : 38, 5 ; 38, 
16 ; 60, 10. 

baton, adv., outside : 21, 23. 

Butting- tun, m., Buttington : ds. 
-tune 21, 1. 

butu, see begen. 

bycgan (bicgan) (W. I.), buy: 
imp. 2 pi. bicga^ 78, 3. 

bydel, m., beadle, proclaimer, her- 
ald, minister : gp. bydela93, 18 ; 
ap. bydelas 93, 16, [beodan.] 

byden, f ., measure, bushel : ds. 
bydene 3, 2. [L. L. *butina < 
Gr. ^vTipr)']. 

byldan (W. I.), encourage: opt. 
3 sg. bylde 156, 29 ; pret. 3 sg. 
bylde 154, 25 ; 156, 4. [beald.] 

byme, f., trumpet: gs. byman 
182, 12 ; np. byman 169, 24. 

byne, see buan. 

byrde, adj., of high birth, rank: 
SupL, ns. byrdesta 40, 11. 



byre, m., favorable opportunity : 
as. 153, 8. 

byre, m. , child, son, descendant : 
ns. 169, 18; np. byre 179, 10. 
[beran.] 

byrgan (W. I.), taste, eat: pret. 
3 pi. byrgdon 179, 5. 

byrgan (W. I.), bury: ger. byr- 
igenne 75, 24. 

byrgen, f., grave, tomb : ns. 85, 
10 ; ds. byrgene 85, 4 ; 135, 19 ; 
as. byrgenne 71, 14 ; byrgene 
84, 14 ; np. byrgena 134, 10. 

l>yrne, f., byrnie, corselet, coat of 
mail : ns. 153, 31 ; 158, 17 ; as. 
byrnan 154, 19. [Ger. Briinne.] 

byrn-sweord, n., flaming sword: 
as. 69, 13. 

byrn-wiga, m., mailed loarrior: 
ns. 163, 10. 

byrffen, f., burden : ns. 31, 9 ; as. 
byrtSenne 30, 4 ; 34, 15 ; byrSene 
77, 20 ; gp. byr«enna 30, 4 ; dp. 
33, 19. 

bysen (bisen), f., example: ds. 
bysene 65, 11; bysne 112, 18; 
as. bysene 72, 6 ; dp. bisnum 34, 
27 ; bisenum 30, 21 ; 33, 18 ; 
ap. bisne 54, 10. [Goth, -busns.] 

bysgian (W. II.), busy, occupy, 
disturb, oppress: pp. gebysgad 
167, 11 ; 170, 23 ; 180, 3. 

bysig, adj., busy : np. bysige 152, 
27. 

bysigo, f., business, concern, occu- 
pation : dp. bisgum 28, 27. 

bysnian (bisnian) (W. II.), set 
an example for ; ijistruct by ex- 
ample : inf. bisnian 109, 4 ; 3 
sg. bisena'S 34, 5 ; pret. 3 pi, 
bysnodon 56, 2. 



262 



GLOSSARY. 



C. 



caf, hold^ brave : as. cafne 151, 24. 

[0. N. a-kafr.] 
caflice, adv., boldly : 154, 9. 
camp, m., fight, battle : ds. campe 

146, 8. [Ger. Kampf.] 
camp-st^de, m., battle-field: ds. 

147, 6; 147, 26. 

candel (cQiidel), f., candle: ns. 

146, 15 ; ds. CQndelle 168, 10. 
candel-stsef, m., (candle-staff) 

candlestick : as. 3, 3. 
canon, m., sacred cation: gs. 

canones 11, 12. [Lat. canon, 

Gr. Kavd)v.^ 
Cantwara-burg, f., Canterbury : 

ds. -byrig 94, 15. 
carc-ern(cearc-ern,cf.cweart-ern), 

n., prison : gs. carcernes 120, 7 ; 

ds. carcerne 113, 16 ; as. carcem 

114, 9. [Lat. career; +8ern.] 
car-full (cear-), adj., careful: ns. 

75, 31. 
carian (cearian) (W. II.), care, be 

concerned for : 3 sg. cara'S 79, 6. 
carte, f., chart, card (for writing 

upon) : as. cartan 140, 1 ; 140, 

2; ap. 139, 30. [Lat. charta.] 
casere, m., emperor: ns. 75, 2; 

gs. caseres 90, 23; 187', 5; ds. 

75, 17; 90, 17. [Lat. Caesar.] 
ceald (cald), adj., cold: as. cald 

152, 8 ; dp. caldum 167, 8. 
ceallian ( W. II.), call : inf. 152, 8. 
ceap, m., cattle : gs. ceapes 21, 23 ; 

22, 2 ; 23, 17. [cf. Mod. cheap.] 
ceap-sto\v, f., market-place: dp. 

32, 5. 
cearu (cearo, earn), f., care: ns. 

cearo 162, 2 ; as. ceare 160, 9. 
ceaster, f., fort, town, city: ds. 



ceastre 21, 19; 48, 10; 113, 5; 

as. 113, 14. [Lat. castrum. ] 
ceaster-ge-ware, m. (pi. tant., 8. 

263, n. 7), citizen: np. -waran 

90, 5 ; ap. 95, 20. 
celled, adj., curved, hollow, em- 
bossed : as. 158, 16. [Lat. cela- 

tus.] 
c^mpa, m., wari^ior : ns. 153, 6 ; 

180, 27 ; np. c^mpan 181, 16 ; gp. 

c^mpena 141, 15. [camp.] 
cene, adj., keen, bold: ns. 156, 10. 

— Comp., ns. cenre 159, 15. 
cenlice, adv., boldly: 98, 12. 
c^nnan (W. I.), beget, bring forth : 

pp. canned 187, 10. 
C^nt, f. (S. 284), Kent: ds. 17, 28. 
ceorl, m., (churl) freeman (of tlie 

common class), 7na7i : ns. 157, 

20 ; ds. ceorle 153, 19. 
ceosan, ceas curon coren (2), 

choose: 3 pi. ceosa'S 181, 24; 

opt. 1 sg. ceose 184, 10. 
cepan (W. I.), avail oneself of, 

take to (w. gen.) : pret. 3 sg. 

cepte 91, 1. 
cidan (W. I.), chide, reproach (w. 

dat. ) : pret. 2 sg. ciddes^ (dial.) 

30, 3 ; 3 sg. cTdde 32, 13. 
cigan (cTegan, cygan) (W. L), cry 

out, call : pret. 3 sg. cigde 124, 14 ; 

cygde 144, 10 ; 1 pi cigdon 117,24. 
cild, n., child: gs. elides 119, 1; 

127,20; 187,10; ap. cild 127, 23. 
cild-had, m., childhood: ds.-hade 

87, 9. 
cirice (eyriee, eyrce), f., thurch: 

ns. cyrce 82, 8 ; gs. ciricean 37, 

14 ; cyrcan 78, 23^; ds. 82, 7 ; as. 

36, 7 ; 66, 10 ; 69, 26 ; up. 27, 14. 
clrlisc, adj., ^ churlish,^ rustic: 

np. cirlisee 18, 6. [ceorl.] 



GLOSSABY. 



263 



cirm, see cyrin. 

cirr (cieiT, cyrr), m., turn, time, 
occasion : ds. cirre iM, 8 ; 38, 7. 
[Mod. char.] 

Cisse-ceaster, f., •Cissa's fort,'' 
Chichester: ds. -ceastrc 22, 11. 

clam, see clea. 

clsene, adj., clean, pure: ns. 11, 
4 ; 74, 20 ; 170, 28 ; gs. cljenan 
74, 21; as. chene 77, 30; dp. 
181, 4 ; ap. cliBiie 59, 15. 

clgene, adv., entirely : 20, 16 ; 172, 
29. 

cleennes, f., cleanness, purity, 
chastity: ds. -nisse 108, 23. 

clsensung, f., cleansing, chasten- 
ing : ns. 4G, 28. 

cla>, n., cloth. : ds. clabe 104, 15. 

clea (cleo), 1, claw: dp. clam (S. 
259, n.), 174, 23. 

cleofan, cleaf clufon clofen (2), 
cleave, split (trans.) : pret. 3 pi. 
146, 5; 158, 16. 

cleopian, see clipian. 

cleowen, n., (clew), ball, globu- 
lar mass : ds. cleowne 172, 29. 
[Ger. Knauel.] 

clipian (clypian, cleopian) (W. 
II.), 1. cri/ out, exclaim: 3 sg. 
clypa-S 92, 5 ; pret.. 3 sg. clypode 
64, 20; cleopode 7, 5; 32, 4.— 
2. cry unto, implore (w. dat.) : 
ptc. dp. clypigendum 92, 23 ; 3 
pi. cleopia'5 67, 15; imp. 2 sg. 
clypa 92, 20 ; 2 pi. clypia« 82, 
7 ; pret. 3 sg. clipode 110, 14. 
[Mod. obs. clepe, yclept.] 

cMdig, adj., rocky: ns. 40, 19. 
[cf. Mod. cloud.] 

clypian, see clipian. 

clyppan (^Y. I.), embrace, accept: 
inf. 10, 25 ; opt. 3 sg. clyppe 161, 
19. [Mod. clip.] 



cnapa, m., boy, youth: np. cnapan 
89, 13 ; gp. cnapena 88, 25. 
[Ger. Knabe.] 

cnearr, m., ship, galley : ns. cnear 
147, 12. [O. N. knqrr.] 

cneo (cneow), n., knee: ap. cneo 
161, 19; 181,4; 182,29; cneow 
137, 16. 

cneo-integ, m., kinsman: dp. 

-magum 146, 8. 
{cneoriss, 1, generation, family., 
i tribe, people: as. -isse 113, 20. 

cniht, m., boy, youth, young war- 
rior, knight, attendant, disciple : 
ns. 149, 9; 154, 9; gs. cnihtes 
79, 23 ; as. cniht 20, 10 ; 35, 23 ; 
76, 17 ; np. cnihtas 77, 11 ; 
cnyhtas 141, 20. 

cnyssan (W. I.), beat (trans.) : 3 
sg. cnyseS 167, 8; 3 pi. cnyssaS 
163, 17. [cf. Ger. Knorre.] 

colian (W. II.), cool: 3 sg. c61aj> 
68, 10. 

collen-feriy (-ferh'S), adj., proud- 
minded, fierce : ns. 162, 18. 
[*cwellan, S. 387, n. 3.] 

Coin, f., the river Colne (Essex) : 
ds. Colne 19, 6. 

corn, n., corn, grain : gs. cornes 22, 
2 ; 173, 25 ; as. corn 21, 25 ; 22, 23. 

corsaCor, n., troop, flock, company : 
gp. cor«ra 170, 28. 

costian (costigan, costnian) (W. 
II.), tempt, try, prove : inf. costi- 
gan (w. gen.) 142, 2 ; ger. cos- 
tianne 117, 21 ; costienne 118, 
21 ; pret. 1 sg. costnode (w. 
gen.) 132, 10. [Ger. kosten.] 

costnian, see costian. 

costnung, f ., temptation : ns. 2, 18. 

co]?u, f., disease : dp. 103, 22. 

craeft, m., strength, might, virtue, 
craft, skill, art, pursuit, know- 



264 



GLOSSARY. 



ledge: ns. 31, 16; ds. crsefte 32, 
19; 83, 32; as. crseft 31, 13; 
53, 25 ; gp. craefta 31, 19 ; ap. 
crseftas 54, 1. 

craeftiga (crseftega), m., crafts- 
man, workman, artificer; ns. 
craeftega 49, 11. 

craet, n., cart, chariot : ds. cicete 
138, 14. 

Crecas (Creacas), m. pi., the 
Greeks : np. Creacas 28, 6 ; gp. 
Creca 5, 2. 

creodan (crudan), cread crudon 
croden (2), crowd, press, hasten : 
pret. 3 sg. cread 147, 12. 

cringan, -cr^ng (-cr^nc) -crungon 
(-cruncon) -crungen (3), cringe, 
yield, fall, die : inf. 158, 25 ; 3 
pi. 146, 10 ; cruncon 159, 5. 

Crist, m., Christ : ns. Cris^ (dial.) 
32, 4 , 33, 6 ; gs. Cristas 11, 12 ; 
ds. Criste 102, 5. 

cristeu, a.dj.. Christian : ns. 89, 
3 ; np. cristene 52, 19 ; cristena 
28, 10 ; cristnan 21, 9 ; 25, 1 ; 
gp. cristenra 75, 3. 

cristen-doin, m., Christianity : ds 
-dome 95, 21 ; as. -dom 96, 6. 

cucu, see cwic. 

e u mbol-gehnast (gehnad) , n., con- 
flict of banners: gs. -gehnastes 
147, 26. 

cum-paeder, m., godfather in his 
relation to the father : ns. 20, 12. 
[Lat. compater.] 

cuman, c(w)omc(w)omoncumen 
(4) , come : inf. 6, 5 ; ger. cum- 
anne 7, 18 ; 2 sg. cymst 84, 7 ; 
cymest 139, 4 ; 3 sg. cym« 2, 13 ; 
cyme« 42, 17; 3 pi. cmna« 32, 24 ; 
opt. 3 sg. cume 132, 30 ; cyme 168, 
12 ; 1 pi. 60, ; imp. 2 sg. cum 84, 



4 ; 2 pi. 137, 8 ; pret. 2 sg. come 
84, 29 ; 3 sg. cwom 10, 22 ; 
cu5m 16, 1 ; com 6, 5 ; 3 pi. 
comon 1, 7 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
c5me 20, 8 ; 41, 29 ; 66, 21 ; pp. 
cumen 10, 16 ; 19, 25. 

cunnan (PP.),ca;i, he able, know, 
understand (trans, and intr.) : 
1 sg. CQU 9, 16 ; 2 sg. canst 54, 
19 ; 3 sg. can 53, 25 ; 1 pi. 
cunnon 27, 22 ; 52, 27 ; cunnun 
64, 13 ; 3 pi. cunnon 31, 10 ; 53, 
27 ; opt. 3 sg. -cunne 162, 16 ; 
162, 18 ; 3 pi. cunnen 28, 21 ; 
cunnan 31, 23; cunnon 31, 26 ; 
pret. 1 sg. cu-Se 9, 18 ; 2 sg. 
cutest 79, 26 ; 3 sg. cu«e 32, 15 ; 
100, 4 ; pret. opt. 2 sg. cy«e 79, 
30 ; 1 pi. cu«on 28, 4 ; 3 pi. 
cirSen 26, 18. 

cunnlan (W. II.), prove, try, ex- 
amine, experience : (w. ace. or 
gen.): inf. 156, 10; 3 sg. cunnat! 
161, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. cunnode 142, 
2, [cunnan.] 

059" (pp. < cunnan), adj., known, 
familiar, manifest : ns. 35, 17 ; 
49, 24 ; 86, 12 ; as. cu«e 137, 26 ; 
gp. cui5ra 162, 2. [Ger. kund.] 

cufflic, adj., known, certain: 
Comp., as. cu'Slicre 64, 13. 

cuaflice, adv., openly, clearly, cer- 
tainly : 62, 12 ; 63, 17. 

cwacian (W. II.), quake : ptc. as. 
cwacigendan 67, 12. 

cwalu, f . , killing, murder, death : 
ds. cwale 66, 16 ; 110, 21. [cwel- 
an.] 

Cvi'^at-brycg, f., Bridgenorth 
(Salop) : ds. -brycge 23, 2 ; 23, 
9. 

cwealm, m. n., death, destruction, 



GLOSSARY, 



265 



pestilence : ns. 90, 11 ; 93, 7 ; 

ds. cwealme 91, 5 ; as. cwealm 

93, 11. [Mod. qualm.] 
cwealm-bgere, adj., deadhj : as. 

-bSran 82, 28. 
cweart-ern (cf. carc-ern), n., 

prison : ds. cwearterne 83, 4 ; 

133, 10. 
cwelan, cwsel cw»lon cwolen (4), 

die : inf. 82, 31. 
cw^llan (W. I.), kill: inf. 144, 

15. [cwelan ; Mod. quell.] 
cw^llere, m,, executioner : np. 

cw^lleras 115, 2. 
cweman (W. I.), please (w. 

dat.) : ger. cwemanne 55, 9. 

[cuman.] 
cwen, f ., queen : ns. 103, 7. 
CTvenas, m. pi. (a tribe of the 

Finns) : np. 41, 2; 41, 4; gp. 

Cwena 41, 1. 
CTreorn, f., quern, mill : ns. 34, 24 ; 

34, 25 ; as. cweorne 34, 21. 

^Goth. qairnus.] 
cweaCan, cwse'S cwsedon cweden 
5), say, speak: inf. 46, 26; 

I sg. cwe'Se 46, 19 ; 2 sg. cwyst 

3, 1 ; 3 sg. cwi^S 32, 25 ; 3 pi. 

cwse-Sa^ (for cwet;a'5) 108, 15 ; 

imp. 2 sg. cweS 83, 20 ; pret. 2 

sg. cwMe 84, 20 ; 3 sg. 1, 5 ; 7, 

6 ; 3 pi. 4, 5 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 

cwEede 37, 18 ; 3 pi. cweden 27, 

19 ; pp. 117, 15 {named) : gecue- 

den 36, 26; 37, 1. [Mod. 

quoth.] 
cAvic (cwicu, cucu, S. 303), adj., 

^ quick,'' alive: ns. cucu 84, 15; 

as. cwicne 144, 24 ; 145, 4 ; 

cwycne 132, 25 ; gp. cwicra 160, 

9. 
cwlc-susl (cwyc-), n., hell-tor- 



ment: gs. cwycsiisles 132, 7; 

ds. -susle 131, 10; 137, 19. 
cwide (cwyde), m., saying, utter- 
ance : ds. cwyde 82, 15 ; 92, iO ; 

as. cuide 34, 18. [cwelan.] 
cwide-giedd, n., word, utterance: 

gp. -giedda 162, 2. 
cwild (cwyld), m. f. n., destruc- 
tion, pestilence, murrain : ds. 

cwilde 23, 17. [cwelan.] 
cwi>an (W. I.), bewail (trans.) ; 

inf. 160, 9. 
cw^yc-sasl, see cwic-susl. 
cyf, f., vessel: as. cyfe 75, 4. 

[Ger. Kubel.] 
cyle (ciele), m. (chill) cold: as. 

44, 4 ; 44, 6. 
cyle gicel, ni., icicle: dp. 167, 8. 
cyme, m. , coming : gs. cymes 99, 

31 ; ds. cyme 11, 14 ; as. cyme 

166, 26. [cuman.] 
cyne-donri, m., government, king- 
dom : as. 102, 10. 
cyne-gold, n., I'egal gold, diadem, 

crown : ns. 186, 7. 
cyne-hlaford, m., i^oJjal lord: as. 

141, 1. 
cynelic, adj., royal: ap. -lice 100, 

23. 
cyne-rice, n., kingdom: ns. 101, 

5 ; gs. kynerlces 28, 27 ; is. 

-rice 17, 17. 
cyne-}?rymm, m., kingly majesty : 

as. ->rym 187, 5. 
cyng (cing), m., ^-zn^.- ns. 19, 9; 

gs. cynges 23, 18; cinges 20, 

26 ; ds. cynge 25, 6. 
cyning, m., king: gs. cyninges 7. 

2; 17, 18; ds. cyninge 6, 21; 

as. cyning 14, 11 ; np. cyningas 

16, 13 ; cynegas 102, 1 ; gp. cyn- 

inga 16, 15. 



266 



GLOSSARY, 



cynn, n., kUi^ race, family, kind: 

ns. 176, 23 ; gs. cyniies 156, 12 ; 

182, 7 ; ds. cynne 151, 24 ; 172, 

1 ; as. cynn 170, 20 ; gp. cinna 

111, 9. 
cype-ciiiht, m., hoy for sale as a 

slave : ap. -cnihtas 88, 22. 
cyp(e)-inQnn, m., chapman, mer- 
chant : np. -m^n 88, 19. 
cyr(i)ce, see cirice. 
cyrm (cierm, cirm), m., cry, 

alarm : ns. 152, 24 ; cirm, 127, 

24. 
cyrran (cierran, cirran) (W. I.), 

turn, go, return: 3 pi. cyrraS 

177, 11 ; pret. 3 sg, cyrde 96, 4 ; 

3 pi. cirdon 39, 4. [Ger. kehren.] 
cyrtel, m., kirtle, coat, tunic: as. 

kyrtel 40, 13 ; ap. cyrtlas 78, 5. 
cyssan ( W. I.) , kiss : ptc. cyssende 

120, 15 ; 137, 16 ; opt. 3 sg. cysse 

161, 19. 
cystig, adj., virtuous, charitable: 

ns. 100, 18 ; ds. cystigum 75, 25. 
cyS'an (W. I.), make known : inf. 

26, 2 ; 70, 6 ; 3 pi. cy 5a« 86, 6 ; 

166, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. cySde 10, 12 ; 

15, 14 ; cydde 81, 28 ; 83, 28 ; 

90, 25. [cu«.] 
cyarafu (cy-5«, S. 255, 3), f., kith, 

kinship, home, country : ds. 

cy5«e 71, 10; as. cyS^^e 71, 13; 

147, 15 ; 148, 2 ; cy«5u 174, 23. 



D. 



daed, f., deed, action : gp. dseda 

11, 22 ; ap. dada 68, 20 ; dp. 14, 

2 ; 68, 3 ; 105, 8. 
deed-betan (W. I.), make amends, 

repent : ptc. np. dsedbetende 80, 

21. 



da&d-bot, f. , repentance: gs. 91, 
24; as. 110, 4; 111, 8. 

dseg, m., day : ds. dsege 11, 15 ; as. 
dseg 43, 9 ; is. daege 35, 8 ; 43, 
9 ; gp. daga 18, 23 ; dp. dagum 11, 
28; 38, 14; dagan 41, 24; ap. 
dagas 21, 22 ; 38, 12.— Adverbial : 
gs. dseges and nihtes, by day and 
by night : 3, 12 ; 5, 14 ; 21, 18 ; 
ds. to dcege, to-day : 65, 30 ; as. 
l^nge on dseg, far on, late in the 
day : 17,4; 17, 14. 

daeg-hwonilTc (-hwamlic), adj., 
daily : ds. -Ileum 87, 24. 

dasg-hwomlice (-hwamlice), adv., 
daily : 95, 24. 

dseg-red, n., dawn : as. 168, 17. 

daegiS'erlic, adj., daily, present: 
ds. o5 tiisum dseg'Serlicum dsege, 
to this present day, 97, 4. 

dseg-weorc, n., irork of the day : 
gs. -weorces 154, 4. 

dsel, n., dale : np. dalu 166, 3. 
[Ger. Thai.] 

dSl, m., division, portion, part : ns. 
22, 19 ; ds. dsele -19, 21 ; be 
genigum dSle, to any extent, 46, 
24 ; be \>^m. d^le, to that extent, 
54, 11; as. d^l 21, 6; 27, 29; 
43, 14 ; 162, 12 ; gp. dffila 30, 14. 

d^Ian (W. I.), deal out, divide, 
separate, distribute : inf. 76, 19 ; 
3 sg. d«15 48, 10 ; d^leS 180, 28 ; 
opt. 1 pi.; dSlon 150, 12 ; pret. 3 
pi. d^ldon 77, 8; pp. gedeeled 
175, 13 ; pi. gedselde 70, 20. 

dsel-neomende (dial.) (ptc), m., 
partaker : as. 63, 1. 

daroS (daraS), m., dart, spear: 
as. 154, 5 ; 157, 19 ; gp. daroSa 
laf, the leaving of spears, those 
surviving a battle, 147, 31. 



GLOSSARY. 



267 



dead, adj., dead: ns. 43, 2 ; deada 
43, 16 ; as. deadne 132, 24 ; np. 
deade 120, 9 ; deadan 44, 5. 

dead-b^re, adj., deadly: ds. -bge- 
rum So, 1. 

deall, ad]., jjwud : ns. deal 174, 12. 

dearr, see durran. 

deaS", m., death: ns. 83, 22; gs. 
deaSes 71, 8 ; 92, 10 ; ds. dea«e 
83, 21 ; is. dea-Se 13, 8; 95, 11 ; 
as. dea'S 92, 6 ; ap. dea^as 68, 1. 

deaij-d^nu, f., mortal vale: as. 
179, 17. 

deaiff-rseced (-r^ced), n., Jiouse of 
death, grave : np. 166, 27. 

Defenas (Defnas), m. ^\., the peo- 
ple of Devonshire ; Devonshire : 
dp. 21, 4 ; 24, 10. 

Defeua-scir (Defna-) f., Devon- 
shire': ds. -scire 19, 18. 

delfan, dealf dulfon dolfen (3), 
delve, dig : inf. 84, 14, 

dejnn, m., judge : ns. 32,22; 92, 
11; gs. deinan 31, 4; 32, 17; 
91, 19. 

denian (W. I.), deem^ judge^ de- 
termine : inf. 45, 13 ; 3 sg. demiS 
52, 21 ; 62, 28 ; pp. gedemed 9, 
6; 170,8. 

d^mm, m.., judgment: ns. 34, 23. 

D^ne, m. pi., Danes : gp. D^na 25, 
14; dp. D^non 153, 16; ap, 
Df^ne 41 , 26. 

D^Tie-mearc (D^na-; -mearce), f., 
Denmark : ns. D^namearc 41, 
27; ds. D^nemearce 42, 2; D^ne- 
mearcan 42, 8. 

D<jnisc, adj,, Danish: as, on 
D^nisc, in the Danish fashion^ 
24, 7; np. D^niscan 19, 12 ; 22, 
24; gp. Df^niscra 21, 11 ; -ena 
24, 29 ; -ana 22, 20 ; dp. 25, 1. 



deunian (W. II.), "become slippery 

(?) : pret. 3 sg. dennode 146, 12. 

d^riu (d^ne, S. § 268), f., vaUpii : 

np. 166, 3. [77, 17. 

deoflic, adj., devilish: ap. -iicau 
deofol, m. n., devil : gs. deoties 'J, 

18 ; 77, 14 ; ds. deofle 131, 24 ; 

np. deofla 123, 30 ; dp. 78, 17 ; 

ap. deodu 78, 14 ; deoflo 123, 22. 
deofol-gyld, n., idol : gp. -gilda 

65, 7 ; dp. 65, 3 ; 65, 21 ; ap. 65, 

16 ; 82, 12. 
deofol-gylda, m., idolater: np. 

-gyldan 82, 3. 
deofol-seoc, adj., x>ossessed of a 

devil : ap. -seocan 78, 18. 
deofol-seocnis, f ., possession by a 

devil : ap. -nj'Ssa 141, 8. 
deop, n., the deep, the sea : gs. 

deopes (dypan, f.) 24, 20. 
deop, adj., deep: ns. 109, 5; as. 

143, 15. 
deope, adv., deeply^ profoundly: 

163, 5. "fill, 10. 

deoplice, adv., deep)ly, profoundly : 
deopnis, f., depth, abyss: ds. 

-nysse 129, 3. 
deor (dior), n., ivild beast or ani- 
mal (of any sort) : as. deor 148, 

8 ; np. dior 5, 7 ; gp. deora 40, 

1 ; 40, 9 ; ap. deor 40, 2. 
deorc, adj., dark, gloomy^ sad: 

ns. deorca 182, 14 ; deorce 168, 

17 ; as. deorce 163, 5. 
deorling, see dyrling. 
deor-mod, adj., bold of mind, 

brave : ns. 168, 7. 
Deorwente, f., the Derwent : ds. 

-wentan 65, 29. 
deor-wurS' (-whir's, -weorS), adj., 

vjorthy of estimation, precious, 

honored: ds. -v^ur^'an 104, 16: 



268 



GLOSS ABT. 



dp. 76, 3 ; ap. -wur^e 78, 1 ; i 
-wir^e 111, 1 ; -wur^an 76, 29. 

Dere, m. pi., the Deirians, inhabi- 
tants ofDeira : np. 89, 14; 89, 15. 

dorian (W. I.), injure (w. dat.) : 
inf. 151, 18 ; 3 sg. d^reS 34, 10 ; 
d^ra« (S. 400, n. 2) 82, 30 ; 121, 

10. [dam.] 

diacon-had (deacon-), m., office of 

a deacon, deaconship : ds. -hade 

88, 17. 
diegol (digol), adj., secret: ns. 

diegla 32, 21 ; digle 3, 4 ; gs. 

dieglan 31, 4. — Comp., np. di- 

gelran 31, 20. 
dimm (dymm), adj., dim, dark, 

gloomy : dp. dymmum 129, 20. 
dim Ills (dymnis), f., dimness, 

gloom: ds. dymnysse 129, 4; 

130, 2. 
Dinges (m^re) gs., (a proper name, 

or the sea of dashing and noise : 

dinges) : 147, 31. 
dior, see deor. 
disc, m., dish: ds. disce 100, 24; 

as. disc. 100, 28. 
disoipul, m., disciple : ns. 117, 

15 ; np. discipulT (Lat.) 116, 19 ; 

discipulos (for -i) 11 8-, 16 ; gp. 

discipula 118, 7 ; dp. 115, 21 ; 

ap. discipulT 115, 7; 118, 9, 
dogor, n., daij : gp. dogra 162, 10. 
dogor-rim,n., numbering of days, 

time : gs. -rimes 181, 30. 
dohtor, f,, daughter : ns. 103, 7. 
dom, m., 1. doom, judgment, de- 
cree, decision, choice : gs. domes 

11, 16; 92, 15; 166, 27; ds. 
dome 32, 16; 32, 23; 76, 14; 
141, 12 ; as.d5m {stipulation) 15, 
13; 150, 17; is. dome 10, 15.— 
2. renown, glory : as. 153, 16. 



dom-^rn, n., judgment-hall . ds. 
-^me 140, 26. 

dom-georn, adj., eager for re- 
nown: np. -georne 160, 17. 

domlic, adj., famous, glorious : 
dp. 180, 20 ; 180, 27. 

don (S. 429), do, act, cause, put 
place : inf. 8, 13 ; 11, 24 ; 26 
13; 28, 23; ger. donne 62, 5 
119, 9 ; ptc. donde 126, 6 ; 2 sg, 
dest 112, 9 ; 3 sg. deS 34, 30 
35, 1 ; 49, 17 ; 2 pi. do5 61, 17 
3 pi. do'5 34, 8 ; imp. 2 sg. do 
119, 19 ; opt. 2 sg. do 27, 3 ; 3 
sg. 29, 9 ; 35, 2 ; 78, 8 ; 1 pi. 
don 28, 15; 2 pi. 61, 16 ; pret. 

2 sg. dydest 122, 26 ; 3 sg. dyde 
7, 20 ; 9, 10 ; 12, 9 ; 79, 18 ; 3 pi. 
dydon 46, 14 ; 103, 29 ; pret. opt. 

3 sg. dyde 46, 13. 
Dorce-ceaster (Dorcan-), f., Dor- 
chester : ds. -ceastre 23, 23 ; as. 
Dorcan ceaster 102, 3. 

draca, m., dragon : dp. 80, 8. 
dream, m.., joy, mirth : is. dreame 

162, 26 ; gp. dreama {harmony) 

169, 28. [Mod. dream.] 
dr^ccan (W. I.), vex, trouble, af- 
flict : pret. 3 pi. dr^hton, 23, 27. 
dr^nc, m., drink : gs, dr^nces 83, 

3 ; ds. dr^nce 83, 1 ; 83, 7 ; as. 

53, 21 ; 82, 28 ; 83, 8. 
dr^ng, ni., loarrior : gp. dr^nga 

154, 5. [O. N. drengr.] 
dreogan, dreag drugon drogen 

(2), endure, perform, fulfil : 3 

sg. dreoge« 172, 13. 
dreor, m., blood: is. dreore 144, 

17. [dreosan.] 
dreorig, adj., dreary, sad: ns. 

147, 31 ; 161, 2 ; dreorige 79, 15 ; 

as. dreorigne (hyge) 160, 17} 



GLOSSARY. 



269 



np. dreorige 75, 26 ; 77, 14. 
[dreosan.] 

dreorig-hleor, adj., with sad face : 
ns. lt)2, 80. 

dreorignis, f ., sadness : gs. -nysse 
79, 20. 

dreosan, dreas druron droren (2), 
faU, perish : 3 sg, dreoseS 162, 
10 ; 3 pi. dreosa'5 166, 13. [cf. 
Mod. dross.] 

drihten, see dryhten. 

drinea, m., drink : as. drincan 132, 
13. 

drincan, drc^nc druncon druncen 
(3), drink: inf. 34, 7 ; 82, 31 ; 
3 pi. drincaS 34, 2 ; 42, 27 ; pret. 
3 pi. 113, 7 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
drunce 82, 27 ; 2 pi. druncen 34, 
1. 

drohtaS", m., sojourn, life : as. 179, 
17. 

drohtian, see drohtnian. 

drohtnian (drohtian) (W. II.), 
lead one'^s life^ live : ger. drolit- 
nigenne 96, 8 ; 3 sg. drohta^S 168, 
7 ; pret. 3 sg. drohtnode 87, 23 ; 
88, 7. [dreogan.] 

drohtnung (drohtung), f., con- 
duct, condition, life : gs. droht- 
unge 35, 11 ; ds. -nunge 88, 16 ; 
99, 25 ; as. 86, 7. 

drohtung, see drohtnung. 

drusan (W. I., drusian TV. II.), 
droop, drowse, become feeble : 
ptc. driisende 177, 27. [dreo- 
san.] 

dry (S. 266, n. 3), m., icizard, 
sorcerer: ns. 141, 6. [Celt, 
drui.] 

dryge (drige), adj., dry: ds. on 
drygum, on dry ground^ 24, 14 ; 
ftp. dryge 71, 20. 



dryht, f., body of retainers, host, 

2'>eople : dp. 176, 22. [dreogan.] 
dryhten (drihten), m., lord,p)rince, 

ruler, king : ns. drihten 9, 28 ; 

dryhten 32, 13 ; gs. drihtnes 146, 

16 ; ds. drihtne 10, 17 ; drilitene 

116, 26. 
drynian ("W. I.), rejoice : ptc. gp. 

drymendra 177, 7. [dream] 
dryre, m., fall, deposit : ns. 165, 

16. [dreosan.] 
dugan (PP.), avail; 3 sg. deah 

150, 27 ; opt. 3 sg. dyge 46, 20. 

[Ger. taugen.] 
duguac (dugot5), f. : 1. body of 

retainers, host : ns. 162, 26 ; ds. 

dugu>e 163, 13 ; gp. dugu-ba 182, 

9 ; dugu'Sa wyn, the flower, the 

chief of retainers (?), 177, 7. — - 

2. benefit, honor, riches : ds. 

dugu>e 155, 22 ; gp. duge^a 180, 

29. [dugan ; Ger. Tugend.] 
dan, f,, down, hill, mountain : as. 

dune 121, 16; 142, 9; 143, 17. 

[Celt, dunum.] 
dun-scr£ef, n., hill-cave : np. 

-scrafu 166, 3. 
durran (PP.), dare : 1 sg. dearr 

112, 12; 3 sg. dearr 34, 13 ; 1 pi. 

durron 111, 18 : opt. 1 sg. durre 

160, 10 ; pret. 3 pi. dorston 39, 

5 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. dorsten 56, 8. 
duru, 1, door : ns. 78, 23 ; 165, 12 ; 

ds. dura 31, 11 ; duru 120, 10 ; 

dyru (S. 274, n. 1) 120, 7 ; as. 

duru 14, 15 ; 64, 7; np. dura 120, 

11. 
dust, n. dust : ds. duste 82, 22 ; 

104, 16 ; as. dust 71, 19; 104, 18. 
dust-sceawung, f., contemplation 

of the dust: ds. -sceawunga 71, 

29. 



2/0 



GLOSSARY. 



d-w'gescan (W. I.), extinguish, Mot 

out : 3 sg. dwgesceS 181, 1. 

[dwges : dysig.] 
dw^lian (dw^llan, S. 407, n. 1) 

(W. I.), lead into folly, deceive; 

be led astray, err : ptc. dw^ligende 

91, 26. [cf. Mod. dull.] 
Dyflin (Dyflen, Difelin) , Dublin : 

as. 117, 82. 
dym-hof, n., place of concealment : 

dp. -hofoii 91, 2. 
dyre (diere, deore), adj., dear, 

costly : np. dyre 40, 3 ; 43, 26. 
dyrling (deorling), m., darling, 

favorite : ns. 74, 1 ; ap. deor- 

lingas 55, 7. 
dj^rstignes, f., boldness, audacity, 

arrogance : ds. -nysse 96, 22 ; 

as. -nesse 81, 16. 
dysig, adj., foolish : ns. 107, 10. — 

Supl,, ns. dysgosta 47, 2. [Mod. 

dizzy.] 
dysig, n., folly : ds. dysige 52, 26. 
dysignes, f., /oZZ?/ .• ds. -nesse 65, 

10 ; as. 65, 14. 
dyslic (dysiglic), adj., foolish: 

ns. 76, 12 ; dp. 105, 4. 

E. 

e, see ea. 

ea, f., river: ns. 18, 2 ; gs. e 21, 
4 ; 21, 8 ; eas 22, 28 ; 39, 7 ; ds. 
ea 39, 5 ; 65, 30 ; e^ 22, 25 ; as. 
ea 18, 3 ; np. ea 5, 15. [Ger. 
Au.] 

eac (ec), conj. adv., also, more- 
over, likewise, even: 8, 11 ; ge . . . 
ge eac, both . . . and also, 18, 
24 ; ne . . . ne eac, neither . . . 
nor even, 31, 24 ; qad eac swa, 
and also, 20, 9 ; 22, 19 ; eac, 
swilce (swylce, swelce), also, 



likewise, 8, 11 ; 13, 8 ; 13, 13; 
104, 29 ; eac gelice (-lyce) , like- 
wise, 135, 26. [Ger. auch.] 

eac, prep. , iyi addition to, together 
with, besides (w. dat.) : 23, 26 ; 
149, 11. 

eaca, m., addition, increase: ns. 
(reinforcements) 20, 22 ; ds. 
eacan 108, 3 ; t5 eacan, in addi- 
tion to (w. dat.), 39, 19; 175, 
3. 

ead, n., possession, riches, happi- 
ness, bliss : gs. eades 178, 28 ; 
187, 9 ; as. ead 176, 7. [cf. Mod. 
allodium.] 

eadig, adj., rich, blessed, happy : 
ns. 165, 20 ; eadga 143, 2 ; eadiga 
88, 15 ; 93, 22 ; gs. eadigan 75, 
7; 93, 5; dp. 78, 25. [Goth- 
audags.] 

eadignes, f ., happ>iness, bliss : gs. 
-nesse 64, 25. 

ead-mod, see eatSr-inod. 

ead-wela, m., generous, supply, 
riches : ns. 173, 24 ; dp. 185, 14. 

eafora (eafera), m., son, heir: 
ds. eaforan 144, 7 ; as. 144, 25 r 
np. 146, 7; dp. 179, 6. [cf. 
Goth, afar, prep, 'after.'] 

cage, n., eye : gs. eagan 64, 9 ; is. 
50, 21 ; np. 33, 9 ; dp. 31, 4 ; ap. 
59, 15; 112,4. 

eag-gebyrd, 1, eyeball (?), pupil 
of the eye (?) : ns. 175, 19. 

ealita, num., eight: 39, 25; 102, 
14; 12], 13. 

ea-la, inter]., oh f alas! 71, 21; 
79, 21; 163, 10. 

eald (aid), adj., old : ns. alda 16, 18 ; 
ealda feeder, grandfather (an- 
cestor?), 150, 13; ap. ealde 67, 
3 ; ealdan 92, 8 j ealde, tried, 



GLOSSARY. 



271 



honored, 150, 26; dp. 7, 19.— 
SupL, as. ieldes'be (dial.), most 
honored, 32, 7. 

Ealdan-mynster, n., Old-Min- 
ster : ds. -mynstre 102, 8. 

eald-cyiafia?u (-cySS), f., oZ(Z, 
former home : as. -cy S'5e 177, 
10 ; -cy-55u (S. 255, 3) 180, 10. 

eald-faeder, m., forefather: ap. 
-fsederas 135, 4. 

eald-feoiid, m., old foe, arch 
fiend, devil: gs. -feondes 179, 
2 ; gp. -feoiida 180, 24. 

ealdian (W. II.), become old : pp. 
geealdad 180, 2. 

ealdor, m., life : as. 182, 2 ; to 
ealdre, adv., for ever, 166, 19. 

ealdor (aider), m., prince, chief 
lord: ns. 129, 13; aider 143, 18; 
gs. ealdres 151, 1 ; ds. ealdre 94, 
5; 149, 11. 

ealdor-bisceop, m., chief bishop : 
ns. 63, 15. 

ealdor-dom, m., lordship, sov- 
ereignty : as. 170, 19. 

ealdor-lang, adj., life-long, last- 
ing : as. -langne 146, 3. 

ealdor-nriQnn, m., alderman, chief, 
ruler, magistrate, chief officer of 
the shire: ns. -niQn 10, 10; 
-mann 63, 29 ; gs. -m^nnes 20, 
6 ; np. -m^n 32, 15. 

ealgian (W. II.), defend: pret. 3 
pi. ealgeden 146, 9. 

eaU (all), adj., all: ns. 1, 3; 18, 
27; as. alne 16, 11 ; ealle 12, 
1 ; is. ealle 18, 14 ; 59, 1 ; np. 
ealle 2, 6 ; 6, 20 ; 9, 6 ; alle 14, 
18 ; ealla 28, 10 ; gp. ealra 3, 21 ; 
10, 15 ; eallra 47, 2 ; dp. eallum 
10, 16 ; as. ealle 2, 10 ; 10, 13 ; 
ealla 28, 9 ; eall 3, 26 ; eal 10, 6 ; 



11,2. — Adverbial: gs. ealles, 
altogether, quite, entirely, 185, 
9 ; ealles, ealra swij^ost, most of 
all, especially, 23, 17; 24, 1 ; 
ealles for swiSe, altogether, ut- 
terly, 23, 15 ; ds. (or dp.) mid 
(myd) eallum, altogether, en- 
tirely, 130, 24 ; 134, 15 ; is. 
mid ealle, withal (^=and every- 
thing), 17, 26; 25, 10; 100,28; 
as. ealne weg, all the way, 39, 
8; 41, 17; always, 36, 12 ; ealneg 
(= ealnc weg) 29, 1 1 ; ealne dseg, 
all the day, 35, 26 ; eall swa, 
jiist as, 136, 16. 

ealllnga, see eallunga. 

ealluuga (eallinga), adv., alto- 
gether, entirely : 51, 3; eallunge 
90, 6 ; eallinga 63, 17. 

Eall wealdend, m., Buler of all : 
ns. 98, 23. 

ealo (ealu), n., ale: ns. 42, 29; 
gs. eala« (S. 281, 2) 44, 7. 

ea-lQnd, n., island : ds.-lgnde 175, 5. 

earn, m., uncle: ns. 98, 7. [Ger. 
Oheim.] 

ear, n., ear (of corn) : ds. eare 3,' 
15 ; as. ear 3, 15. 

earc, f., ark : ns. 36, 7 ; 37, 19 ; gs. 
earce 36, 1 ; 36, 4 ; as. earce 35, 
27; 36, 11. 

card, m., dwelling, home, country : 
gs. eardes 177, 20 ; ds. earde 71, 
10; as. eard81, 8; 148,17; 151, 
1. [eorSe.] 

eard-geard, m., dwelling-place^ 
earth : as. 163, 1. 

eardian ( W. II.), dwell : inf. 3, 23 ; 
3 pi. cardial 40, 21 ; 82, 19 ; pret. 
3 pi. eardodon 41, 30; 77, 11. 

eardlng (eardung), f., habitation; 
ap. eardinga 188, 15. 



2/2 



GLOSSARY. 



eard-stapa, m., land-stepper, wan- 
derer : ns. 160, 6. [ds. 171, 26. 
eard-st^de, m., dwelling-place : 
eard-wic, n., dwelling : as, 180, 6. 
eare, n., ear : dp. 34, 17; ap. earan 

2, 2 ; 3, 5. 
earfo9' (earfe^), n., difficulty, toil, 

hardship, torture, torment : gp. 

earfo-Sa 51, 22 ; dp. 62, 17; ap. 

earfo-Su 55, 11. [Ger. Arbeit.] 
earfoS'e, adj., difficult : ns. 76, 27; 

gs. earfo'Ses 59, 13. 
earfoSlic, adj., difficult, full of 

hardship : ns. 163, 22. 
earfoiffnes, f., hai'dship, torture : 

dp. 68, 14 ; ap. -nessa 119, 18. 
ear-gebland, n., wave-mingling, 

ocean : as. 147, 3. 
earh (earg), adj., cowardly : ns. 157, 

2. [Ger. arg.] [21; dp. 130, 6. 
earm, m., arm : ns. 99, 6 ; as. 154, 
earin, adj., poor, pitiable, wretched, 

despicable : as. earmne 46, 4 ; 

np. earme 45, 11 ; 180, 17; dp. 

78, 25. — Comp. ns. earmra 46, 

1. [Ger. arm.] 
earm-cearig, adj., wretched, full 

of care : ns. 160, 20. 
earming, m., poor wretch : np. 

earmingas 78, 16. 
earmlic, adj., miserable, wretched: 

gs. -lices 138, 22; ds. -licum 105, 8. 
earn, m.., eagle: ns. 133,4; 152,24; 

gs. earnes 173, 8 ; ds. earne 173, 

11 ; as. earn seftan hwit (cf. Gr. 

irtjyapyos) 148, 7. [Ger. Aar.] 
earnian (W. II.), earn (w. gen.): 

3 sg. earnatS 181, 29 ; 3 pi. ear- 

niaS 55, 17. 
eart, see beon. 

east, adv., east, in an easterly di- 
rection : 19, 24 J 38, 17; 65, 29. 



eastan, adv., from the east : 42, 
19; 148,13; 176, 13; estan 16«, 
13 ; wi"S eastan, to the east : 40, 
19 ; be eastan, to the east of (w. 
dat.), 20, 28. 

ea-staea", n., river-bank : ds. 
-stae-Se 151, 11. 

east-dsel, m., eastern quarter, the 
east: ds. -d^le 121, 16; dp. 165, 2. 

east-^nde, m., east-end: ds. 17, 

_28. 

East-^ngie, m. pi., East-Angles, 
East-Anglia .■ np. 18, 12 ; gp. 

_-^ngla 22, 5 ;_dp. 19, 16 ; 21, 15. 

Easter-daeg (Eastor-), m., Easter 
Bay : ds. -dsege 100, 22 ; is. 
Eastordsege 66, 8. 

east-healf, f., east side : ds. -healfe 
21,8. 

east-lang, adj., extending east : 
ns. 17, 29. 

east-rice, n., eastern kingdom : ds. 
17, 24 ;_18, 11. _ 

Eastro ( Eastru, Eastre ; Eastron 
pi. tant.), f. n., Easter: ap. 
eastron 17, 9. 

east-ryhte, adv., eastward : 38, 
15. 

East-seaxe (-seaxan), m. pi., East- 
Saxons, Essex: gp. -seaxna 22, 
6 ; dp. 20, 21 ; ap. -seaxe 19, 3 ; 
21, 14. 

east(e)-weard (-w^rd), adj., east- 
ward, easterly : ns. 40, 21 ; -w^rd 
40, 22 ; gs. -weardes (adv.) 19, 
21 ; ds. -weardre 17, 28 ; as. 
-weard 22, 7, 

east-weg, m., east-way, path in 
the east : dp. 169, 3. 

eaffe, adv., easily : 28, 15 ; 55, 24. 
— Comp. (le-S) ea-S 65, 10.— 
Supl. y-Sast 169, 3- 



GLOSSABT. 



273 



eaff-mod (ead-), adj., humble- 
minded, humble : ns. eadmod 

100, 18 ; is -mode 30, 2 ; ap. 

-m5dan 67, 11. 
eaS'-modlice (ead-), adv., humbly : 

11, 23 ; 61, 10 ; ead- 94, 4 ; 107, 

1. 
caS'-modnes (ead-), f., humilitij, 

meekness, condescension : gs. 

-nesse 32, 10 ; as. 30, 18 ; gp. 

-nessa 73, 2. 
eaw-faest (^w-, S-, S. 118, n. 1), 

religious, pious : ns. -feesta 87, 

1 ; ds. -fsestre 86, 14. 
eax, f ., axis, axle-tree : ns. 50, 

10 ; ds. eaxe 50, 9 ; 50, 12 ; as. 

eaxe 52, 8. 
^bba, m., ebb : ds. ^bban 151, 13. 
Ebreas, m. pi., Hebrews : gp. 

Ebrea 144, 26. 
Ebreisc, adj., Hebreio : as. 28, 5 ; 

124, 30. 
ece, adj., eternal, everlasting : ns. 

9, 28 ; 10, 4 ; 59, 9 ; eca 32, 21 ; 

ecea 70, 22 ; ds. ecan 61, 16 ; gp. 

ecra 63, 1. 
^ced, m. n., vinegar : ds. ^cede 

132, 14. [Lat. acetum ; Ger. 

Essig.] 
ecelice, adv., eternally : 70, 11 ; 

78, 7 ; 81, 29. 
^cg, f., edge, sword: ns. 151, 8; 

ds. ^cge 142, 13 ; dp. 146, 4 ; 148, 

12. 
ecnes, f ., eternity : ns. 59, 12 ; 60, 

8 ; as. -nysse 74, 7 ; as. -nesse 

114, 18. 
ed-geong (-giong), adj., becoming 

{or being) young again : ns. 178, 

3 ; 180, 10 ; 183, 22 ; -giong 185, 

9. 
cd-lean, n., reward: gs. -leanes 



56, 14 ; 94, 10 ; ds. -leane 94, 2 ; 

as. -lean 58, 3. 
ed-niwe (-neowe), adj., renewed, 

restored : ns. 174, 4 ; 167, 26. 
ed-niwinga, adv., anew : 183, 20. 
edor (eodor), m., enclosure, dwell- 
ing : np. ederas 162, 24. 
ed-w^nden, 1, overturning, 

change : ns. 166, 19. 
efen-ehS" (-neli"5), f., neighboring 

plain : ds. -elitSe 21, 26. [neah.] 
efen-hleoffor, n., equal, united 

harmony : is. -hleo-Sre, 186, 23. 
efes, f., eaves, border, side (of a 

forest) : ds. efes (for efese ?) 

18, 21. 
efne (cf. emne), adv., even, only, 

just: 8, 17 ; 65, 9; behold: 78, 

15; 91, 12; 129,2. 
efn-ece, adv., co-eternally : 69, 25. 
efstan (W. I.), hasten (intr.) : 

inf. 68, 17 ; 95, 25 ; ptc. efstende 

128, 9 ; imp. 2 pi. efsta^ 122, 9 ; 

pret. 3 sg. efste 143, 12 ; 3 pi. 

-on 156, 1. [*of-est.] 
eft, adv., again, back, afterwards : 

1,1; 6, 5; 6, 13; 7, 19; 7, 24; 17, 

24 ; 20, 5 ; eft ongean (see on- 

gean) . 
^ge, m., fear, terror : ns. 30, 20 ; 

78, 17 ; ds. 4, 10 ; 35, 7 ; as. 117, 

18. [Goth, agis.] 
^gesa, m., terror, fear ; ns. 143, 6 ; 

ds. ^gesan 181, 6. 
^geslic, adj., terrible, horrible : ns. 

6, 9 ; 183, 8. 
^geslice, adv., horribly : 131, 23. 
ehtan (W.I.) , pursue, persecute (w. 

gen.): 3 sg. eht 60, 18. [oht.] 
ehtere, m.., jjersecutor : ns. 75, 3. 
ehtnis, f ., persecution : ns. -nys 2, 

19 ; as. -nysse 95^ 11. 



2/4 



GLOSSARY, 



^Icor (selcor), adv., otherwise : 65, 

18. 
^Idan (ieldan, yldan) (W. I.), de- 
lay, hesitate: pret. 3 sg. ^Ide 62, 

2. [eald.] 
ele, m., oil : ds. 75, 4 ; as. 130, 21. 

[Lat. oleum.] ' 

^l-fr^med (sel-) (pp.), adj., sepa- 

rated, released, extraneous : ns. 

selfr^med 85, 9 ; ap. selfr^mede 

95, 8. 
^Uen, n., strength, courage, forti- 
tude, zeal : ns. 142, 3 ; ds. mid 

^Ine 164, 3 ; on ^Ine 181, 29 ; as. 

on ^llen, boldly, 156, 6. [Goth. 

aljan.] 
^llen-wodnis, f ., zeal, fervor : gs. 

-nisse 11, 25. 
^lles, adv., else: hwset . . . ^lles, 

what else, 36, 6 ; 56, 13 ; 70, 22 ; 

nan ISing ^lles, nothing else, 85, 

14. 
^In, f., ell (measure) : gp. ^Ina 39, 

24 ; 40, 15. 
^l->eodlg (sel-), adj., of another 

nation, foreign, strange : as. 

^l>eodigne 122, 7. 
^l->eodisc (sel-), adj., foreign, 

strange: ns. selt-eodisc 113, 9. 
enibe, see ymbe. 
emb-gangan (R.),comj[)«ss (trans.) : 

opt. 3 sg. -gauge 125, 28. 
emne (emu, cf. efne), adv., 

equally : 59, 12 ; emu 50, 23. 
emn-lang (efn-lang), adj., equally 

long : on emnlange prep. (w. 

dat.), along, 40, 20. 
^nde, m., end : ns. 34, 23 ; 50, 22 ; 

67, 1 ; ds. 49, 17 ; 60, 4 ; as. 20, 

12; 59, 18; is. 11, 26. 
^nde-byrdlice, adv., in an orderly 

manner : 49, 26. 



^nde-byrdnes, f., order: ns. 9, 
23 ; ds. -nesse 49, 5 ; as. 9, 6 ; 
34, 11 ; 48, 6 ; -nisse 111, 19. 

endemes (endemest),adv., equally, 
in like manner: 82, 6. 

^ndian (W. II.), end, bring to an 
end : opt. 3 sg. ^ndige 168, 2. 

^ndlyfta (S. 328), num., eleventh . 
is. -lyftan m, 6. 

^nge, adj., narrow, oppressive, 
cruel: ns. ^uga, 167, 1. 

^ngel, m., angel: ds. ^ngle 144, 
20 ; as. ^ngel 115, 14 ; np. ^nglas 
60, 3 ; gp. ^ngla 89, 11 ; ap. 49, 
20. [Lat. angelus.] 

^ngla-feld, m., Englejield (Berk- 
shire) : ds. -felda 16, 3. 

Igngla-land, n., country of the An- 
gles, England : ds. -lande 89, 1. 

;^ngllsc, adj., English: gs. |^ng- 
liscre 86, 1 ; as. :pnglisc 26, 18 ; 
28, 21 ; 81, 23 ; 107, 4 ; gp. |:ng- 
liscra 24, 29. 

:^nglisc-ge-reord, n., English lan- 
guage : ds. -reorde 8, 7. 

euo, see ono. 

^nt, m., giant : gp. ^nta 163, 3. 

code, eodon, see gan. 

eodorcan (cf. ed-rocian, ed-recan, 
roccettan), ruminate : ptc. eodor- 
cende 11, 4. [Ger. rauspern.] 

Eofer-wic (Efer-), n., York : as. 
Eferwic 101, 9. [cf. Ger.Eber.] 

Eofer-wic-ceaster, f., York: ds. 
-ceastre 65, 29. 

eoh, m. n., horse : as. 155, 14. 
[Goth, aihv^a.] 

eom, see beon. 

eorcnan-stan (eorclan-), m., pre^ 
cious stone : dp. 186, 5. [Goth, 
-airkns.] 

eored (eorod), n., company ^ troop, 



GLOSS AET. 



27S 



host : ap. eoredu 135, 23 ; 135, 

26. [*eoh-rad.] 
eored-ciest (-cyst), f., company, 

troop, host : dp. 176, 13 ; -cystiim 

146, 21. 
eorl, m., earl, 1. A Danish title 

corresponding to the native 

ealdorman : ns. 16, 17 ; np. 

eorlas 16, 14 ; 147, 8 ; gp. eorla 

16, 17. — 2. Applied to an ealdor- 
man : ns. 149, 6 ; do. eorle 150, 

7. — 3. tvarrior: np. 148, 17; 

gp. 146, 1. 
eornoste, adv., earnestly, fiercely : 

158, 14. 
eornostlice, adv., earnestly, in- 
deed: 91, 23; 93, 3. 
eor9'-baeud, m., earth-dvjeUer : 

np. eorSbugigende 91, 20. 
eoi-afe, f., earth .■ ns. 3, 14 ; 52, 12 ; 

gs. eorban 1, 10; 10, 1; ds. 50, 

21 ; as. 1, 9. 
eoraflic, adj., earthly, worldly : ns. 

-lica 35, 13 ; gs. -lican 35, 11 ; 

as. -lice 50, 20 ; dp. 34, 29. 
eorar-scrsef, n., earth-cave, grave: 

ds. -scrsefe 162, 31 ; -scrafe (S. 

240, n. 2) 69, 11. 
eorS'-'weg, m., earth- vmy : ds. on 

enrSwege, on earth, 171, 9. 
eow, eower, eowic, see S'a. 
eower (lower), poss. pron., your : 

gs. eoweres 82, 13 ; ds. eowrum 

116, 25 ; as. eowerne 80, 13 ; 

116, 17 ; eower 61, 11 ; np. 

eowre 15, 21 ; dp. iowrum 34, 1 ; 

eowrum 61, 12 ; eowerum 80, 5 ; 
_ ap. eowre 80, 14. 
Eow-land, n., bland (island in 

the Baltic Sea) : ns. 42, 11. 
^rce-bisceop, m., archbishop: ds. 

-bisceope 90, 2 ; 96, 3. 



^rce-had, m., archiepiscopal dig- 
nity : as. 96, 28. 

^riau (W. I.), ear, plough : inf. 40, 
17 ; pret. 3 sg. ^rede 40, 7. 

ermQ", see yrni3'. 

^sne, m., servant, man : ds. ^sne 
7, 6. [Goth, asneis.] 

^sal (eosol), m., ass : ap. ^solas 
143, 6. [Goth, asilus.] 

est, f ., favor, grace : as. 166, 25 ; 
179, 4. [Ger. Gmist.] 

est-fuU, adj., devout: ds. -fullum 
92, 26. 

Est-land, n., country of the Estas 
(on the eastern coast of the Bal- 
tic Sea) : ns. 42, 24. 

Est-m^re, m., Frische Ilaff : ns. 
42, 17 ; as. 42, 16. 

Estum, dp. m., the people of Est- 
land : 42, 15; 43, 1. 

^sul-cweorn, f., millstone: ns. 
34, 19. 

etan, St jeton eten (5) , eat : inf. 
113, 16 ; imp. 2 pi. eta« 121, 5 ; 
opt. 3 sg. ete 108, 8 ; pret. 3 sg. 
125, 24 ; 3 pi. 113, 6. 

^ttan (W. I.), graze : inf. 40, 
17. 

effel, m., landed property, home, 
native country, territory : ds. 
eSele 35, 15 ; 87, 18 ; 94, 9 ; as. 
e«el 26, 9 ; 150, 31 ; is. e«le 160, 
20. [cf. Mod. allodial.] 

effel-lQnd, n., native land: as. 
174, 25. 

e3'el-turf, f., native turf, country : 
ds. -tyrf 176, 9. 

Exan-ceaster (-caster), f., Ex- 
eter, gs. -ceastres 19, 20; c^s- 
tres 20, 16 ; as. -ceastei' 22, 9 ; 
-caster 19, 19. 

^1 (eaxl), f., shoulder: as. ^xle 



zje 



GLOSSARY. 



145, 5; dp. 138, 23; 138, 26, 
[cf. Mod. axle.] 



fsec, n., division, space, interval, 

portion of time : ns. 64, 10 ; ds. 

fece 8, 6 ; 64, 11 ; 71, 23 ; 138, 19 ; 

as. fsec 13, 4 ; 127, 13. [Ger. 

Each.] 
facen (facn), n., deceit, treachery, 

idckedness: gs. facnes 180, 25; 

is. facne 185, 23 ; ap. facn 77, 17. 
feecne, adj., guileful: as. 179, 16. 
faeder, m., /a«/ier .• gs. feeder 168, 

14 ; np. ffederas 91, 21 ; dp. 129, 2. 
faederlic, adj., fatherly^ paternal : 

ns. -lice 129, 15. 
fag (f ah), adj., colored, variegated: 

ns. 175, 10 ; fall 163, 14. [Goth. 

-faihs. ] 
faege, s^di]., fated, doomed to death : 

ns. 153, 6; np. f^ge 146, 12; 

147, 5 ; 152, 22 ; ap. f^gean 153, 

12. [Ger. feige.] 
faegen, adj.,/am, glad, rejoicing: 

ns. 162, 15; (w. gen.) 101, 30. 
fseger, adj., fair, beautiful, pleas- 
ant : ns. 68, 5; 168,4; 177, 19; 

gs. faegeres 88, 23 ; is. fsegre 11, 

25 ; np. feegra 59, 10. — Comp., 

ap. faegerran 176, 18. — SupL, 

dp. faegrestum 165, 8. 
faegere (faegre), adv., beautifully, 

well: 150, 1 ; fsegre 174, 20; 

175, 13. 
faegernes, t., fairness, beauty: gs. 

-nesse 72, 12 ; as. -nesse 72, 19 ; 

ap. -nissa 111, 7. 
faegnian(W. 11.), rejoice (w. gen.): 

ptc. fgegnigende 75, 20 ; pret, 3 

8g. faegnode 99, 31 ; 104, 6. 



fah (fag), adj., Jiostile : ns. 185, 
23. [gefa'foe.'] 

faehier, t.,feud: as. f^h«e 156, 20. 
[Ger. Fehde.] 

Falster, Falster (island in the 
Baltic Sea) : ns. 42, 7. 

fandian (W. II.), try, tempt, test, 
examine, seek to knoiv : inf. 38, 
8 ; 59, 4 ; imp. 2 pi. fandia'S (w. 
gen.) 77, 28. [findan.] 

fandung, f., temptation, test, 
usage: ds. -unge 111, 21. 

faer, n.,^ journey, expedition : ds. 
ffere 19, 10. 

faran, f5r foron faren (6), go,p)ro- 
ceed, travel, march : inf. 3, 29 ; 2 
sg. f merest 117, 13 ; 3 sg. fserS 33, 
15; 37, 6; 49, 13; 110, 2; 3 pi. 
fara-S 38, 13 ; 50, 15 ; imp. 2 pi. 
fara-S 78, 3 ; opt. 3 sg. fare 52, 
26; 2 pi. faren 116, 20; pret. 3 
sg. 17, 23 ; 18, 16 ; 38, 9 ; 3 pL 
18, 15 ; 19, 24 ; pp. gefaren 20, 
17. 

faerelt (fsereld), m. n., going, mo- 
tion, journey : gs. fsereltes 50, 
11 ; fgereldes 93, 24 ; ds. farelte 
51, 9. 

faeringa, adv., suddenly : 129, 5 ; 
183, 17. [fffir ' fear.'] 

fserlTc, adj., sudden : ns. fgerlica 
91, 24 ; ds. -Ileum 91, 13. 

fgerlice, adv., suddenly : 77, 1 ; 79, 
9; 129,9. 

faer-sceat, m., passage- money, 
fare : as. 116, 17. [cf. Mod. 
scot-free.] 

feer-sceaafa, m., sudden ox danger- 
ous enemy : ds. -scea'San 153, 29. 

farii, f., journey : ds. fare 93, 23 ; 
140, 25. 

faest, adj., fast, firm, secure : ns. 



GLOSSARY. 



2;/ 



48, 19 ; 50, 17; as. fsestne 145, 7 ; 
np, fseste 51, 1 ; 51, 10. 

fseste, adv., fast,Jirmhj, securely : 
lU, 7 ; 36, 1 ; 149, 21 ; 152, 20. 

faesten, n. : 1. fort, fortress, fast- 
ness .- ds. fsestenne 18, 5 ; 21, 3 ; 
as. faesten 155, 19. — 2. fast (ab- 
stinence from food): ds. fsestene 
81, 18; as. 81, 17; 83, 30; dp. 
95, 6. 

faest-hafol, adj., retentive : ds. 
-hafelum 87, 13. 

fasstlice, adv., firmly, securely, 
resolutely, bravely : 30, 12 ; 65, 
3; 151, 30; 157, 18. — Comp., 
fsestlicor 50, 12. 

fi^sstnian (W. II.), fasten, con- 
frm : inf. 150, 14. 

faestniing, f . , security, safety : ns. 
164, 4. 

faet, n., vessel: ap. fatu 74, 11. 
[Mod. vat.] 

f«tels, m. n., vessel .• ap, fgetels 44, 

faeSgTni, m. f., embrace, grasp : as. 
182, 2 ; 184, 13. 

faeS'ni-rim, n. {fatliom-number) , 
fathom measure : gs. -limes 166, 
8. 

feallan, feoll feollon feallen (E.), 
fall : inf. 98, 17 ; ptc. feallende 
93, 8 ; as. feallendne 72, 26 ; 3 
sg. fyl^ (of the course of water) 
41, 18; fealle« 162, 10; 3 pi. 
feallalS 33, 8 ; pret. 3 sg. 1, 7 ; 
62, 11 ; 77, 3 ; 99, 6 ; 3 pi. 98, 
20 ; 146, 12. 

feallenlic (feallendlic), adj., un- 
stable : ns. 72, 9. 

fealo-hilte, ad]., falloio-hilted : ns. 
154, 22. 

ffcalu (fealo), adj., fallow, 2mle, 



yellow, clusliy, dark: ns. fealo 
172, 21; as. fealone 147, 13 ; np. 
fealwe 167, 23 ; 175, 29 ; ap. 16i, 
23. 

Fearn-hamm, m., Farnham 
(Surrey) : ds. -hamme 19, 4. 

feawe (fea ; feawa, due to asso- 
ciation with fela), adj., pi. tant., 
few : nom. 27, 10 ; feawa 18, 6 ; 
26, 17; {\^. gcu.) 26, 21 ; dat. 
feawum 38, 5 ; feaum 54, 11 ; 
ace. feawa 81, 31. 

f^ccau (f^cgan, f^tian) (W. III.), 
fetch : inf. 97, 1 ; ptc. f^ccende 
104, 28 ; imp. 2 pi. f^cca'S 77, 24 ; 
pret. 3 sg. f^tte 99, 8. 

fela (feola, feala, fsela), n. (in- 
decl. S. 106, n., 275 ; sometimes 
as adj. ; rarely inflected) ; much, 
many (w. gen.) : nom. 16, 20 ; 
17, 7 ; 85, 15 ; 151, 21 ; ace. 1, 
4 ; 21, 3 ; 32, 24 ; 39, 15 ; 81, 
28 ; 152, 7 ; 178, 17 ; feala 71, 

10 ; fsela 131, 20. [Ger. viel.] 
feld, m., field, ' battle-field : ns. 

146, 12 ; as. feld 18, 19 ; 103, 31 ; 
104, 3. 

felg (felge), UfelJy : ds. felge 50, 
18 ; 50, 22; np. felga 51,2 ; 51, 
9 ; 51, 18 ; felgea 51, 11 ; felgan 
50, 13 ; dp. 51, 1. [feolan.] 

fell, 10.., fell, sJcin, hide : as. fel 40, 
13 ; dp. 40, 9 ; ap. fell 40, 12. 

f^ng, m., grasp : as. 172, 18. 
[fon.] 

feoh (fioh, feo), n. : 1. cattle. — 2. 
goods, property, money, riches : 
ns. 79, 7 ; gs. feos 15, 13 ; 43, 
12 ; ds. feo 20, 1 ; 43, 19 ; as. 
feoh 15, 3 ; 20, 9 ; 21, 17 ; 43, 

11 ; 150, 18 ; fioh 55, 27. [Mod. 
fee.] 



2^^ 



GLOSSABY. 



feoh-gifre, adj., greedy of posses- 
sions, avaricious : ns. 102, l-j. 

feoh-leas, adj., without money : 
lip, -lease 23, 12. 

feohtau, fealit fuliton foliten (o), 
fight: inf. 149, 16; 157, 25; 
ptc. feohtende 14, 18 ; 15, 6; 2 
sg. fihtest 122, 11 ; pret, 3 sg. 

14, 8 ; 157, 18 ; 158, 10. 
feohte, I, fight, battle : ns. 152, 20. 
feolan, fealli fulgon (f^lon) folen 

(3), reach, penetrate : pret. 3 pi. 

15, 24. [Goth, fillian.] 
feol-heard, adj., hard as a file : 

ap. -liearde 152, 25. 
feond, Tn., fiend, enemy : as. feond 

79, 28 ; gp. feonda 62, 13 ; 98, 

14 ; dp. feondum 152, 20 ; ap. 

fynd 98, 24 ; 151, 30. 
feorh (fiorh), m. n., life : gs. feores 

157, 24 ; 159, 20 ; ds. feore 155, 
19 ; 157, 23 ; fiore 55, 27 ; as. 
feorh 15, 3 ; 147, 13 ; 153, 12 ; 
171, 23. 

feorh-geong, adj., yoking in life, 

youthful : ns. 180, 8. 
feorh-hord, n., life-hoard, spirit : 

ns. 172, 24. 
feorh-has, n., life-house, body : as. 

158, 30. 

feorm (fiorm), f., 1. food, provis- 
ion, goods. — 2. use, benefit : 
as. fiorme 27, 16. [Mod. farm.] 

feormian (W. II.), consume: 3 
sg. feorma^' 172, 21. 

feorr (feor), adv., far: feor 13, 
1 ; 38, 12 ; 65, 29 ; feorr 149, 3. 
— SupL, firrest 38, 13; fyrrest 
51, 11. 

feorr, adj., far, far from (w. dat.) : 
ns. 160, 21 ; feor )3am, far from 
that (metaph.) , 109, 9. 



feorran (fiorran), adv.,/rom afar : 
170, 14 ; fiorran 48, 1. 

feora'a, num. d^di]., fourth : ns. 30, 
16 ; 143, 9 ; ds. feorSan 92, 25 ; 
as. feoroan 81, 10 ; — gs. bynnan 
feor ban liealfes dseges fsece, 
within three and a half days, 
138, 19. 

feower, num., four : 22, 21 ; 30, 
14 ; 35, 28 ; 36, 8 ; 101, 6. 

feower-tig, num., forty : 85, 12 ; 
94, 12; 121, 13; 141, 15; gen. 
-tiges (S. 326) 39, 25. 

feoTver-tyne (-tiene), num.,/owr- 
teen : dat. -tynum 11, 28. 

feran (W. I.), go, travel: pret, 
3 sg. ferde 65, 21 ; 83, 27 ; 94, 
12; 3 pi. ferdon77, 15; 121, 11. 

ferhS" (f er 5) , m. n., mind, spirit, 
heart : ns. fer'S 162, 1 ; ds. ferh«e 
182, 19 ; ferSe 163, 6 ; as. fer^S 
179, 16. 

f^rian (W. I. 11.) , carry, trans- 
port: mf, 19, 2; 19, 14; (go?) 
155, 4; ptc. f^rigende 79, 11; 
pret. 3 sg. f^rode 102, 7 ; f^rede 
162, 28 ; 3 pi. f^redon 106, 1 ; 
pp. gef^rod 138, 14. 

fers, n, m., verse: ds, ferse 109, 
22 ; ap. fers 9, 22. [Lat. ver- 
sus.] 

fersc, adj., fresh : np. fersce 41, 4. 

feriaf-loca (ferh'S-), m, {inclosure 
of the spirit), spirit, heart, 
mind: ns. 161, 10; as. -locan 
160, 13. 

fetor (feotor), i., fetter : dp. fet- 
erum 160, 21. 

felcTa, m., hand of foot-soldiers, 
troop : ap. fe^an 152, 5. [fin- 
dan ?] 

feffer, f., feather ■ np. feSre 169, 



GLOSSARY. 



279 



27 ; gp. feSra 40, 13 ; dp. feS- 

erum 40, 9; fe'Srum {icing?) 

168, 5; 168, 19. 
fesafer-hQina, m., featlicr-garh, 

plumage : ns. 174, 26. 
fic-treow, n., Jig-tree: as. 121, 5. 

[Lat. ficus.] 
fierd (fird, fyrd), f., 1. (military) 

expedition : ds. fyrde 156, 16. — 

2. {the national) army : ns. 19, 

3 ; fird 21, 20 ; 22, 5 ; ds. fierde 

18, 24 ; 19, 21 ; as. fierd 16, 5 ; 

18, 16. [faran.] 
fierdian (fyrdian) (W. II.), he on 

a military expedition : pret. 3 pi. 

fierdedon 19, 10. 
fierd-leas, adj., unprotected by the 

army : 18, 22. 
fif, num., five: 39, 3; 40, 12; 

131, 4 ; nom. fife 147, 5 ; dat. 

fifum 24, 18. 
fifta, num. adj., fifth : ns. 87, 1. 
tiftig, liuva., fifty : gen. fiftiges (S. 

326) 39, 26 ;' dat. fiftegum 29, 7. 
fif-tyne (tene), num., fifteen : 40, 

12 ; -tene 42, 17. 
findan, f^nd fundon funden (3), 

fi.nd, come upon, supply : 3 sg. 

findei 44, 2; 144, 4; pret. 3 pi. 

152, 2 ; pp. 28, 6. 
b'^innas, pi. m., the Finns : np. 38, 

6 ; 39, 10 ; dp. 40, 3. 
tint I. m., tail: ns. 175, 13. 
Hras, pi. m., men: gp. fira 178, 

2&y 183, 21 ; fyra 182, 7 ; dp. 

firuDi 10, 5 ; 165, 3. 
lirgen-streain, m., mountain- 
stream, woodland-stream : as. 

168, 19. [Goth, fairguni.] 
fisi'aa", see fiscnaar. 
liscere, m., fisher: np. fisceras 

39, 14 ; dp. 39, 9. 



fiscnaS" (fiscno'5, fisca'5), m., 

fishing : ns. 42, 26 ; ds. fiscaoe 

38, 6. 
fiiSeru, pi. n., loings : np. fiSru 

175, 15 ; gp. fiSra 55, 7 ; ap. fi-Sru 

187, 23. 
fla, flail (S. 278, n.), f. m., arrow : 

gs. flanes 151, 19; as. (or ap.) 

flan 77, 14; 158,2. 
flgesc, n., flesh : ns. 70, 22 ; gs^. 

flSsces 79, 24 ; ds. fl^sce 103, 2 ; 

as. flffisc 172, 24 ; is. flgesce 174, 

5. 
flfcesc-hQina, m., {covering of 

flesh) body : ns. 69, 16. 
fltesclic, adj., fleshly, corporeal, 

carnal : ns. 115, 16 ; ds. -Here 71, 

20 ; dp. 74, 18. 
fleam, m., flight : gs. fleames 91, 1 ; 

ds. fleame 21, 13 ; 147, 14 ; 155, 

11 ; as. fleam 151, 29 ; 157, 18. 
fleogan, fleag flugon flogen (2), 

fly (intr., of. fleon) : inf. 149, 7 ; 

152, 26 ; 3 sg. fleogeS 176, 10. 
fleon (flion), fleah flugon flogen 

(2), flee, escape (trans, and 

intr.): inf. 30, 3; 34, 15; 91, 

23 ; 157, 11 ; flion 60, 19 ; fleo- 

gan (S. 384 n. 2) 158, 8; ger. 

flionne 7, 17 ; ptc. ds. fleondum 

72, 26 ; 3 sg. flyhb 72, 25 ; 181, 

5 ; 3 pi. fleoS 116, 12 ; imp. 2 pi. 

fleoS 61, 14 ; pret. 3 pi. 19, 5 ; 

104, 22 ; 124, 2 ; 155, 19. 
fleotan, fleat fluton floten (2), 

float : ptc. gp. fleotendra 162, 1. 
fl^tt, n., floor of the hall; as. fl^t 

162, 8. 
flocc, m.., flocl', company, troop: 

dp. 18, 22. 
floc-rad, f., a riding company, 

troop: dp. 18, 21. 



28o 



GLOSSARY. 



flod, m. f. n., flood, wave, tide, 

str-eam : ns. 25, 1 ; 151, 13 ; 151, 

20 ; as. flod 147, 13. 
flodan, see Pryfet. 
flod-wylm (wielm), m. f., loelling 

flood : dp. 167, 13. [weallan.] 
flot, n., deep loater, sea : as. on 

flot (>Mod. afloat) 147, 12; 

150, 20. 
flota, m., sailor, seaman, pirate : 

as. flotan 156, 22 ; np. flotan 151, 

20 ; gp. flotena 147, 9. 
flowan, fleowfleowonflowen (R.), 

flow : ptc. fldwende 151, 13 ; as. 

fl5wendan 87, 14 ; 3 sg. flowS 

119, 16 ; pret. 3 sg. 123, 8. 
flyht, m., flight, escape : ds. flylite 

133, 5 ; as. flyht 151, 19 ; is. 169, 

13; 176,28. 
flyht-hwset, adj., bold or swift of 

flight : gs. -hwates 176, 23 ; ap. 

-hwate 170, 6. 
flyma, m., fugitive: gp. flymena 

136, 20. [fleam.] 
fnSst, m., blowing, breath : ns. 

165, 15. 
foddor (fodor), n^food: as. 174, 

6. 
fodor- l>egu, t, partoZjin^ of 

food, repast : gs. -}?ege, 173, 21. 

[bicgan.] 
folc, n.., folk, people, nation, army : 

ns. 89, 3 ; 150, 24 ; gs. folces 11, 

10 ; 19, 22 ; 22, 20 ; is. folce 66, 

5. 
folc-ge-feoht, n., general engage- 
ment, pitched battle : np. 17, 

16. 
folcisc, adj., vulgar, popular : np. 

-isce 6, 15. 
folc-st^de, m., place of assembly ; 

battle-field: ds. -st^de 147, 18. 



fold-agend, m., {earth-possessor) 
earth-dweller : gp. -agendra 165, 
5. 

folde, f., ea7'th, land, country : ns. 
166, 8 ; gs. foldan 161, 10 ; as. 

10, 5 ; 151, 2 ; is. 182, 5. [feld.] 
fold-wsestm, m., fruit of the 

earth : dp. 187, 25. 

fold-weg, m., way, path {on the 
earth)', ds. (is.) -wege 143, 13. 

folglan (fylgean) (W. II. III.; S. 
416, n. 5), follow, serve, observe, 
obey (w. dat.): inf. 15, 17; ptc. 
fylgende 114, 1 ; fyliende 127, 24 ; 
1 pi- fylgea^ 72, 26 ; imp. 2 pi. 
folgiaS 61, 15 ; opt. 1 pi. fylgen 
64, 14 ; fylgeon 69, 19 ; pret. 3 sg. 
filgde 6, 26 ; folgode 74, 16 ; 2 pi. 
fyligdon 77, 20 ; 3 pi. folgodon 
75, 27 ; 108, 23 ; filigdon 77, 8. 

folgoS', m., service, official dignity, 
office : as. 30, 14. [folgian.] 

folme (folm), f., hand : ds. folman 
149, 21 ; 152, 25 ; 154, 6 ; dp. 144, 
16. [f elan 'feel.'] 

fon, feng fengon f^ngen (R.), seize, 
grasp, capture, take, receive : 3 
pi. foS 40, 3 ; pret. 1 sg. to rice 
feng, came to the throne, 27, 1 ; 
3 sg. 17, 11 ; 102, 28 ; to ^gere 
sprjece feng 63, 30 ; t5 w^pnum 
feng 149, 10 ; 3 pi. fengon 
togpedere^ engaged in battle, 102, 
19; 141,21. 

for, prep. (w. dat. , instr. ; and ace.) : 
1. (w. dat., instr.) before 
(place) : 27, 7; 68, 21 ; lt)2, 

11. — 2. (w. dat., instr.) for, on 
account of, because^ of, owing to 
(cause, condition, remedy) : 8, 
8; 14, 2; 28, 2 ; 39, 5 ; 55, 19 ; 131, 
3; 151, 12; 181, 6; — for^^m 



GLOSSARY. 



281 



("Sam), conj., /or, because, since, 
1, 9; 3, 17 ; 6, 13; 7, 6; 7, 20; 

19, 13 ; for fJon 8, 2 ; 8, 13 ; for 
"San 33, 14 ; for '5Sin (5am) '5e 

20, 5 ; 27, 16 ; for «y \>e 22, 1 ; 
33,11; for «on >e 31, 10; 31, 
16; 31, 28; for «an \>e 74, 17; 
— for "Sy /or this, therefore, 24, 
18; 25, 2; 29, 11; for tii 79, 27 ; 
91, 18 ; for big 141, 23 ; for -Son 
27, 3 ; 32, 2 ; 33, 3 ; — for hw^m, 
wherefore, 48, 7 ; for hwig 136, 
21 ; for hwon 12, 8 ; 31, 17 ; 71, 
16. — 3. (w. ace.) for, instead of : 
145, 9. 

for, adv. (intensive), very : 23, 15, 
70, 12 ; 88, 19 ; 95, 13 ; 95, 24 ; 
157, 3 ; feor 163, 6. 

for hwam, 3, 18, note. 

for, f., journey : ds. fore 142, 
16. [faran.] 

foran, adv., before, in front: 19, 
4; 21, 24; 24, 12;' 175, 10; 
foran to, 109, 5 ; t5 foran 133, 
25. 

for-b«rnan (S. 89, n. 2) (W. I.), 
cause to burn ; burn (trans.) : 
inf. 65, 27 ; 104, 27 ; 142, 14 ; 3 
sg. -baerneS 43, 28 ; -S pi. -boerna'5 

43, 9 ; opt. 1 pi. -bserne (S. 361) 
65, 1 ; pret. 3 pi. -beerndon 20, 
3 ; 21, 25 ; pp. -bserned 27, 13 ; 

44, 2. 

for-beodaTi (2), forbid: inf. 7, 

12 ; pp. as. forbodene 179, 5. 
for-beornan (3), burn (intr.) : 

pp. -burnen 104, 23. 
for-beran (4), suffer, permit: 3 

sg. -bire« 32, 23. * 
for-berstan (3), burst asunder; 

vanish, fail : 3 sg. -birste'5 184, 

25. 



for-bflgan (2), avoid, escape : pret. 
3 sg. -beah 159, 28. 

ford, m.,ford: ds. forda (S. 273) 
19, 6 ; 151, 29 ; as. ford 152, 5. 

for-don (S. 429), destroy : pret. 3 
sg. -dyde 66, 2. 

fore, prep. (w. SiCc), before (place) : 
182,29; 186,2. 

for-ealdian (W. II.), become old : 
pp. forealdod 52, 15. 

fore-beaceii (-beacn), n., fore- 
toA-en: dp. 138, 15. 

fore-gangan (R.), precede: opt. 3 
sg. -gange 64, 12. 

fore-genga, m., predecessor, an- 
cestor : np. -gengan 180, 12. 

fore-gisel, m,, preliminary hostage: 
gp. -gisla 18, 13. [Ger. Geisel.j 

fore-mihtig, adj., prepotent: ns. 
170, 20. 

f or e-sceiiwung,i.,fo7'e-sight, prov- 
idence : ns. 48, 13 ; as. -sceawunga 
35, 10. 

fore-s^cgan (W. III.), 1. say be- 
forehand : pret. 1 pi. -ssedon 103, 
2 ; 104, 4 ; pp. sg. -ssede, afore- 
said, 86, 11 ; pi. -saedan 77, 11. 
— 2. foretell, ptredict : pret. 1 
sg. -s^de 129, 16 ; 134, 8. 

fore-sprsec, f., defence : ns. 46, 20. 

fore-sprecan C5) speak or mention 
beforehand: pp. sg. -sprecena 
22, 17; -sprecenan 65, 5. 

fore-staeppan (-st^ppan), -stop 
-stopon -stapen (6), precede (w. 
dat.): 3 sg. -st?ep5 91, 14; 3 pi. 
-stseppaS 91, 23. 

fore-tiohhung, f,, predestination: 
ns. 49, 19 ; 49, 24; 52, 20. 

fore-]?ingian (W. II.), pieced for 
one; defend: 3 sg. -binga'S 46, 
21 ; opt. 3 sg. -bingie 46, 18. 



282 



GLOSSARY. 



fore->Qnc, m., forethought, fore- 
knowledge : ns. 48, 13 ; 48, 18 ; 
49, 4 ; ds. ->Qiice 49, 8. 

fore-witan (PP.)> foreknow : 3 sg. 
-wat 49, 1. 

fore-witegian ( W. 11.) , proj)hesy : 
pret. 1 sg. -witegode 129, 17 ; 
134, 2. 

for-faran (6), get in front of, ob- 
struct : pret. 3 pi. -foron 24, 12. 

forgiefan (-gifan, -gyfan) (5), 
give, grant ; forgive : ger. -gief- 
anne 37, 15 ; pret. 3 sg. -geaf 66, 
11 ; 153, 26 ; 2 pi. -geaf on 78, 14 ; 
pp. -gifen 10, 18 ; pi. -gifene 57, 
1 ; -gyfene 2, 9. 

for-gifennis (-gyfennis), f., for- 
giveness : ns. -gyfennys 78, 23 ; 
as. -nisse 110, 2 ; -gifenysse 139, 
21. 

fore-gQngan (R.)> iio before, pre- 
cede : opt. 3 sg. -gange 64, 12. 

for-grindan, -gr^nd -grundon 
-grunden (3), grind to pieces, 
destroy, consume : pp. 147, 20 ; 
172, 30. 

for-gripan (1), seize, snatch 
away : 3 sg. -gripe's 182, 22. 

for-gyldan (-gieldan) (3), re- 
pay, requite, buy off: inf. 181, 
18 ; 3 sg. -gilt 61, 18 ; 1 pi. 
-gyldatS 122, 27 ; opt. 2 pi. 
-gyldon 150, 11. 

for-gytan (-gietan, -gitan)(5) , for- 
get : pret. 3 sg. -geat 60, 16. 

for-gytol, ad]., forgetful: ns. 87, 13. 

for-haefednis, f., restraint, absti- 
nence : as. -nysse 88, 9 ; 100, 10. 

for-heard, adj., very hard: as. 
-heardne 154, 12. 

for-heawan (R.), hew, cut down: 
pp. -heawen 153, 2 ; 156, 18. 



for-helan (4), conceal: inf. 141, 

18. 

for-h^rgian (W. II.), harry, dev- 
astate, lay waste : pp. -h^rgod 
27, la. 

for-hogdnis, f., contempt: ds. 
-nisse 8, 9. 

for-hogiaii (cf. for-hycgan) (W. 
II.), despise : ptc. -hogigende 95, 
8 ; 3 sg. -hoga^ 67, 13 ; 3 pi. 
-liogia'S 78, 12 ; opt. 3 sg. -hogige 
76, 13 ; pret. 3 sg. -hogode 157, 
18. 

for-hradian (W. II.), hasten be- 
fore, anticipate, prevent : inf. 91, 
27 ; 3 sg. -hrada^ 91, 15. 

forht, adj., afraid: ns. 62, 10; 
162, 15 ; np. forhte 4, 9. 

forhtian (W.II.), fear, be afraid 
(intr.): ptc. ap. forhtgendan 67, 
12 ; 3 pi. forhtiga'S 125, 18 ; opt. 
3 sg. forhtige 83, 1 ; pret. opt. 3 
pi. forhtedon 149, 21. 

forhtung, f., fear : ds. -unge 83, 
14 ; 92, 5. 

for-hwsega (-hwega), adv., at 
least, about : 43, 13 ; 43, 18. 

for-hycgan (S. 416, n. 3 ; cf. for- 
hogian) (W. 111.), despise: 1 sg. 
-hycge 184, 9. 

for-l£etan, -let -leton -iseten (R.), 
leave, leave off, omit, abandon, 
neglect, lose: inf. 7, 1; 7, 10 ; 
7, 23; 70, 10; 93, 16; ptc. 
l^tende 3, 29 ; 13, 8 ; 3 sg. -ISt 
57, 11 ; opt. 3 sg. -Isete 30, 18 ; 
56, 23 ; 3 pi. l^ten 54, 27 ; pret. 
3 sg. 7, 22 ; 9, 10 ; 66, 18 ; 74, 
16; 147, 19; 3 pi. 23, 1; 28,3; 
95, 26 ; pp. 27, 23. 

for-l^tnes, f., remission: gs. (or 
gp.) -nessa 69, 28. 



GLOSSARY. 



283 



t*or-Ieosan, -leas -liiron -loren (2), 
lose, abandon, destroy : 3 sg. -lyst 
7, 24 ; opt. 3 sg. -leose 31, 6 ; 1 
pi. -leosen 64, 28 ; pret. 2 sg, 
-lure 79, 25 ; 3 sg. 60, 18 ; 2 pi. 
78, 4 ; 80, 7 ; 3 pi. 79, 31. 

forma, fyrmest (S. 314), supl. 
a.dj.,Jirst : 37, 13 ; forme 74, 13 ; 
as. forman 151, 25 ; — fyrmest : 
ns. 32, 6 ; 159, 26 ; firmest 109, 10. 

for-niman (4) , take off, destroy : 
pret. 3 sg. -n5m 162, 27 ; 174, 
14 ; 3 pi. -uomon 163, 15. 

for-ridan (1), intercept by riding 
before (trans.) : inf. 21, 24 ; 
pret. 3 sg. -rad 19, 3. 

for-rotian (W. II.), rot away, de- 
cay : opt. 3 sg. -rotige 101, 1 ; 
pp. -rotad 36, 3. 

for-sacaii (6), opjjose, refuse : pret. 
3 pi. -socon 103, 18. [Mod. for- 
sake.] 

for-scrincan, -scrgnc -scruncon 
-scruncen (3), shrink, wither 
(intr.): pret. 3 sg. 1, 11. 

for-scyldigian (W. 11.), condemn : 
pp. -scyldigod 79, 10. 

for-seariaa ( W. II.), sear, dry up. 
unther : pp. -searod 52, 16. 

for-seon (5), overlook, despise, 
reject: 3 sg. -syli'S 67, 14 ; -sill's 
110, 4; 3pl. -seo>51, 15. 

for-sewennis, f., contempt : ds. 
-nysse 76, 5. [seon.] 

for-sittan (5), delay : pret. 3 sg. 
forsaet (w. inst.) 142, 15. 

for-sp^ndan (W. \.), spend utterly, 
squander : 3 pi. -spenda'S 43, 29. 

for-spyllan (-spillan) (W. I.), 
spill, vMste, lose, destroy : pp. 
-spylled 136, 25. 

f«r-spyllediiis, 1, spilling, waste^ 



destruction, perdition : gs. -nysse 
136, 18. 

forst, m., frost.- ns. 167, 7 ; 173, 
21 ; gs. forstes 165, 15. 

for-standan (6), understand: 
pret. 1 sg. -stod 29, 4. 

for-stelan (A), steal away (trans.): 
pret. 3 pi. -stgelon 141, 20. 

for-suwian (-sugian -swugian 
-swigian ; S. 416, n. 5 ; 214, 6) 
(W. III.), keep silent (trans.) : 
inf. 141, 22. 

for-sw£elan (-swelan) (W. I.), 
burn, scorch (trans, and intr.) : 
3 sg. -swele'S 183, 18 ; pret. 3 sg. 
-swSlde 1, 11. [swol ; Ger. 
schwiil] 

for-swelgan (3), swallow up: 
pret. 3 sg. -swealh 126, 23. 

fo:?-teogean (W. II.) ordain : pp. 
pi. -teode m, 22. 

for-tredan, -treed -trgedon -treden 
(5), tread down : pret. 2 pi. 33, 
28. 

forS", adv., forth, forioards, on- 
wards, away .-3, 16 ; 7, 14 ; 8, 
8 ; 19, 22 ; 39, 5 ; henceforth, 
62, 19 ; fort5 mid ealle, forth- 
with, 80, 19 ; and swa forS, 
and so on, 81, 27. 

for9'-feran (W. I.), depart, die: 
pret. 3 sg. -ferde 25, 10 ; 3 pi. 
-ferdon 23, 19. 

forS'-for, f ., departure, death : ns. 
12, 9; gs. -f5re 11, 27 ; 13, 14; 
ds. -fore 12, 4 ; 12, 15. 

foraC-georn, adj. , eager to advance : 
ns. 158, 14. 

forff-g^nge, adj., progress iw, suc- 
cessful: ns. 93, 19. 

for->olian (W. II.), go without. 



284 



GLOSSARY, 



miss, lack (w. dat.) : inf. 161, 

15. 
for-ffrysmian (W. II.), choke suf- 
focate : pret. 3 pi. forSrysmodon 

1, 13. [>rosm, ' smoke, vapor.'] 
forS'-sT9', m., departure, death : ds. 

-si«e 87, 20. 
forS'-weard, adj., enduring : as. 

-weardne 184, 26. 
for9'-weg, m., a way forth, death : 

ds. for^wege, 162, 28. 
for-}>ylinan (W. 1.), envelop, suffo- 
cate: cowsinne.- pret. 3 sg. -t>ylmde 

175, 2. 
for-weard, ?.&]., forward, fore : ns. 

175, 9 ; ds. -weardum 33, 14. 
for-wegan (5) , overcome, kill : 

pp. forwegeii 156, 23. 
for-Tveornian (W. II.), wither 

(intr.) : opt. 2 pi. -weornion 78, 6. 
for-weorafan (-wurSan) (3), come 

to grief perish : 1 pi. -wur>a5 

4, 6 ; opt. 1 pi. -weor>on 126, 9 ; 

pret. 3 sg. -wearS 25, 9. 
for-Avlernan (-wirnan, -wyrnan) 

{W .1.^, ptrohihit, prevent, refuse 

(w. geii.) : inf. 22, 24 ; opt. 3 sg. 

-wyrne 139, 9. 
for-wordenlic, adj., perishable : 

72, 8. [weorSan.] 
for-wundian (V^ .11.) , woimd sen- 

ouslij : pp. pi. -wundode 25, 7. 
for-wurSfan, see for-weorSPan. 
for-wyrcau (W. I.), barricade, 

obstruct: inf. 22, 26. 
for-wyrd, f. n., fate, destruction: 

ds.forwyrde68,19; 91,22; 137,2. 
for-wyrdan (W. I.), perish : 3 sg. 

-wyrS 124, 24. 
fot, m., foot: gs. f5tes 157, 11; 

dp. fotum 34, 1 ; 62, 11 ; ap. let 

112, 6. 



fot-mail, n., foot-print, space of a 

foot: as. 158, 8. 
fot-swaeS", n., foot-print: dp. 

-swatum 80, 18. 
fracod (fraco-S, fracu'S) adj., of bad \ 

repute, detestable, vile, ivicked: I 

dp. 105,8. [*fra-cii'5.] ^' 

fram, see frgni. • 
franca, m., spear : ds. francan 151, 

25 ; as. 153, 27. 
Francan, pi. m., the Franks : gp. 1 

Francena 94, 18. 
Franc-land, n., the country of the 

Franks : ds. -lande 104, 30. 
fraetwe, pi. f., ornaments, decora- 
tions, equipments : np. 167, 22 ; 

174, 3 ; gp. fraetwa 170, 11 ; dp. 

110, 26 ; 168, 14 ; ap. frsetwe 

172,3; 176, 18. [*fra-tawe.] 
fraetwian (W. II.), adorn: pret. 

3 sg. fraetwode 70, 28 ; pp. ge- 

fr^twad 169, 6 ; 173, 12 ; ge- 

frsetewod 88, 4; -ed 174, 20; 

185, 13 ; pi. gefraetewode 77, 12. 
frea (S. 277, n. 2),m. , lord: ns. 

10, 5 ; 143, 13 ; gs. frean 142, 

16 ; ds. frean 149, 12 ; 149, 16. 
frecednis, f., danger, harm: dp. 

-nyssum 85, 16. 
frecennes, f., danger, Tiarm : ds. 

-nesse 114, 16. 
frecne, adj., dangerous, perilous : 

as. frecnan 178, 20; 180, 25; 

ap. frecne 33, 27. [cf. Mod. 

freak.] 
frecnes (fr^cnes), f., danger, 

harm : np. frecnessa 67, 18 ; dp. 

frScnessum 68, 14. 
frefran (W. I.), comfort, console, 

cheer : inf. 161, 5. 
frefrend (ptc), m. , comforter: 

ns. 179. 23. 



GLOSSARY. 



285 



fr^mde (fr^m'Se), adj., stJ-ange, 
foreign, alien : np, fr^mdan 43, 
31 ; fr^mde 117, 12. [frQin ; 
Ger. fremd.] 

fr^mian (W. II., S. 400, n. 2), 
benefit, profit (w. dat.) : inf. 76, 
25 ; 3 sg. fr^ma'5 94, 5. [frgm 
'valiant' ; Ger. fromm.] 

fr^m-sumlice, adv., kindly : 30, 
1. 

fr^ni-sumnes, f., kindness, bene- 
fit : gp. -nessa 73, 2 ; dp. 11, 18 ; 
ap. -nesse 63, 22. 

freo, see frio. 

freod, f . , good-will^ peace : as. 
freode 150, 18. 

freolice, adv., /7'ee?i/ .• 94, 27. 

freo-mseg, m.,/ree kinsman: dp. 
160, 21. 

freond, m., friend: ns. 71, 21; 
as. freond 79, 27 ; dp. 43, 3 ; 63, 
6 ; ap. frynd 156, 24. 

freond-leas, adj., friendless : as. 
-leasne 161, 5. 

freondlice, adv., in friendly man- 
ner : 26, 2; 30, 1. 

freorig, adj., cold, chill: ns. 161, 
10. [freosan.] 

freoS'u, see friS". 

Fresisc, adj., Frisian : as. on 
Fresisc, in the Frisian manner, 
24, 6 ; gp. -iscra 24, 29. 

fretan (<for-etan), fr^t frgeton 
freten (5), devour, eat: pret. 3 
pi. 1,8; pp.21, 6. 

f rattan (W. I.), graze : pret. 3 pi. 
fr^tton 21, 25. 

fricgean (S. 391, 3) (5), ask, in- 
quire: inf. 143, 27. [Ger. fra- 
gen.] 

Friesa (Frisa, Frysa) (adj.), m., 
a Frisian : ns. g4, 27. ' 



I frignan (frinan ; S. 389, 4, n.), 
frsegn frugnon frugnen (3), ask, 
inquire : ptc. frignende 63, 12 ; 
3 pi. frina'5 37, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. 12, 

13 ; 12, 27. [Ger. fragen.] 
frimdi (frimdig), adj., desirous, 

petitioning: ns. 155, 4. [fric- 
gean.] 

frio (freo ; frioh freoh, S. 297, 2), 
free : ns. frioli 60, 27 ; freoh 85, 
8; 135,22; gp. friora 28, 17. 

fria*, m. n. (freolSru, f., S. 271), 
peace, security protection : gs. 
fri>es 150, 20 ; ds. fri«e 155, 4 ; 
as. friS 17, 21 ; 150, 18 ; freoSu 
185, 25. [Ger. Friede.] 

frod, adj., wise, prudent, skilful, 
experienced, old : ns. froda 147, 

14 ; frod 153, 27 ; 159, 20 ; 163, 

6 ; 170, 15 ; 172, 22 ; as. 168, 3. 
frofor (frofer), f., comfort, conso- 
lation : ns. frofer 130, 7 ; as. 
frofre 164, 4. 

frQin (fram), prep. (w. dat., 
instr.): 1. from (origin, de- 
parture, separation, release, dis- 
tance) : 8, 13 ; 10, 17 ; 24, 23 ; 
31, 11; 62, 17.— 2. by, on the 
part of (agency) .• 32, 29 ; 66, 7 ; 
98, 7; 135, 13. —Adv., from, 
away : 15, 15 ; 15, 19 ; 159, 20. 

frgmlice, adv., strenuously, 
X>romptly : 178, 1. 

fruma, m., beginning, creation; 
author, creator, chief: ns. 178, 

7 ; ds. fruman 11, 8 ; 50, 8 ; 72, 
11 ; as. 59, 17. [fr^m.] 

frum- sceaft, f., creation: as. 9, 21. 

frymS", f. m., beginning, origin, 
creation : ns. 187, 8 ; ds. frym'Se 
81, 23; 168, 3; 173, 12; gp. 
frym«a 171, 28. [fruma.] 



2S6 



GLOSSABT. 



fugelere, m.^foioler : np. fugeleras 

39, 14 ; dp. 39, 9. 
fugel-tiniber, n. (bird-structure), 

young-bird: ns. 173, 9. 
fugol (fugel), m..,biirl: ns. fugel 
168, 5; gs. fugles 169, 15; np. 
fugelas 1, 7 ; 3, 23 ; gp. fugela 

40, 9; fugla 170, 16. [Mod. 
fowl.] 

ful, adj., foul: Supl., ns. (voc.) 
fuluste 134, 27. 

ful-gan (S. 430), perform, carry 
out, fulfil (w. dat.) : 3 sg. -gseS 
52, 23 ; 79, 9. 

fnlian {W. 11.), decompose : 3 pi. 
fulia^ 44, 5. [ful.] 

full (ful), adj.,/?(ZZ (w. gen.) : ns. 
69, 8 ; 72, 13 ; 174, 13 ; ds. be 
fullan, adv., fully, perfectly, 27, 
28 ; as. fullne 3, 15 ; ap. full 44, 
7 ; ful 66, 19. 

full (ful), adv., fully, perfectly, 
very (intensive) : ful neah, very 
nearly, almost, 24, 3 ; 107, 19 ; 
154, 9 ; 157, 17 ; 160, 5. 

fuU-crsef tig, adj ., very efficient, vir- 
tuous{w. gen.): np.-cr8eftige55,2. 

full-fr^medlice (ful-), adv., per- 
fectly : ful- 88, 7. 

full-fr^mman (W. I.), do fully, 
fulfil, perfect: 3 sg. -frame's 7, 
22 ; opt. 3 sg. -fr^mme 7, 20 ; pp. 
-framed 48, 15 ; 76, 20. 

full-hallg, adj., very holy: np. 
-halige 55, 2. 

fullian (fulvvigan) (W. II.), bap- 
tize : pret. 3 sg. fullode 77, 5. 

fullice, adv., fully: 7, 20. ^ 

fulluht (fulwiht), m. f. n., bap- 
tism : ns. 78, 23 ; gs. fulwihte 
6ii, 6 ; ds. f ulluhte 82, 24. [full ; 
will, ' sacred.'] 



fultum, m., help : ds. fultume 19, 

23 ; 83, 32 ; fultome 66, 20 ; as. 

fultum 94, 1. [* full-team.] 
fultnmian (W. II.), help (w.dat.) ; 

inf. 63, 25. 
fulwiht-liad, m., baptismal rank, 

or vow : ap. -hadas 69, 5. 
ful-wyrcaii (W. I.), complete: 

pret. 3 sg. -worhte 101, 9. 
fundian (W. II.), strive after, in- 
tend, go : pret. 3 sg. fundode 104, 

17. [findan.] 
fur-lang, n., furlong: gp. -langa 

24, 23. [furh, ' furrow.'] 
furlfiTor (fur'Sur), adv., further: 

6, 14; 6,20; 28, 22; 157, 11. 
furS'um (fur'Son), adv., even, just, 

quite : 22, 29 ; 26, 18 ; 55, 4 ; 57, 

6 ; 59, 12 ; 60, 21 ; fur«on 77, 1 ; 

108, 7 ; 140, 13. 
fas, adj., ready, eager: ns. 143, 

9; 158, 14. [Mod. fuss.] 
fyll (fiell), m., fall, destruction, 

death : ds. fylle 98, 11 ; 102, 24 ; 

178, 1 ; as. fyl 151, 19 ; 157, 28. 

[feallan.] 
fylstan (W. I.), assist, help (w. 

dat.) : inf. 157, 29 ; pret. 3 sg. 

fylste 93, 18; 102, 17. [* full- 
last ; Isestan.] 
fyr, n., fire : ns. 52, 12 ; 64, 4 ; 

104, 26 ; gs. fyres 172, 18 ; ds. 

fyre 104, 22 ; 125, 29 ; 144, 16 ; 

as. fyr 104, 20 ; is. fyre 64, 28 ; 

183, 17. 
^-baBS", n., fire-bath: ds. -ba'Se 

180, 12. 
fyrd-rinc, m., loarrior : ns. 153, 

27. 
j fyren, adj., of fire, fiery : ns. 125, 

30 ; ds. fyrenum 125, 28 ; 138, 
' 13. 



GLOSSAR V 



287 



fyi-en-lust (firen-), m., sinful lust : 

np. -Instas 70, 28. 
fyrhto, f., fright^ fear, terror : ds. 

fyrhtu 11, 10 ; fyrlito 140, 19. 
fyrlen (fierlen), adj., distant : a^s, 

90, 7 ; dp. 101, 25. [feorr.] 
fyrmest, see forma, 
fyrn-dagas, pi. m., days of long 

ago, ancient days : dp. 184, 27. 

[Ger. firn.] 
fyrn-gear, pi. n., years of long 

ago, ancient years : dp. 172, 22. 
fyrn-ge-sceap, n,, ancient decree : 

ns. 177, 19. 
fyrn-ge-set, n., former seat or 

habitation: ap. -gesetu 174, 9. 
fyrn-ge-weorc, n., ancient work: 

ns. 168, 14 ; as. 168, 3. 
fyrst (S. 313), supl. adj., first, 

chief: dp. 40, 4. 
fyrst (first, fierst), m., division of 

time, time, j^eriod, respite : gs. 

fyrstes 105, 12 ; ds. fyrste 70, 

14 ; 75, 1 ; 87, 15 ; 102, 5 ; as. 

first 28, 20. [Ger. Erist.] 
fyrst-niearc, f., marked period of 

time, interval: ds. -mearce 172, 

26. 
:^san (W. I.): 1. hasten (intr.): 

inf. 142, 16. — 2. send forth, impel 

(trans.): pret. 3 sg. fysde 158, 2. 

[fus.] 



gaedrian (ge-gsedrian, cf. ge-gade- 
rian) (W. II.), gather: 3 sg. 
gsedra-S 171, 24 ; gegsedra'5 174, 
15 ; 182, 27. 

gafol, n., tax, tribute, profit, inter- 
est : ns. 40, 8; as. 151, 9; gs. 
gafoles 79, 8 ; ds. gafole 40, 8 ; 
150, 11. [cf. Goth, ga-ljaur.] 



gfcElan (W. I.), delay, hinder: 
pret. opt. 3 sg. g^lde 37, 3. 

gamenian {W. II.), play, pun: 
pret. 3 sg. gamenode 89, 20. 
[gamen ' game.'] 

gamol-ferhS', adj., aged : ns. 143, 
7. [*ga-m^l.] 

gan, eode eodon gegan (S. 430), 
go, come, walk, advance : inf. 
33, 18 ; 157, 11 ; 2 sg. g^st 127, 
21 ; 3 sg. gS'S 33, 27 ; 3 pi. gaS 
33, 16 ; imp. 2 sg. ga 119, 11 ; 2 
pi. gaS 77, 20 ; opt. 3 sg. ga 139, 
15 ; pret. 3 sg. 1, 3 ; 1, 6 ; 1, 9 ; 
3 pi. 15, 13 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. eoden 
5,9. 

gar, m., spear : as. 149, 13 ; 153, 
21 ; ap. garas 150, 25; 151, 15; 
152, 26. [Mod. gore, gar-fisli, 
etc.] 

gar-berend, m., spear-bearer, war- 
rior : np. 157, 26. 

gar-mitting, f., meeting of spears 
or javelins, contest : gs.-mittinge 
147, 27. 

gar-rSs, m., spear-encounter, bat- 
tle : as. 150, 11. 

gajrs, n., grass, blade : as. 3, 15 ; 
33, 29. 

garsecg, m., sea, ocean : as. 175, 7. 

gsest (gast), m., spirit : ns. 70, 20 ; 
gs. gastes 11, 14 ; ds. gseste 81, 
19;as. 13, 12 ;69,25; 85,6; 182, 
28. 

gast-cyning, m., spiritual king : 
ds. -cyninge 143, 23. 

ggestlic (gastlic), adj. : 1. spirit- 
ual : gs. gges'Slices (dial.) 37, 5 ; 
as. gastlice 72, 2 ; gp. -lecena 31, 
27 ; ap. -lecan 33, 25. — 2. 
ghastly, terrible : n^ 162, 20 ; 
gastlic 133, 14. 



288 



GLOSSARY. 



gsestlice (gastlice), adv., spirit- 
ually : gastlice 61, 1 ; 109, 1. 

gate-hfcer, n., hair of a goat ; ns. 
Ill, 7; as. Ill, 2. 

ge, conj., and ; 43, 4 ; ge . . . ge, both 
. . . and, 12, 1 ; 18, 24. [cf . £eg«er.] 

ge, see igCu. 

geador, adv., together: 175, 3. 

geaful, m., 1. fork. — 2. in pi., 
jaws., bird''s bill : np. geaflas 175, 
18. [Ger. Gabel.] 

ge-agaa (PI*.), own, possess : ger. 
-agenne 78, 11. 

ge-ahnian (-agnian) (W. II.), 
claim as one''s own, take posses- 
sion of: pp. geahnod 135, 11. 

gealla, m., gall : ds.geallan 132, 14. 

ge-£eniet(t)igian (W. II.), /ree, 
disengage from (w. ace. of pers. 
and gen. of thing) : opt. 2 sg. 
gesemetige 27, 5. [£emet(t)ig.] 

ge-an-bidian (W. II.), 1. wait, 
remain (intr.) : inf. -bydian 
139, 14; imp. 2 sg. -byda 139, 
15. — 2. await (w. gen.): inf. 
-bydian 138, 16. 

ge-and-wyrdan (W. I.), answer: 
pp. -andwyrd 89, 9. 

ge-an-liecan (W. I.), unite: pret. 
3 sg. -l^lite 101, 8. 

ge-an-lician (W.II.), liken : pres. 

1 pi. geanlicie 3, 18. 

gear (ger), n., year : gs. geares 17, 

16 ; 17, 20 ; 24, 9 ; ds. geare 17, 
23 ; gere 23, 11 ; as. gear 43, 6 ; is. 
geare 17, 21 ; gere 21, 28 ; dp. 23, 

17 ; ap. gear 17, 10 ; ger 66, 19; 
gp. geara 160, 22, see gio. 

gearcian (W. II.), prepare: imp. 

2 sg. gearca 75, 29. [gearu.] 
geard, m., enclosure, dwelling : 

dp. in geardmn, at home, 117,14. 



gear-dseg, m., day of yore : dp, 

161, 21 ; 178, 14. 
geare (gear we ), adv., readily, well : 

3, 2 ; 7, 8 ; 45, 13 ; 64, 20 ; 98, 19. 
geareliee, adv., readily : 67, 17. 
ge-arian (W. II.), show mercy 

(w. dat.) : opt.o sg, -arige 93, 1. 
ge-a^ruau (W. I.), run (or ride) 

for, gain by running (trans.) : 

3 sg. -serneo 43, 24. [yrnan.] 
gearo-wita, m., intellect: as. 

-witan 52, 6. 
gearu (gearo), adj., yare, ready: 

ns. 15, 2; 80, 6; 90, 2; np. 

gearwe 37, 12 ; gearowe 95, 11 ; 

151, 20. [Ger. gar.] 
gearwian ( W. II.) , prepare : pret. 

2 sg. gearwodest 117, 12 ; 3 sg. 

-ode 126, 18. 
ge-ar-wurlgrian (W. II.), honor: 

pret. 3 sg. -wurtJode 95, 20. 
ge-ascian (-axian) (W. II.), learn 

by inquiry, hear of, discover: 1 

pi. -axia« 67, 20 ; 68, 6 ; pret. 3 

sg. -ascode 14, 11 ; -axode 103, 

8 ; pp. -ascad 178, 23. 
ge-ascung, f., inquiry : ds. ge- 

ascunge 60, 10. 
geat, n., gate : ds. geate 130, 20 ; 

as. geat 84, 30 ; ap. gatu 15, 12 ; 

15, 23; 122,20; 133, 17. 
geat-weard, m., gate-ward, door- 
keeper: ns. 6, 9. 
ge-aelgFele, adj., befitting noble 

descent: ns. 146, 7. 
ge-axian, see ge-ascian. 
ge-btedan (W. I.), compel, force : 

pp. gebffided 147, 10. 
ge-b^re, n., gesture, behavior, 

cry: np. gebSru 169, 15; dp. 

15, 1. [beran.] 
ge-bed. n., prayer : is. gebede 120, 



GLOSSABY. 



289 



29; as. gebed 114, 8; dp. 88, 10; 
95, 5. 

ge-beodan (2), offer: pret. 3 sg. 
-bead 15, 4 ; 15, 13. 

ge-beor, m. (beer-companion) , rev- 
eller : dp. gebeorum 104, 20 ; np. 
gebeoras 104, 22 ; ap. 104, 17. 

ge-beorg (-beoiii), n., protection, 
defence : ds. gebeorge 150, 10 ; 
157, 9. 

ge-beorgan (3), protect, save : pp. 
geborgen (impers.) 33, 5. 

ge-beorscipe, m., banquet, enter- 
tainment: gs. -beorscipes 9, 10; 
ds. -beorscipe 9, 17 ; 84, 5 ; dp. 
-beorscipum 32, 6. 

gebetan (W. I.), 1, make amends 
for, repent of (trans.) : mf. 44, 
3; 46, 25; opt. 3 sg. gebete 7, 
24; 3 pi. gebeten 56, 8. — 2. re- 
pent (intr.) : inf. 105, 9. [b5t.] 

ge-bicnian (cf. beacnian) (II.), 
betoken, indicate : pp. geblcnod 
110, 9. 

ge-bidan, -bad -bidon -biden (1) : 
1. await, look for (w. gen.) : 3 
sg. -bide-5 160, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. 144, 
19, — 2,. endure, experience : pret. 
1 sg. 154, 30. 

ge-biddan {b'),pray : 1. (w. reflex, 
ace.) inf. 101, 14 ; pret. 3 sg. ge- 
bsed 125, 12. — 2. (w.reflex.dat.) 
pret. 3 sg. 13, 3. 

ge-biegan (-bigan -bygan) (W. I.), 
bov3, bend, incline, convert 
(trans.) : inf. -bigan 100, 5 ; -bi- 
gean 112, 11 ; 3 sg. -bigS 33, 19 ; 
pret. 3 sg. -bigde 81, 8 ; 86, 6 ; pret. 
opt.3pl.-bTgden90, 1; pp.-bieged 
33, 10; -blged92, 12; pl.-blgede 
82, 23 ; -bygede 131 , 21. [bugan.] 

ge-bigan, see ge-biegan. 



ge-bilde, adj., bold, confident : ds. 

gebildum 83, 11. [beald.] 
ge-bind, n., combination, com- 
mingling : as. 161, 1 ; 162, 4. 
ge-biudan (3), bind : 3 pi. -bindatS 

161, 17; pret. 3 sg. -band 136, 

15 ; pp. -bunden 6, 23 ; gp.-bund- 

enra 134, 27. 
ge-bisnung, f ., example : dp. 87, 12. 
ge-bletsian (W. II.), bless : pret. 3 

sg. -bletsode 77, 22 ; pp. -bletsod 

75, 20; 117,17; sg. -bletsode 101,2. 
ge-blissian (-blyssian) (W. II.), 

1. rejoice (intr.) : inf. -blyssian 

134, 11; (w. gen.) 130, 3; ptc. 

-blyssigende 129, 4. — 2. make 

happy (trans.) : pp. -blLssad 145, 

3 ; 165, 7 ; 170, 1. 
ge-bod, n., command : ns. 116, 25 ; 

167, 17; ds. gebode 123, 15. 

[beodan.] 
ge-braec, n., breaking, crashing : 

ns. 158, 28. [brecan.] 
ge-breedan (W. I.), broaden, be- 
come extended: pp. pi. -br^dda 

34, 14. 
ge-breadian, see ge-bredian. 
ge-bredlau (-breadian) (W. II.), 

(breed), regenerate, restore: pp. 

gebreadad 178, 2 ; pi. gebredade 

185, 20. 
ge-bregd, n., change, vicissitude : 

ns. 167, 6. [bregdan.] 
ge-breowan, -breaw -bruwon 

-browen (2), breio : pp. gebrowen 

43, 1. 
ge-bringan (-br^ngan, S. 407, n. 

7) (W. I.), bring: inf. 119, 18; 

3 sg. -brings 34, 28 ; -br^ng« 52, 

14; imp. 2 pi. -bringa'S 77, 21, 
ge-brocian (W. II.), afflict: pp. 

gebrocod 23, 16; 99, 7; 104, 8; 

np. gebrocede 23, 16. 



290 



GLOSSAUY. 



ge-brosnodlic, adj., corruptihle : 

ns. 72, 9. 

ge-bro9'or (-'Sru -'Sra), m., pi, 
tant., brothers : np. 148, 1 ; ge- 
bro«ra 77, 6 ; 91, 7 ; dp. 79, 30 ; 
ap. gebrd-Sru 76, 2; 80, 2; np. 
159, 8. 

ge-bud, see buan. 

ge-bun, see buan. 

ge-bycgan (W. I.), buy: 3 pi. 
-bycgat? 55, 24. 

ge-bygan, see ge biegan. 

ge-byrd, n., birth, rank, condition : 
as. -byrd 177, 19 ; dp. 40, 11. 

ge-byrgan (W. I.), taste: opt. 3 
sg. gebyrge 174, 7. 

ge-byrian (W. I., S. 400, n. 2), 
1. happen: 3 sg. gebyre-S (im- 
pers.) 54, 19; b^., 21.— ^. per- 
tain, behove (impers.): 3 sg. 69, 
31. [Ger. gebiihren.] 

ge-bysnian (W. II.), give good 
example : pret. 3 sg. gebysnode 
100, 9. 

ge-bytle,ii., building .dwelling .'np. 
gebytlu 80, 6 ; gp. gebytla 79, 8. 

ge-camp, m., fight, battle : ds. 
gecampe 154, 9 ; as. gecamp 78, 
10. 

ge-ceosan (2), choose, elect : pret. 
3 sg. geceas 90, 15; 116, 19; 
152, 30 ; pp. gecoren {decide) 
10, 15 ; 74, 6 ; 75, 17 ; 90, 25 ; 
np. -corene 32, 19; dp. 178, 18. 

ge-ciegan (-cigan -cygan) (W. I.), 
call, name, invoke : 3 sg. -cyg'S 
180, 29; pp. -ciged (S. 408, 3) 
98, 8 ; pi. -cTgede 93, 20 ; -cygede 
89, 17. 

ge-cierran (-cirran -cyrran) (W. 
I.), 1. turn, change, convert, 
direct Ttrans,) : imp. 2 sg. gecyr 



71, 27 ; pp. gecierred 31, 29 ; sg. 
-cyrreda 92, 9; pi. -cyrrede 2, 
8; 81, 3.-2. turn (one's self), 
go, return (intr.) : inf. -cyrran 

91, 17 ; imp. 2 sg. -cyrr 75, 29 ; 
opt. 3 sg. -cyrre 67, 7 ; 92, 6 ; 3 
pi. -cyrran 67, 11 ; pret. 3 sg. 
-cyrde 75, 18. 

ge-cigan see ge-ciegan. 

ge-clsensian (W. II.), cleanse: 
pret. 3 sg. -cl^nsode 141, 8 ; pp. 
-cl^nsod 83, 17. 

ge-clingan, -cl^ng -clungon 
-clungen (3) , cling, adhere, com- 
press : pp. pi. geclungne 172, 29. 

ge-cnawan (H.), know, under- 
stand: inf. 28, 15; 31, 23; 54, 
19 ; 72, 27; 3 sg. -cngewS 32, 29; 
pret. 3 pi. -cniowon 32, 28. 

ge-cneord-lsecan (W. I.), be zeal- 
ous, strive, study (intr.) : pret. 3 
sg. -isehte 87, 12. 

ge-cueordliee, adv., diligently : 
76, 7. 

ge-cnyrdnis, f., diligence, earnest- 
ness, study : ds. -nysse 97, 7; as. 

92, 3 ; dp. 86, 3. 
ge-cringan (3), cringe, yield, fall : 

pret. 3 sg. gecrQng 162, 26 ; ge- 
cranc 157, 14; 159, 27. 

ge-cristniaii(W. II.), christianize, 
catechise : pp. -cristnad 66, 10. 

ge-cuman (4), come together, as- 
semble : inf. 92, 24. 

ge-cweme, adj. (becoming), ac- 
ceptable, pleasing: ns. 92, 15. 
[Ger. bequem.] 

ge-cygan, see ge ciegan. 

ge-cynd, f. n., nature, kind, gen-'.r- 
ation : ns. gecynde (S. 267, n, 
4) 177, 15; ds. gecynde 71, 20: 
80, 23; 80, 26; 87, 17; gecinde 



GLOSSARY. 



291 



109, 11 ; as. gecynd 56, 17 ; 173, 

25. 
ge-cynd-boc, f ., Genesis : ns. 109, 

10. 
ge-cynde, adj., naUiral : ns. 55, 5. 
ge-cyrran, see ge-cierran. 
ge-cyrrednis, f ., conversion : gs. 

-nysse 88, 8 ; 102, 1 ; ds. 88, 3 ; 

88,5. 
ge-cyS'aii (W. I.), make manifest, 

show : inf. 134, 4 ; 156, 11 ; imp. 

2 sg. -cy'S 116, 24; pret. 3 sg. 

-cyMe 73, 3. 
ge-cygTiiis, f., manifestation, testa- 
ment : ns. 108, 12 ; 108, 14 ; ds. 

-nisse 109, 2 ; ap. -nissa 112, 6. 
ge-dafen (cf. ge-defe), adj., fit, 

becoming: ns. 72, 22. [Mod. 

deft, daft.] 
ge-dafenlan (-dafnian) (W. II.), 

befit, suit (impers. w. dat.) : 3 

sg. gedafena'S 89, 11 ; pret. 3 sg. 

gedafnode 108, 25 ; gedeofanade 

(dial. w. ace. ?) 9, 2. [Goth. 

gadaban.] 
ge-dal, n., division, separation : 

as. lices gedal, dissolution^ 

death, 187, 22. 
ge-d£elan(W. I.), deal out {tear?) : 

pret. 3 sg. -d^lde 162, 30. 
ge-defe (cf. ge-dafen), 2idj., fitting, 

gentle, improved in condition : 

Comp. ap. gedefran 127, 14. 

[Goth, gadobs.] 
ge-deofenian, see ge-dafenlan. 
ge-deorf, n., labor, hardship, diffi- 
culty : dp. 86, 2. 
ge-dihtan (W. I.), 1. compose, 

dictate, vmte : pret. 3 sg. -dihte 

97, 6 ; 105,27.-2. direct, order: 

pret. 3 sg. 110, 24; 111, 18. 

[Ger. dichten.] 



ge-don (S. 429), 1. do, act: pret. 

3 pi. -dydon 24, 10 ; pret. opt, 3 

sg. -d^de (S. 429, n. 1) 144, 3. 

— 2. cause to be (trans.) : 3 sg. 

-deS 46, 4 ; 52, 11 ; 55, 5 ; 63, 

1 ; 3 pi. -do'S 44, 7 (intr.). —3. 

put into such and such a condi- 
tion : inf. 115, 4. — 4. reac\ 

arrive at : pret. 3 pi. -dydon 20, 

24; 21, 19; 23, 2. 
ge-dr^ccan (W. I.), oppress, afflict, 

vex, trouble : pp. pi. gedr^hte 

103, 27 ; 133, 2. 
ge-drefan (W. I.), trouble, dis- 
turb, afflict : 3 sg. -dref 5 35, 19 ; 

3 pi. -drefa« 34, 4 ; pret. 2 pi. 

-drefdon 33, 29 ; pp. -drefed 34, 

7 ; 79, 1 ; pi. -drefde 52, 2 ; 
. -drefede 133, 2. 
ge-drefednis, f., trouble: gs. 

-nysse 92, 21. 
ge-dreosan (2), fall, fail : pret. 3 

sg. -dreas 161, 13 ; pp. pi. -dro=- 

rene 71, 25. 
ge-drincan (3), drink up: pret. 3 

sg. gedranc 83, 11. 
ge-drofenlic, adj., troublous: 72, 

9. 
ge-dryht, f., train of attendants, 

retinue, company: ns. 177, 7; 

186, 17. 
ge-drync, n., drinking, carousing : 

43, 8 ; 43, 11. 
ge-dwol-niQnn, m., erring man, 

heretic: np, -m^n 111, 26; gp. 

-manna 81, 16. 
ge-d-wolsum, adj., misleading^ 

erroneous : ns. Ill, 24. 
ge-dwyld, n., folly, error: gs. 

-dwyldes 82, 13 ; ds. -dwylde 

103, 10. [dwoL] 
ge-dyrst-lgecan (W, I.), dare, pre' 



292 



GLOSSABY. 



sume : pret. 2 sg. -Isehtest 136, 

21. 
ge-ealgian (W. II.), defend: inf. 

150, 31. 
ge-earnian (W. II.), earn, de- 
serve : inf. 69, 19 ; imp. 2 sg. 

-earna 71, 27 ; .opt. 3 pi. -earnien 

32, 21 ; pret. 3 sg. -ode 92, 10 ; 
>. 3 pi. -odon 79, 31 ; pp. geearnad 

7,7. 
ge-earuiing, f ., desert, merit : ds. 

-unge 92, 3; as. 103, 21; gp. -unga 

104, 26 ; dp. 99, 11 ; ap. -unga 

155, 21. 
ge-eaS'-modian (W. II.), humble, 

debase (w. refl. ace.) : pret. 3 sg. 

-medde 118, 20. 
ge-eawan, see ge-eo^van. 
ge-ed-cwycian (-cwician -cuican) 

(W. II.), quicken, revive: pp. 

pi. -cwycode 138, 19. 
ge-ed-niwian (W . 11.) , renew : 3 

sg. -mwa'5 52, 14 ; 52, 16 ; pp. 

-niwad 35, 15. 
ge-ed-sta>elian (W. II.), re- 

establisJi, restore : imp. 2 sg. 

-sta'Sela 76, 29 ; pret. 2 sg. 

-sta'Selodest 76, 27. 
ge-efen-lsecan (W. I.), imitate: 

ger. geefenlScenne 95, 4. 
ge-^nde-byrdan (W. I.), set in 

order, ordain, arrange : pp. 

-^ndebyrd 111, 17 ; as. -^nde- 

byrdne 88, 18. 
ge-^ndiaii (W. II), 1. end, finish 

(trans.) : ger. ge^ndianne 66, 

18 ; pret. 3 sg. ge^ndade 11, 26 ; 

13, 5 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. ge^ndode 

34, 29 ; pp. ge^ndod 34, 24 ; 34, 

26 ; 71, 5 ; -ad m, 16. —2. come 

to an end, die : inf. 105, 7 ; 3 sg. 

ge^nda« 60, 2, 



ge-^ndung, f., ending, end : ds. 

ge^ndunge 90, 11 ; 102, 22. 
ge-eowan (-eawan S. 408, 2), 

show : 3 sg. -eowS 52, 16 ; opt. 

3 sg. -eawe 176, 22. 
ge-faedera, m., godfather in his 

relation to the father: ns. 90, 

18. 
ge-fadian {W . 11.) , arra7ige : inf. 

111,23. 
ge-fagian (W. II.), variegate, em- 
broider : pp. gefagod 71, 19. 
ge-faer, n., going, journey : ns. 180, 

1. 
ge-faran (6) : 1. go, travel (intr.) : 

pret. opt. 3 sg. gefore 42, 3. — 2. 

travel (trans.) : inf. 115, 13 ; 

115, 15. — 3. depart out of life, 

die (intr.) : pret. 3 sg. gefor 17, 

9 ; 25, 12. 
ge-faestnian (W. II.) , fasten, fix : 

pret. 3 sg. -fsestnode 87, 13 ; 132, 

16 ; pp. pi. -fpestnode 51, 8. 
ge-fea (S. 277, n. 2), m., joy, 

delight, gratification : ns. 179, 

23; is. gefean 116, 4; 128, 5; 

as. 31, 3""; 173, 21 ; 178, 19. 
ge-fealic, adj., joyous, pleasant : 

ns. 182, 25. 
ge-f^ccan (-f^cgan -f^tian) (W. 

111.), fetch, take: inf. 154, 16; 

pret. 3 pi. -fetedon 23, 4. 
ge-fegan (W. I.), join : imp. 2 sg. 

gefeg 76, 23 ; pp. gefeged 175, 

27. 
ge-feoht, Ti., fight, strife, battle: 

ds. gefeohte 17, 7 ; 19, 13 ; 102, 

19 ; 147, 5 ; dp. 14, 7 ; ap. gefeoht 

68, 3. 
ge-feohtan, -feaht -fuhton -fohten 

(3), 1. nght: pret. 3 sg. 16, 3; 

19, 4; 3 pi. 16, 6; 21, 8; pp. 



GLOSSARY. 



293 



17, 16. — 2. gain hy fighting, 
win : inf. 153, 16. 

sce-feou (5), rejoice (w. inst. or 
gen.): ptc. gefeonde 12, 11 ; 65, 
25; 116, 4; 128,5; imp. 2 sg. 
-feoh 119, 1. 

ge-fera, m., companion, comrade : 
ds, -feran 161, 7 ; np. -feran 15, 
22 ; dp. 15, 19 ; ap. -feran 65, 
2(5. 

ge-feran (W. I.), travel (trans.) : 
inf. 119, 8. 

ge-fere, adj., accessible: ns. 165, 
4. [faran.] [ns. 35, 13. 

ge-fer-scipe, m., companionship: 

ge-feterian (W. 1\.), fetter^ bind : 
Tpret. 3 sg. -feterode 144, 12. 

ge-f^tian, see ge-f^ccan. 

ge-fexod (-feaxod), adj., haired, 
having hair : np. -fexode 88, 24. 

ge-fillednys, f., completion, fulfil- 
ment : ns. 108, 13. 

ge-finiian (W. II.), commit a 
ivrong, sin (intr.) : pret. 1 sg. -fir- 
node 119, 4 ; 2 sg. -dest 119, 6. 

ge-flieman (-flyman) (}Y.\.),piit 
to flight : pret. 3 sg. -fllemde 17, 
14 ; 19, 5 ; 3 pi. -don 17, 3 ; 19, 
30 ; 22, 11 ; pp. -flymed 147, 9 ; 
pi. -fliemde 16, 20 ; 22, 21. 

ge-flyman, see ge-flieman. 

ge-flyt, n., contention, strife : ds. 
-flyte 135, 14. [flitan; Ger. 
rieiss.] 

ge-fon (R.), take, seize: 3 sg. 
gefeht; 132, 5; hlyst gefet?, 
listens, 170, 4. 

ge-for>ian (W. II.), accomplish: 
pp. geforJ?od 158, 22. 

ge-frage, adj., famous : ns. 165, 
3. [fricgan.] 

ge-freege, n., report, hearsay : is. 



mine gefr^ge, as I have heard 

say, 171, 7. 
ge-fr^inian (W. II., S. 400, n. 2 ; 

cf . ge-f r^mnian) , perform : 3 sg. 

-fr^ma'5 96, 22. 
ge-fr^inman (W. I.), perform : 

ger. fr^mmenne 90, 2 ; imp. 2 pi. 

-fr^mmaS 94, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-fr^mede 67, 6 ; 70, 31 ; 3 pi. 

-don 81, 6 ; pp. -framed 48, 14. 
ge-freoge (-frige), n., informa- 
tion : dp. 166, 8. [fricgan.] 
ge-freolsian (W. II.), set frep. 

deliver : 1 sg. -freolsige 114, 15 ; 

3 sg. -freolse« 123, 26 ; opt. 3 

sg. -freolsige 124, 9. 
ge-freoiafian (-frio'Sian -fri'Sian) 

(W. II.), protect, favor : imp. 2 

sg, gefreo'Sa 187, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-friSode 55, 7. 
ge-frignan (3), learn by inquiry, 

hear : pp. gefrugnen 165, 1. 
ge-fullian (cf. gefulwian) (W. II.), 

baptize : pret. 3 sg. gefullode 83, 

30; pp. gefullod 95, 19; pi, 

gefullode 95, 14. 
ge-fultumian (W. II.), help : pp. 

-fultumod 8, 15. 
ge-fulwia]a(cf. gefullian) (AV. II.), 

baptize : pp. gefulwad 66, 7 ; 66, 

12. 
ge-fylce, n., army, troop, division : 

dp. gefylcium 17, 3 ; gefylcum 

16, 12. [folc] 
ge-fylgan {Yi. III.), follow (w. 

dat.) : inf. 177, 6. 
ge-fyllan (W.l.),fell, cut down: 

pp. gefylled 148, 11 ; deprive of 

(w. gen.), 147, 18. [feallan.] 
ge-fyllan (W. I.) : 1. fill (w. gen.): 

pp. pi. gefylda 27, 15. — 2. fulfil, 

complete, pjerform : 2 pi. -fylla'5 



294 



GLOSSARY, 



94, 6 ; opt. 2 sg. -fylle 117, 7 ; 1 

pi, -fyllon 116, 15; pret. 3 sg. 

-felde 115, 5 ; pp. -fylled 103, 1 ; 

pi. -fyllede 128, 8. [full.] 
ge-fylsta, m., hel2:)er : ds. -f ylstan 

88, 17. 
ge-fylstan (W. I.), help (w. dat.) : 

pret. 3 sg. -fylste 98, 14, 
ge-fyrn, adv., formerly : 17, 24 ; 

93, 13; 130,^2; gefyrn ser 104, 

13. 
ge-gaderian (W. II.), gather, 

collect, assemble (trans, and 

intrans.) : 3 sg. -gadera^S 79, 2 ; 

pret. 3 sg. -gaderode 76, 25; 

-gaderade 18, 16; 21, 15; 3 pi. 

-gaderodon 19, 15 ; pp. -gaderod 

1,2; pi. -gaderode 20, 20. 
ge-gaedrian, see gaedrian. 
ge-gan (cf. gan), happen: pret. 3 

sg. geeode 101, 3. 
ge-gangan (R.), obtain (trans.) : 

inf. 151, 7. 
ge-gaer\van, see ge-gearwian. 
ge-gearwian (W. II.), prepare: 

inf. 130, 14; -gasrwan (dial.) 

142, 11 ; imp. 2 sg. -gearwa 131, 

15 ; pret. 3 sg. -ode 12, 27 ; 132, 

15 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. -gearwode 12, 7. 
ge-gl^ugan (W. I.), adorn: pret. 

3 sg. gegl^ngde 8, 7 ; 87, 4 ; pp. 

-gl^nged 10, 23. 
ge-godian (W. II.), endow : pret. 

3 sg. -godode 87, 25. [god.] 
ge-gr^mian (W. 11.), enrage : pp. 

-gr^mod 153, 25 ; pi. -gr^mode 

158,29. [grgm.] 
ge-gripan, -grap -gripon -gripen 

(1), seize: pret. 3 sg. 136, 15; 

144, 14; pp. 91, 16. 
ge-gyddian (W. II.), sing, utter : 

pret. 1 sg. -gyddode 134, 24. 



ge-gyrela, m., robe, dress, gaV" 
ment : np. gegyrelan 70, 27. 

ge-hadian (W. II.), ordain: inf. 
91, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. gehadode 96, 
2 ; pp. gehadod 96, 4. 

ge-hal, adj., whole: ns. Ill, 12. 

ge-h^lan (W. I.), heal (trans.): 
inf. 76, 15 ; 3 sg. -hgelS 76, 16 ; 
opt. 3 sg. -hgele 105, 28 ; pret. 2 
sg. -li^ldest 84, 32 ; 2 pi. -don 78, 
13 ; pp. pi. -hselde 85, 16. 

ge-halgian (W. II.), hallow, con- 
secrate: pp. gehalgod 91, 3: pi. 
-ade 63, 8 ; -ode 82, 24. 

ge-hatan, -het -heton -haten (R), 
1. promise : 1 sg. -hate 157, 10 ; 
pret. 2 sg. -hete 62, 16 ; 3 sg. 6, 
13. — 2. name: pp. gehaten 21, 
20 ; 60, 8 ; 89, 18 ; pi. gehatene 
89, 10. 

ge- hat-land, n., promised laiid : 
gs. -landes 11, 11. 

ge-haw^ian (W. II.), look at, re- 
connoitre : pret. 3 sg. -hawade 22, 
26. 

ge-healdan, -heold -heoldon 
-healden (R.), hold, protect, 
maintain, observe: 3 sg. gehelt 
52, 15; opt. 3 sg. -healde 70, 1 ; 3 
pi. -dan 69, 5; pret. 3 pi. -hloldon 
26, 9; pret. opt. 3 sg. -lieolde 101, 
12 ; pp. gehealden 79, 7. 

ge-liealtsxiinnis, f., captivity : ds. 
-nysse 136, 29. 

ge-h^figian (W. II.), iveigh down, 
oppress : pp. geh^f gad 1 70, 14. 

ge-hegan (W. I.), effect, hold (an 
assembly) : inf. 182, 8. 

ge-helpan (3), help (w. dat.) : inf. 
105, 30. 

ge-h^nde (adv.), prep., wear (with 
dat.) • 158, 27. 



GLOSSARY. 



29s 



ge-heran, see ge~hieran. 

ge-h^rg-ian (W. II.), capture {by 
harry iiKj) : pp. geh^rgod 22, 2. 

ge-hieran (-hyraii -hiran -lieraii) 
(\Y. I.), hear, obey; inf. 3, 25; 3 i, 
17 ; 64, 18 ; 71,1; ger. -liyraiine 
2, 2 ; 3, 6 ; 11, 5 ; ptc. -hyreiide 
2, 7 ; 2 sg. -liyrst 150, 24 ; 3 sg 
-hyre« 67, 14 ; 3 pi. -hyraS 2, 13 
2, 16 ; imp. 2 sg. -her 115, 19 
-Mere (S. 410, n. 4) 120, 1 ; 2 pi 
-hyra^ 1, 5 ; opt. 3 sg. -liyre 2 

2 ; 3, 5 ; 1 pi. -hyron 70, 4 ; 2. pi 
-hyran 3, 7 ; 3 pi. -liyren 2, 7 
pret. 2 sg. -hyrdest 120, 19 ; 3 
sg. -hyrde 9, 23. 

ge-hllt, 11., hilt: dp. 144, 15. 

ge-hiran, see ge-hieran. 

ge-hiwian (W. II.), fo7'm, fash- 
ion : 3 sg. -hiwa'5 49, 26. 

ge-hleapan (R.), leaj:) (upon a 
horse) , mount : pret. 3 sg. -hleop 
155, 14. 

ge-hleotan (2), cast or draw lots : 
pret. 3 sg. -hleat 113, 4. 

ge-hlystan (W. I.), liste^i : pret. 

3 pi. -hlyston 152, 9. 
ge-hneegan (W. I.), humble, cast 

doion: pret. 3 sg. gehn^de 122, 
12. [hnlgan.] 

ge-hola, m., protector: gp. ge- 
holena 161, 8. [helan.] 

ge-hreosan Ql), fall, perish : 3 sg. 
gelnist 33, 28. 

ge-hroden, see hreodan. 

ge-liwa, pron., each (S. 347) : gs. 
-gehw£es 9, 27 ; 171, 28 ; ds. ge- 
hwam 162, 10 ; 167, 15 ; 172, 9 ; 
180, 26 ; 181, 14 ; as. gehwone 
171, 26 ; 186, 8 ; gehwane 181, 9. 

ge-liAvauon, adv.,//'o?.* every quar- 
ter : 100, 26. 



ge-hw£er, adv., everywhere : 90, 12, 

ge hwaei3'er, pron., both, either: 
ns. 178, 4 ; as. -hw9e>re 16, 7 , 
-hwpej^ere 17, 5 ; 152, 29. 

ge-hwelc, see gehwilc. 

ge-hwerfan, see ge-hwyrfan. 

ge-hwilc (ge-hwylc, ge-hwelc) , 
each, every (pi., all): ns. anra 
gehwylc, each one, 67, 5 ; ds. 
anra gehwilcum 119, 10 ; heora 
freonda gehwilcum 104, 28 ; 
hiera . . , gehwelcum 16, 3 ; as. 
gehwylcne 7, 16 ; anra manna 
gehwylcne 67, 2 ; is. iihtna ge- 
hwylce 160, 8 ; np. gehwilce 91, 
13 ; 91, 20. 

ge-hwyrfan (-hwierfan, -hwerf an) 
(W. I.), turn, change, convert: 

2 sg. -hwyrfest 128, 3 ; pret. 3 sg. 
-hw^rfde 11, 4; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
10, 20 ; pp. pi. gehwyrfede 77, 
27 ; 110, 7 ; gehwerfede 126, 13. 

ge-hydan (W. I.), hide, conceal, 
guard : 3 sg. gehyt 52, 15 ; pret. 

3 sg. gehydde 162, 31. 

ge hygd,f. n., mind, thought, pur- 
pose : ns. 162, 19 ; dp. 181, 4. 

ge-hyhtan (W. I.), have hope, 
trust: inf. 69, 26. 

ge-hyran, see ge-hieran. 

ge-hyrdan (W. I.), oppress: pret. 
3 sg. gehyrde 71, 12. [heard.] 

ge-hyrnes (-hiernes), f., heanng .- 
ds. -nesse 11, 2. 

ge-hyrsumian ( W. II.), hear, obey 
(yf. dat.): imp. 2 pi. -hyrsumia^S 
94, 4. 

ge-ican, see ge-iecan. 

ge-ict, see ge-iecan. 

ge-Tecan (-lean -yean) (W. I.), in- 
crease, add to : inf. -ican 130, 15 ; 
pp. geiQt 3, 8. [eac.J 



296 



GLOSSARY. 



ge-laeccan (W. I.), seize, catch, 
take : pret. 3 sg. gelsehte 90, 23 ; 
91, 2. 

ge-lsedan (W.I.), lead: 3 sg. ge- 
l^t 131, 7 ; 3 pi. gelseda^ 3(3, 
21 ; pret. 3 sg. -Itedde 10, 11 ; 3 
pi. -Igeddon 16, 6. 

ge-laered (pp.), adj., learned: np. 
gel^rede 29, 10 ; -edan 33, 21.— 
Supl. ap. gel^redestan 10, 13, 

sre-leestaa (W. I.) : 1. perform, 
carry out (trans.) : 2 sg. -Isestest 

62, 16 ; opt. 3 sg. -l^ste 70, 1 ; 
pret. 3 sg. -laeste 149, 15. — 
2. help, stand by (intr. w. dat.) : 
inf. 149, 11. [Ger. leisten.] 

ge-laiacian (W. II,), invite, sum- 
mon : pret. 2 sg. -laSodest 84, 
17; pp. -la«od 74, 9; 84, 13, 
[Ger. ein-laden.] 

ge-la3'ung, f., (invitation), church, 
congregation : ns, 84, 26 ; gs. 
-laSunge 97, 1 ; ds, 95, 27 ; 81, 
13. 

ge-leafa, m., belief, faith: ns, 69, 
31 ; ds, -leafan, 36, 22 ; 62, 16 ; 

63, 5; as. 4, 9; is. 181, 24. 
ge-leaffull, adj., believing: ns. 

-leaffula 100, 1 ; gp, -leaffulra 77, 

9 ; dp. 68, 31 ; 76, 28. 
ge-leaffulnes, f ., belief, faith : as. 

-nesse 69, 23, 
ge-l^cgan (W.I.), lay : pp. geled 

103, 4. 
ge-lefan, see ge-liefau, 
ge-l^ndan (\V. I,), 1, come to 

land, come, go : pp. gel^nd 20, 

14. — 2. endovnijith lands : pret. 

3 sg. gel^nde 87, 23. [land.] 
ge-leofan, see ge-liefan. 
ge-leornian (-liornian) (W. II.), 

learn: inf. 11, 3; pret. 1 sg. 



-liornode 28, 30 j 3 sg, -leornode 
8, 5 ; -leornade 9, 4 ; 3 pi, -don 
28, 6 ; 31, 14 ; pp, -liornod 27, 
28 ; -leornad 63, 17, 

ge-l^ttan ( W. I.), hinder, prevent : 
pret. 3 sg, gel^tte 154, 20. 

ge-lic, adj., like, resembling , same : 
1. ns. 45, 16 ; as. gelTcan 60, 21. 
— 2. (w, dat.) ns. 173, 10 ; np. 
gellce 186,3 (or adv, ?). — Supl., 
ns. gelicost 104, 2 ; gelicast 175, 
20; (w. inst.) 179, 25. 

ge-lIc, n., similarity : gs, gelicea 
178, 17. 

ge-lica, m,, equal : ns. 87, 11. 

ge-lice, adv., in like manner: 2, 
15 ; 8, 13 ; 60, 25 ; 140, 2. 

ge-lician (W. II.), please (w. 
dat.) : pret. opt, 3 sg, -licode 90, 
3. 

gelicnes, f., likeness : ns. 173, 3 ; 
as. gelycnysse 135, 2 ; 137, 8. 

ge-liefan (-lyfan -lefan -leofan) 
(W, I.), believe (w. ace, dat., or 
gen.) : inf. -lyfan 45, 2 ; -lefan 
69, 29 ; -leofan 120, 3 ; ger. 
-lyfanne 62, 2 ; ptc, -lyfende 77, 
4 ; 1 sg, -ITefe 27, 4 ; -lefe 46, 2 ; 
opt, 2 pi. -leofon 126, 31 ; 3 pi. 
-ITefen 30, 22; ITefon 127, 4; 
-lyfon 76, 31 ; pret, 1 sg. -lyfde 
139, 1; 141, 10 ; pp. -lyfed 75, 
25 ; pp. -gelyfed, filled with be- 
lief believing, adj., 75, 25; 98, 
3 ;' 98, 7. 

ge-lif-faestan (W. I,), make alive, 
quicken : pret. 3 sg. geliffaeste 
109, 25. 

ge-limpan, -l^mp -lumpon -lumpen 
(3), happen: inf. 121, 23 ; pret. 
-lamp 3 sg. 5, 1; 71, 4; 74, 9. 

ge-liniplic, adj., fitting^ suitable : 



GLOSSARY. 



297 



is. -limplice 9, 12 ; dp. gelimpli- 

cum, adv., by chance, 62, 3. 
ge-logiau (W. II.), lay, deposit: 

pret. 3 sg, -logode 102, 8 ; 3 pi. 

-don 103, 20. 
ge-lome, adv., often, repeatedly : 

08,4. 
ge-lomlician (W. II.), become 

frequent : inf. 68, 8. 
ge-IustfuUian (W. II.), please 

(w. dat.) : pret. 3 sg. -fullode 95, 

16. 
ge-lustfullice, adv., xdllingly : 

Comp., gelustfullTcor 63, 19. 
ge-lyfan, see ge-liefan. 
ge-lyfed (-lefed, pp.), adj., v:eak, 

infirm : gs. gelyfdre 9, 4. [lef ; 

Mod. left (hand).] 
ge-lyhtan (W. I.), illumine, give 

sight to : pret. 3 sg. -lyhte 141, 8. 
ge-lysan (W. I.), release, break, 

tear : pp. gelysed 123, 11. 
ge-maglic, adj., importunate : dp. 

92, 13 ; 92, 18. 
ge-magnys, 1, importunity : ns. 

92, 15. 
ge-mah (ge-mag), adj., maliciotis, 

iricked : ns. 185, 23. 
ge-maelan (W. I.), speak : pret. 3 

sg. -m?elde 156, 25 ; 157, 8. 
geman, see gieinan. 
ge-niana, m., intercourse ; joining 

(of weapons): gs.gemanan 147,17. 
ge-mSne, adj., common: 78, 20; 

78, 22 ; 78, 24. [Ger. gemein.] 
ge-msenelice, adv., in common, 

generally : 81, 17. [7, 13. 

ge-m«re, n., boundary, border : as. 
ge-nia9'el, n., talking, intervieic, 

harangue : gs. -maSeles 130, 13. 
ge-mearc, n., boundary, limit: gs. 

-mearces 143, 25. 



ge-mearcian (W. II.), mark, des- 
ignate : 3 sg. -mearca^ 170, 7 ; 
pp. -mearcad 176, 6. 

ge-met, n., measiire : ds. gemete, 
3, 7 ; is. gemete. degree, 119, 23 ; 
as. gemet, metre, 10, 8. 

ge-met, adj., meet, fit : ns. 144, 5. 

ge-metan (W. I.), meet with, find : 
2 sg.-metest 115, 21 ; 2 pi. -meta'S 
121, 4; opt. 3 pi. -meton 84, 30; 
pret. 3 sg. mette 6, 15 ; 16, 2 ; 104, 
17 ; 3 pi. -on 78, 1 ; 120, 7 ; -myt- 
ton 138, 6; pp. gemett 85, 13; 
gemet 85, 10 ; 94, 9 ; 120, 16. 

ge-meteng (gemeting), f., meet- 
ing, assembly : dp. 32, 8. 

ge-metgian (W. II.), moderate, 
temper, restrain, regulate : 3 sg. 
-metgaS 52, 11 ; opt. 3 sg. 
-metgige 30, 20; 31, 2. 

ge-metgiing, f., measure, regu- 
lation, order: as. -metgunge 

48, 6 ; ap. -metgunga 48, 11 ; 

49, 7. 

ge-metlice, adv., moderately : .12, 

1. 
ge-miltsian (W. II.), shoio mercy 

(w. dat.) : imp. 2 sg. gemiltsa 

102, 25 ; 126, 20. 
ge-molsnian (W. II.), moulder, 

decay : 3 sg. -molsnah 69, 12 ; 

pp. pi. -molsnode 71, 26. 
ge-iriQng, n., crowd, throng : ds. 

in geniQnge (prep. V7. dat.), 

among, 174, 11. 
ge-mot, n., meeting, assembly, 

council, concourse, encounter : 

ns. 159, 4 ; gs. gemotes 147, 27 ; 

as. 155, 24 ; 182, 6. 
ge-munan (PP.), remember, call 

to mind, be mindful of: 1. 

(w. ace): inf. 70, 4; 91, 25 j 1 



298 



GLOSSARY. 



sg. geman 30, 5; 3 sg. geniQn 

161, 11 ; 163, 6 ; imp. 2 sg. 

gemyne 62, 15 ; 71, 22 ; gemune 

119, 20 ; 2 pi. gemuna^ 156, 7 ; 

pret. 1 sg. gemunde 27, 12 ; 28, 

5 ; 3 sg. 93, 13 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. 

gemundon 155, 21. — 2. (w. 

gen.) : imp. 2 sg. gemun 139, 3 ; 

opt. 3 sg. gemyne 31, 1 ; pret. 3 

sg. gemunde 156, 20. 
ge-inundbyrdan (W. I.),pr6tect: 

pret. opt. 3 sg. gemundbyrde 6, 

12. 
ge-mynd, f. n., memory: ds. 

-mynde 10, 7; 60, 10; 87, 14; 

as. -mynd 26, 3 ; dp. 72, 5. 
ge-myndgian (-myngian) (^Y. 

II.), keep in mind, remember: 

pret. 3 sg. -myndgade 11, 3. 
ge-myndig, adj., mindful of (w. 

gen.) : ns. 100, 6. 
ge-myntan (W. I.), have in mind, 

intend: pret. 3 sg. -mynte 93, 

13 ; pp. gemynt 104, 7. 
gen (gena, gien, giena), adv., yet, 

still, even : 64, 17 ; 65, 30. 
ge-neadian (W. I.), compel: inf. 

82, 5 ; 95, 22 ; pp. geneadad 95, 

23 ; geneded 60, 28. 
ge-neahhe (ge-nehe), adv., 

enough, frequently, often : 162, 

3 ; genelie 158, 2. 
ge-nea-l£ecan (W. I.), approach 

(w. dat.) : inf. 102, 22 ; (w. 

ace.) 124, 1 ; ptc. -IScende 130, 

25 ; -lecende 137, 12 ; pret. 3 pi. 

-l«hton 102, 21. 
ge-iieat, m., companion : ns. 159, 

13 ; ns. 24, 28 ; 159, 13. [Ger. 

Genosse.] 
ge nehe, see ge-neahhe. 
ge-neosian (W. II.), visit, ap- 



proach, (trans.) : inf. 125, 29; 3 

sg. -neosa'S 177, 10; pret. 3 sg. 

-ode 135, 5. 
ge-n^rian (W. I.), save, rescue, 

preserve : 3 sg. -n^re^ 63, 1 ; 

pret. 3 sg. -n^rede 15, 26 ; 62, 

18; 147, 13; pp. pi. 21, 13; 

gen^rode (S. 400, n. 2) 89, 16. 
ge-nihtsmn, adj., sufficient, 

abounding : ap. -sume 78, 9. 
ge-nihtsumian (W. II.), suffice 

(w. dat.) : 3 sg. genihtsuma'S 78, 

26; 3 pi. -iaS 124, 15. 
ge-nihtsumlice, adv., sufficient- 
ly : 82, 1 ; 87, 24. 
ge-nihtsumnes, insufficiency : ns. 

72, 16 ; gs. -nysse 78, 27. 
ge-niman, nom (nam) nomon 

(namon) numen (4), take : imp. 

2 pi. genima'S 118, 9 ; opt. 3 sg. 
genime (reflex., collect oneself) 
35, 21 ; pret. 3 sg. 83, 4 ; 3 pi. 
19, 31 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. gename 
90, 7 ; pp. 22, 4. 

ge-nip, n., mist, cloud, darkness: 

ap. genypu 138, 20. 
ge-nipan (1), become dark: pret. 

3 sg. genap 163, 12. 
ge-niiS'erian (-nySerian) (W. II.), 

cast dovm, abase, condemn : pp. 

geni'Serod 76, 14 ; geny^erod 

135, 16. 
ge-niiJerung (-nySerang) , de- 
basement, icickedness : ap. -ny- 

'Serunga 141, 3. 
ge-niwian (W. II.), renew: pp. 

genl wad 161,27; 185, 8. 
ge-noh (ge-nog), adj., enough: 

ns. 43, 1 ; as. 57, 19 ; — adv., 86, 

9 ; genSg 45, 7. 
ge-notian (W . II.), use, consume: 

pp. as. genotudne 19, 9. 



GLOSSARY. 



299 



geofon, n., sea, ocean : gs. geof- 1 
ones 169, 8. 

ge-ofrian (-offrian) (W. II.), o/er ; 
pret. opt. 3 pUgeofrodon 80, 22, 

geogoa" (giogoS, iugo^S), f., youth: 
lis. 87, 17 ; gioguS (young per- 
sons, collect.) 28, 17 ; ds. geo- 
givSe 161, 12 ; iugo'Se 98, 3. 

geoinor, adj., sad: ns. 71,28; as. 
geomran 169, 29 ; 183, 3. [Ger. 
Jammer. ] 

geoinoi*-mocl, adj., of sorrowful 
mood: up. -mode 177, 12; 179, 
13. 

geomrung, f., lamentation, moan- 
ing : ds. -unga 71, 8; as. -unge 

134, 26. 

geond (giond), prep. (w. ace), 
throughout (place and time) : 
giond 26, 3 ; 26, 5 ; geond 41, 4 ; 
68, 1 ; 85, 1 ; 88, 3 ; 160, 3. 

geond-faran (6), traverse: 3 pi. 
-fara'5 167, 16. 

geond- hweorfan (3), pass over, 
traverse: 3 sg. -hweorfe'S 161, 
28. 

geond-lacan, leolc lee lecon, lacen 
(R.), play over, traverse: oiDt. 
3 sg. -lace 167, 19. 

geond-lyhtan (W. I.), 1. illu- 
mine (trans.) : pret. 3 sg. -lyhte 

135, 3 ; pp. pi. -lyhte 129, 4. — 
2. shine over or upon (intr.): 
pret. opt. 3 sg. -lyhte 129, 7. 

geond-sceawian (W. II.), over- 
look, survey : 3 sg. -sceawa'5 

161, 29. 

geond-s^ndan (W. I.), send 
abroad: pp. -s^nd 135, 24. 

geond-9'^iicean (W. I.), think 
over, reflect upon : 1 sg. -)>^nce 

162, 7 ; 3 sg. -tSence^S 163, 5. 



geond- wlitau (1), look ovet 

(trans.) : 3 sg. -wlite'S 172, 14. 
geong (giong, iung), adj., young. 

ns. 143, 28; giong 177, 14 j 

gioncga 16, 18 ; ap. geonge 67, 

3; iunge 100, 11. 
geonglic, adj., youthful : dp. 87, 

16. 
ge-openian (W. II.), open: imp. 

2 sg. -opena 84, 29 ; pp. pi. 

-openede 115, 2. ^ 

georn (giorn), adj., eager, earnest, 

desirous: np. giorne 26, 11 ; (w. 

gen.) ns. georn 69, 7 ; 152, 24 ; 

162, 16 ; np. georne 151, 21. 
georne, adv., eagerly, unllingly, 

certainly, surely : 55, 10; 152, 1. 

— Comp., geornor 185, 1. — Supl., 

geornost 70, 4. 
geornfull, adj., eager, desirous:- 

ns. 158, 7 ; np. geornfulle 132, 

21 ; (w. gen.) 68, 18. 
geornfulllce, adv., eagerly, ear- 
nestly : 35, 8. — Comp., georn- 

fullicor 88, 13. 
geornf ulnes, f . , eagerness, zeal : 

ds. -nesse 11, 21 ; 36, 30 ; -nysse 

100, 20. 
geornlice, adv., eagerly, earnestly, 

attentively: 31, 17; 34, 17; 62, 

4 ; 79, 29. — Comp., geornlicor 

63, 25 ; 64, 18. 
ge-or-truwian ( W. ll.), despair of, 

distrust: opt. 3 sg. geortriiwige 

92, 7. 
ge-rsecan (W. I.), reach, obtain : 

inf. 18, 19 ; 22, 6 ; pret. 3 sg, 

153,29; 154, 14. 
ge-rad, adj., trained, prudent : as. 

-radne 56, 18. 
ge-r£edan (R. and W. I.), counsel, 

advise : 2 sg. -rgedest 150, 15. 



jOO 



GLOSSABT, 



ge-raede, n., trappings: dp. 155, 

15. 
ge-reafian (W. II.), seize: 3 pi. 

gereafiatS 32, 20. 
ge-r^ccan (W. L), relate, explain, 

count: inf. 8(3, 11 ; ger. -r^ccenne 

104, 9 ; imp. 2 sg. -r^ce 130, 17 ; 

pret. 3 sg. -r^hte 100, 2 ; pret. 

opt. 2 sg. -reahte 45, 4 ; pp. pi. 

-r^hte 94, 12. 
ge-r^cednis, f., narration: ds. 

-nisse 109, 8 ; as. 109, 7. 
ge-refa, m., reeve : ns. 24, 26. 
ge-reiiian (geregnian) (W. II.), 

arrange, adorn: pp. gerenod 154, 

17. 
ge-reord, n., speech^ language: 

ds. -reorde 100, 2. 
ge-reordung, f., refection, meal: 

as. -reordunge 75, 29. 
ge-r^stan (W. I.), rest: inf. 12, 

7. 
ge-rihtan (W. I.), correct: inf. 

112, 21 ; opt. 3 sg. gerihte 112, 

18. 
ge-rihte, n., law: ap. gerihta 84, 

11. 
ge-riht-laecan (W. I.), direct, cor- 
rect: ptc. -Isecende 102, 4; pp. 

pi. -Isehte 92, 13. 
ge-rlpan (S. 382, n. 3) (1), reap: 

pret. 3 pi. gerypon 22, 24. 
ge-risenlic, Sidj., proper, suitable: 

ap. -lice 8, 3. — Comp., as. -Here 

64, 14. 
ge-risenliee, adv. suitably, fit- 
tingly : Comp. -lecor 65, 11. 
ge-ryman (W. I.), 1. widen, ex- 
tend (trans.) : pret. 3 pi. -rym- 

don 26, 10 ; pp. -rymed 101, 5. 

— 2. open a way (intr.): pp. 

•rymed 152, 10. [rum.] 



ge-ryne, n., secret, mystery : n- . 
gerynu 139, 24; ap. 2, 5. [run.] 

ge-sselig, adj., happy, prosperous, 
blessed: ns. -sseiiga 177, 9; np. 
-seelige 55, 19. — Comp., np. 
-sgeligran 45, 3. [sgel ; Ger. 
selig.] 

ge-saeliglic, adj., happy, blessed: 
np. -sgeliglica 26, 5. 

ge-saBliglice, adv., happily : 86, 3 ; 
87, 10. 

ge-sseia", f., happiness, fortune, 
prosperity : gp. gessel'Sa 52, 18 ; 
dp. 55, 19 ; ap. gesgel'Sa 56, 16. 

ge-sargian (W. II.), trouble, 
afflict: pp. as. -sargodne 47, 6; 
pi. -sargode 25, 3. 

ge-sceadlice, adv., discriminat- 
ingly, wisely : 36, 25. 

ge-sceadwis, adj., discriminating, 
intelligent, rational, wise : ns. 
59, 8 ; -sceadwisa 54, 8. 

ge-sceadwisnes, 1, discretion, rea- 
son, wisdom : ns. 48, 19 ; 52, 5 ; 
54, 12 ; ds. -nysse 100, 16. 

ge-sceaft, f ., 1. creature, creation : 
ns. 50, 5 ; 59, 7 ; ds. gesceafte 
59, 10 ; np. gesceafta 48, 3 ; 59, 
9 ; gp. 49, 21 ; 50, 7 ; dp. 48, 
11; ap. 49, 5. — 2. destiny, de- 
cree (of fate) : ns. 163, 23. 
[scieppan.] 

ge-sceap, n., 1. creation: ds. ge- 
sceape 11, 8. — 2. destiny: ap. 
gesceapu 172, 13. [scieppan.] 

ge-sceapenis, f ., creation : ds. 
-nisse 109, 12. 

ge-sc^ndan (-scindan) (W. I.), 
put to shame, confound: pret. 3 
sg. -sc^nde 123, 29 ; pp. -scinded 
32, 11. [scegnd.] 

ge-sc^3'S'an (6), harm, injure (w 



GLOSSABY, 



301 



dat.) : pret. 3 sg. -scod 179, 1 ; 
3 pi. -scodan 180, 17. [Ger. 
schaden.] 

ge-scieppan (-scippan -scyppan) 
-scop "(-sceop) -scopon (-sceo- 
pon) -sceapen (-scepen -scaepen) 
(6), create, make: pret. 3 sg. 
-sc5p 169, 28 ; 171, 28 ; -sceop 
48, 8 ; 54, 4 ; pp. -sceapen 48, 7; 
72, 12 ; 81, 27; pi. -scsepene 24, 7. 

ge-scinan (^l), illuminate (trans.) : 
3 sg. 1G9, 8. 

ge-sciiidan, see ge-sc^ndan. 

ge-scipian (W. II.), provide with 
ships : pp. pi. gescipode 17, 25. 

ge-scyldan (W. I.), shield, pro- 
tect : opt. 3 sg. -scylde 94, 7 ; 
pp. -scylded 171, 11. 

ge-scyldnis, f., protection : as. 
-nysse 75, 5. 

ge-scyrpan (W. I.), clothe, equip: 
pp. as. -scyrpedne 65, 22. 
[sceorp.] 

ge-scyrpla, m., garment: np. 
-scyrplan 70, 26. 

ge-s8can (W. I.), seek: inf. 6, 3 ; 
46, 29. 

ge-s^cgan (W. III.), say, tell: 
pret. 3 sg. -ssede 153, 7 ; pp. 
-SEed 105, 13. 

ge-seglian (W. II.), sail : inf. 41, 
12. 

ge-segnian (W. II.), cross one- 
self: pret. 3 sg. -segnode 13, 3. 
[segn.] 

ge-selda, m., hall-companion, com- 
rade, retainer : ap. geseldan 161, 
30. 

ge-s^Uan ( W. I.) , give up, yield : 
pret. 3 pi. -sealdon 155, 9. 

ge-seman (W. I.), reconcile: iuf. 
151, 8, [Mod, seem.] 



ge-seon (-sion), -seah -sawon 
(-ssegon) -sewen (-sawen -segen) 
(5), see, observe, consider: inf. 
-sion 27, 21 ; imp. 2 sg. -seoh 
63, 15 ; 2 pi. -SCO'S 122, 17 ; 1 
sg. -seo 77, 17; 2 sg. -silist 122, 16; 
3 sg. -sili« 54, 6 ; 1 pi. -seo« 49, 
3 ; opt. 2 sg. -seo 63, 26 ; 3 pi. 
-seon 2, 7 ; pret. 2 sg. -sawe 71, 
18 ; 3 sg. 9, 7 ; 3 pi. 77, 12 ; pp. 
gesegen 10, 16 ; 13, 13; gesawen 
63, 13; gesewen64, 1. 

ge-set, n., seat, habitation : np. 
gesetu 163, 9 ; ap. 174, 24 ; 179, 
18 ; 180, 11. 

ge-s^tnis, 1, foundation, composi- 
tion, narrative, decree : ds. -nysse 
81, 28 ; as. 81, 21 ; dp. 112, 10 ; 
ap. -nyssa 75, 16 ; 100, 20. 

ge-s^ttan (W. I,), 1. set, place, 
appoint: pret. 3 sg. ges^tte 9, 
13 ; 88, 17 ; 97, 2 ; pp. ges^ted 
9, 3; pi. -s^tte 36, 28.-2. 
compose, write : pret. 3 sg. 13, 10 ; 
pret. opt. 3 sg. -s^tte 81, 16, 

ge-seffan (W. I.) , confirm : pp. 
pi. -geseMe 95, 18. [so«.] 

ge-sewenlic, adj., visible: np. 
-Ilea 48, 3. 

ge-siclian (W. II.), sicken i pp. 
gesTcclod 104, 1. [seoc] 

ge-siglan (W. I.), sail: inf. 38, 
14; .38, 18; 39, 3 

ge-sihS" (-syh^), f., seeing, sight, 
presence : ns. 85, 5 ; ds. -sih'Se 
13, 9; 91, 18 ; -syh^Se 137, 27; 
as. -sih^e 76, 5 ; 78, 14 ; 121, 1 ; 
-syh^e 68, 22. 

ge-singan (3) , sing : pret. 3 sg. 
gesang 84, 12 ; pp. gesungen 89, 
21. 

ge-sion, see ge-sion. 



302 



GLOSSARY, 



ge-sittan (5), occupy : inf. 188, 
i;j ; ]3ret. 3 sg. gesset 88, 15 ; 
pp. as. -setenne {sit out) 19, 9. 

ge-sleau (6), gain by fighting, 
loin : pret. 3 pi. geslogon 140, 
4. 

ge-smyrian (W. II.j, anoint: inf. 
130, 23. 

ge-SQinnian (-samnian) (W. II.), 
collect, assemble (trans.) : inf. 
10, 12 ; pp. -samnod 18, 29 ; pi. 
-ode 43, 17. 

ge-SQinnung, f., collection, assem- 
bly : gs. -unga 36, 17 ; ds. -unge 
10, 29; 34, 10; as. 36, 20. 

ge-sprec, n., interview, counsel : 
as. 63, 6. 

ge-standan (6), 1. stand: inf. 
154, 27 ; opt. 3 sg. -st^nde 30, 
12. — 2. come upon: pret. 3 sg. 
gestod 90, 10. 

ge-sta>elian (W. II.), establish, 
build, confirm: pret. 1 sg. 
-sta>elode 115, 20 ; pp. -sta'Selad 
181, 19. 

ge-st8e9'3'ig, adj., steadfast: ds. 
-stgeSSegan 48, 5; 50, 6. 

ge-steall, n., establishment, founda- 
tion : ns. 163, 26. 

ge-stigan (1), ascend (trans) : 2 
sg. -stigest 142, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 
-stah 144, 6. 

ge-stillan (W.I.), 1. be still, cease, 
(intr.) : imp. 2 sg. gestille 4, 
7 ; pret. 3 sg. gestilde 7, 1 ; 3 
pi. gestildon 7, 3. — 2. restrain, 
stop) (trans.) : pret. opt. 3 sg. 
gestilde 93, 11. 

ge-stiran (-stieran -styran) (W. 
I.), direct, restrain (w. dat.) : 
pret. opt. 3 pi. gestirden 56, 7. 
[steor.] 



ge-strangian (W. II.), strengthen : 

imp. 2 sg. -stranga 124, 28 ; opt. 

2 sg. -strangle 127, 26 ; pret. 2 

sg. -strangodest 124, 22 ; pp. 

-strangod 114, 14. 
ge-streon, n., possession, prop- 
erty : np. -streon 43, 27; ap. 

70, 14; 71, 3; 76,3. 
ge-strynan (-strienan) (W. I.) 

[beget) , acquire, win, gain : 3 pi 

gestryna'S 178, 22 ; pret. opt. 1 sg. 

gestrynde 84, 20. [ge-streon.] 
ge-sund, adj., sound, whole, safe: 

ns. 51, 17; 84, 15; as. -sundne 

6, 12 ; np. -sunde 15, 18 ; 67, 10. 
ge-sundfull, adj., sound, whole: 

ns. -ful 101,4. 
ge-sundfullice, adv., safely: 94, 

13. 
ge-sundlice, adv., safely: Supl., 

-ITcost 51, 13. 
ge-sw£es, adj., gentle: dp. 82, 15, 
ge-s^veorcan (3), become dark. 

sad : opt. 3 sg. -sweorce 162, 

6. 
ge-swican, -swac -sw^icon -sw^icen 

(1) cease, leave off (w. gen.) : 

inf. 57, 8 ; opt. 2 pi. -swycon 82, 

13 ; pret. 3 sg. 4, 8 ; 93, 9 ; pret. 

opt. 3 pi. -swicon 93, 10. 
ge-swiiic, n., toil, effort, hardship : 

gs. -suinces 34, 22 ; -swinces 94, 

8 ; ds. -swince 55, 22 ; 93, 24. 
ge-swins, n., harmony, melody: 

ns. 169, 27. 
ge-SAvustor (-tru -tra), f., pi. tant., 

sisters: ap. geswnstra 107, 18. 
ge-swiitelian (-sweotolian) (W. 

II.), show, make manifest: 3 sg. 

-swntela'S 96, 17 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-swutelode 75, 11; 87, 9; pp. 

-swiitelod 3, 4 ; 137, 25. 



GLOSSAEY. 



303 



ge-synto, f., prosperity : as. 63, 23. I 

get, see giet. 

ge-tgecan (W. I.), teach, shoiv : 1 
sg. getffice 142, 10. 

ge-tacnian (W. II.), betoken, sig- 
nify: pret. 3 sg. -tacnode 111, 
8 ; 3 pi. -don 111, 6 ; pp. -tacnod 
Si, 21. 

ge-tacnung, f., signification, token, 
type : ns. 108, 12 ; ds. -tacnunge 
111, 13; as. 110, 20. 

ge-tael, n., number, order, narra- 
tive : ds. get^le 88, 9 ; as. getael 
11, 1. 

ge-teld, n., tent, tabernacle : ns. 
110, 22 ; ds. getelde 111, 10 ; as. 
103, 11. 

ge-t^llan (W. I.), tell, count, 
reckon: pp. geteald 81, 9. 

ge-t^ngan (^Y. I.), hasten: pret. 
3 sg. get^ngde 83, 3. 

ge-teon, -teah -tugon -togen (2), 
draw, 3 sg. -tyhS 69, 14 ; pret. 2 
sg. -tuge 131, 28 ; 3 sg. -teh 137, 
22 ; pp. pi. getogene 96, 20 ; (in- 
structed) 90, 5. 

ge-teorian (W. II.), diminish, fail, 
become exhausted: pret. 3 sg. 
geteorode 71, 11 ; pp. geteorod 
124, 16. 

ge-timbre, n. , structure, build- 
ing : ap. -timbro 65, 27. 

ge-timbrian (W. II.), build: inf. 
127, 6 ; 3 sg. -timbrel (S. 400, n. 
2) 172, 5 ; pret. 3 sg. -timbrode 
66, 10; 87, 22. 

ge-timian (W. II.), happen : pret. 
3 sg. -timode 104, 9. 

ge-tiffian (W .11.) , grant (w. dat. 
of pers. and gen. of thing) : 3 
sg. -ti^'a^ 85, 17 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. 
tibodon 99. 21 ; pp. -til^od 99, 23. 



ge-toht, n., battle: ds. getobte 

152, 21. 
ge-truma, m., troop, {military) 

division: as. -truman 16, 15; 

16, 17. 
ge-trymmau (W. I.), prepare, 

strengthen, confirm: ptc, -trym- 

mende 12, 26 ; pret. 1 sg. -try- 

mede 115, 20 ; 3 sg. -trymde 

98, 13. 
ge-tyn (W. I., S. 408, 4), instruct : 

pp. getyd 87, 10. 
ge-fSsef, adj. (with ger\.),favoring ; 

confessing : 30, 17. 
ge->afian (W.ll.), j^^rrnit, cdloi'J, 

consent to : inf. 63, 7 ; 90, 4 ; 

ptc. -^afiende 32, 22 ; 3 sg. -l^afaS 

54, 9 ; opt. 2 sg. ->afige 132, 29 ; 

pret. opt. 3 sg. -^afode 90, 19. 
ge-J»afung, i., permisnon, assent: 

ds. -J-afunge 75, 17 ; as. 63, 29. 
ge-J?anc, m. n., thought, pjurpose : 

as. 136, 22 ; 149, 13. 
ge-J»aiician (W. II.), thank (w. 

dat. of pers. and gen. of thing) : 

1 sg. -hancie 154, 29. 
ge->ealit, f. n., 1. thought, pur- 
pose: ds. ge^eahte 49, 14. — 2. 

council, deliberation : as. 63, 7 ; 

63, 11. 
ge-J>ealitere, m., councilor: np. 

->eahteras 64, 16. 
ge-9'^ncean (W. I.), think, lake 

thought: inf. 70, 9; 72, 29, 
ge-i5'eodan (W. I.), join, associ- 
ate : inf. 87, 18 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-«eodde 10, 29; 77, 9; 3 pi. 

-don 95, 26. 
ge-3'eode (-^iode), n., language: 

gs. -^eodes {nation) 44, 1 ; as. 

--Seode 39, 19; -«iode 27, 18 ; 

28, 7; gp. -«eoda28, 4. 



304 



GLOSSARY. 



ge->eodiiis, f., association: ds. 
-nisse 8, 10. 

ge->icgeaii (5), take, receive : inf. 
15, 4. 

ge-J>ingiaii (W. II.), plead for: 
pret. opt. 3 sg. ->ingode 80, 20. 

ge-9'ingS' (ge-ISing^u) , f . , dignity^ 
rank, office : ds. -^ing'Se 90, 15 ; 
as. -^IncSu 101, 13. ['Singaii.] 

ge-]>oht, m., thought: ds. -)>ohte 
69, 6 ; is. 163, 4. 

ge->oliaii (W. II.), permit, allow : 
inf. 149, 6. 

ge->rang, n., press, tumult: ds, 
gehrange 159, 2. 

ge-J>ry9'aii (W. I.), strengthen, 
arm : pp. ge)>ry^ed 182, 1. 
[>ry«.] 

ge-iSCungen (pp.), adj., grown, 
thriven, perfected, competent, ex- 
cellent, distinguished: ns. 90, 
6 ; 170, 21 ; 187, 20 ; ap. --Sung- 
ene 93, 16. — Supl., ap. -^ung- 
nestan 23, 26. ["Seon.] 

ge-]>wsere, adj., concordant, at 
peace : ns. 57, 10. 

ge-Sfwaerian (W. II.), make con- 
cordant: 3 sg. -'Sw^ra^ 52, 12. 

ge-l^wser-lgecan ( W. I.) , agree to, 
allow (w. dat.) : pret. 3 pi. 
-Iffihton 82, 15. 

ge-]>w£ernes, f., agreement, con- 
cord, peace : as. -nesse 68, 25. 

ge-iaryld, n. f., patience : gs. -^ylde 
32, 23; as. (?) 55, 22. [Ger. 
Geduld.] 

ge->yldig, adj., patient : ns. 162, 
12. 

ge->yldlice, adv., patiently : 54, 
25. 

ge-uferian (W. II.), exalt: pp. 
geuferod 90,^0. 



ge-unnan (PP.), grant (w. dat. 
of pers. and gen. of thing) : opt. 

2 sg. -unne 155, 1 ; 3 sg. 94, 7. 
ge-un-trumian (W. II.), weaken, 

make ill : pp. geuntrumod 105, 
5. 
ge-wadan (6), go, advance : pret. 

3 sg. -wod 154, 13. 
ge-wsegan (W. I.), loeigh down, 

distj^ess : pp. pi. gewsegde 21, 5. 

ge-wald (-weald), n., power, con- 
trol: as. 16,9; 17, 6 ; 17, 15. 

ge-\v8epman (W. II.), arm: pret. 
3 sg.-w£epnode 83, 9. 

ge-wealdan (R.), wield, control 
(w. gen.) : pret. 3 sg. -weold 97, 9; 
99, 18; pp. ds. gewaldenum, co7i- 
trollahle, inconsiderable, small : 
adj., 19, 21. 

ge-weman (W. I.), entice, bring 
over: inf. 99, 22. 

ge-w^mman (W. I.), defile, im- 
pair, destroy : pret. 3 sg. -w^mde 
141, 6; pp. pi. -w^mmede 125, 
20. 

ge-w^mmednis, f., defilement : 
ds. -nysse 85, 9. 

ge-w§mming, f., defilement: ds. 
-w^mminge 135, 15. 

ge-w^ndan (W. I.), return, go : 
pret. 3 sg. -w^nde 75, 31 ; 84, 8. 

ge-^veo^c, n., 1. work, labor: np. 
163, 3; is. -weorce 66, 9.-2. 
military iGork, fortification: ds. 
-weorce 21, 14 ; as; 18, 5 ; 19, 18 ; 
dp. 20, 27. 

ge-weoriffaii (-wurtSan), -wear's 
-\\airdon -worden (3) , 1. happen, 
come to pass, become, be : inf. 33, 
12 ; 49, 1 ; 3 sg. gewyr« 53, 6 ; 3 
pi. gewur^a-S 2, 6; opt. 3 sg. 
geweor^e 49, 1 ; 53, 6 ; gewur^e 



GLOSSABY. 



305 



J>e and hym, let it he beticeen 

you, 133, 23; pret. 3sg. 102, 15; 

pp. 2, 23; 3,4; 4,3; 13,6.-2. 

(impers. w. reflex, ace.) swa swa 

liine silfne gewyr'S, according to 

his own decree, 112, 8. 
ge-weorffian (W. II.), honor: 

pp. -weor'Sad 8, 2 ; pi. -weortSade 

34, 14. 
ge-wician (W. II.), encamp, 

dwell : 3 sg. -wica'S 172, 6 ; pret. 

3 sg, -wicode 18, 17 ; pp. -wicod 

22, 30. 
ge-^vilnian (W. II.), desire (w. 

gen. and ace.) : opt- 3 sg. -wil- 

nige 30, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. -wilnode 

76, 17 ; 88, 13. 
ge-wilnung, f., wish^ desire : ds. 

-unge 32, 19 ; np. -unga 2, 22 ; 

dp. 87, 19. 
ge-win-daeg, m., day of strife : np. 

-dagas 186, 14. 
ge-wtnn, n., struggle, strife, 

battle: ns. 42, 29 ; 167, 4 ; gs. 

-winnes 127, 22 ; ds. -winne 98, 

16 ; 159, 5 ; as. -winn 156, 9. 
ge-winnan (3), obtain by fighting, 

loin, gain : inf. 153, 12 ; pret, 3 

pi. -wunnon 98, 22. 
ge-^wiss, adj., certom of (w. gen.) : 

ns. gewis 13, 13. 
ge-wissian (W. II.), 1. inform, 

instruct, enjoin (w. dat. ) : pret. 

3 sg. -wissode 96, 3. — 2. guide, 

direct (w. ace), pret. 3 sg. 97, 

8. 
ge-wisslice, adv., certainly. 
ge-wita, m., witness : ns, 92, 22. 
ge-witan, -wat -witon -witen (1), 

1. depart, swerve, fail : 1 pi. -wIta"S 

117, 11 ; 3 pi. 125, 1 ; -wyta'S 

132,. 22 ; imp. 2 sg. gewit 142, 



5 ; 2 pi. -wita^, 32, 25 ; opt. 3 
sg. gewite 64, 7 ; 3 pi. -ten 36, 
29; pret. 3 sg. 71, 29; 3 pi. 147, 
30 ; pp. pi. gewitene 71, 25. — 
2. depart (from the world) , die : 
3 sg. gewitt 79, 10 ; pret. 3 sg. 
85, 7 ; 3 pi. 83, 7 ; 93, 8. 

ge-witenlic, adj., transitory: 72, 
10. 

ge-witennis, f., departure, death : 
gs. -witenesse 11, 27. 

ge-witaian (W. 11.^, punish, chas- 
tise : inf. 91, 26 ; pp. pi. -witnode 
56,6. 

ge-witt, n., intelligence, under- 
standing : gs. -wittes 171, 22; 
ds. -witte 49, 8. 

ge-wlitigian (W. II.), beautify, 
adorn : pp. gewlitigad 169, 7. 

ge-wrecan (4), a-yew^e ; inf. 156, 
3 ; 157, 27. 

ge-writ, n., vmting, letter, scrip- 
ture: gs. -writes 11, 12; as. 
gewrit 28, 21 ; gp. -writa 35, 8 ; 
dp. 96, 7 ; 166, 9 ; -ton 140, 24 ; 
ap. -writu 37, 10 ; 96, 13. 

ge-wri3'an (1), bind: pp. pi. 
gewrySene 133, 11. 

ge-wuldrian (W. II.), glorify: 
pp. gewuldrod 131, 16. 

gewuna, m., habit, custom : ns. 
35, 11 ; 57, 16 ; as. -wnnan 94, 
26. 

ge-wundlan (W. II.), wound: 
pret. 3 sg. -wundode 14, 17 ; pp. 
-wundod 19, 13 ; -ad 15, 6 ; 15, 
27. 

ge-wunelic, adj., customary: 76, 
6. 

ge-wunian (W. II.), 1. dwell, re- 
main, live : inf. 71,9; opt. 3 pi. 
-wunien (cogn. ace.) 181, 26. — 



306 



GLOSSARY. 



2. wont, be accustomed : pret. 3 

sg. -wunade 8, 3. 
gewyldan (W. I.), bring into 

one'' s power, subdue : pp. gewyld 

131, 21. [ge-weald.] 
ge-wyrc(e)an (W, I.), work, 

make, create : inf. 44, 4 ; 69, 13 ; 

151, 29 ; pret. 1 sg. -worlite 115, 

19; 3sg. 11, 17; 74, 14; pp. ge- 

worht 8, 8 ; 18, 11 ; geworct 20, 

11. 
ge-wyrdan (W. I.), injure, de- 
stroy : inf. 165, 19. 
ge-wyrd©lic, adj., historical: dp. 

74, 8. 
ge-wyrlit, f. n., work, deed, de- 
sert : dp. 6, 17 ; 47, 5 ; 54, 7. 
ge-wyrman ( W. I. ) , warm : pp. 

gewyrmed 64, 5. 
ge-wyrpan (W. I.), recover (from 

injury or disease) : pret. 3 sg. 

gewyrpte 105, 20. 
go-wyrtian (W. II.), season with 

herbs, spice, perfume : pp. ge- 

wyrtad 183, 29. 
ge-yrsian (W. II.), be angry with 

(w. dat.) : inf. 92, 19. 
gieddian (gyddian) ( W.II.), recite, 

speak : pret. 3 sg. gieddade 184, 

28. 
giedding, f., utterance: ap. gied- 

dinga 184, 6. 
giefan (gifan, gyfan), geaf 

geafon giefen (5), give: ptc. 

gifende 60, 21 ; 3 sg. gif« 59, 4 ; 

pret. 3 pi. 102, 1 ; 141, 19. 
gief-stol, m., seat of a lord (giving 

gifts), throne: ap. giefstolas 161, 

21. 
giefu (gifu, gyfu), 1, gift: ns. 

gifu 10, 18 ; ds. gife 8, 2 ; giefe 

187,29; as. pfe 8, 15 ; 10, 10-, 



giefe 184, 14 ; gyfe 64, 25 ; gp. 

gifena 145, 14; gyfena 186, 26; 

geofena 73, 1 ; geofona 174, 13 ; 

178, 14. 
gielp (gilp, gylp)^ m. n., boasting, 

arrogance, pride : ns. gilp 123, 

27; gs. gielpes 162, 16; ds. gylpe 

76, 23. 
gielpan (gylpan) (3), boast (w. 

gen.): inf. gylpan 147, 21. 
gielt (gilt, gylt), m., guilt, offence, 

sin : ds. gylte 179, 9 ; dp. 67, 6 ; 

ap. gieltas 181, 6; gyltas 92, 8; 

93, 2. 
gieman (gyman, geraan) (W. L), 

care for, observe, regard (w. 

gen.) : 3 sg. gym 5 79, 7 ; pret. 3 

sg. gemde 11, 20 ; gymde 105, 2; 

3 pi. gymdon 80, 4; 155, 17; 

pret. opt. 3 sg. gymde 74. 21. 
giemen (gymen), f., care, over- 
sight, responsibility : gs. gie- 

menne 30, 4 ; 32, 9 ; 35, 9. 
giet (git, gyt, get, gita, gyta), adv., 

yet, besides, further, still: giet 27, 

21; 38, 13; git 54, 10; 115, 10; 

gyt 4, 9 ; 12, 27 ; get 50, 8 ; 57, 

22 ; Eefre gyta 148, 10. 
gif, conj., if: 3, 5; 7, 10; 10, 19; 

26, 15 ; 31, 23. 
gifernes, f . , greediness : gs. -nesse 

7,1. 
gifre, adj., greedy : ns. 6, 26 ; 182, 

22. 
gifu, see giefu. 
gilp, see gielp. 
gilt, see gielt. 
gimm (gymm) , m. , gem : ns. gim 

169, 7; ds. gimme 168, 11 ; 175, 

21; gp. gimma 175, 7; dp. 77, 27. 
gim-stan (gym-), m., precious 

stone, gem : np. -stanas 76, 22 ; 



GLOSSARY. 



307 



111, 6 ; gp. -stana 76, 25 ; dp. 

76, 4 ; ap. -stanas 111, 1. 
gln-faest (ginn-), adj., ample, 

liberal : dp. 144, 29. 
gio (geo, giu, gyu, In, 10), adv., 

formerly, before, of old: 5, 1 ; 27, 

27 ; 56, 1 ; lu ^r 77, 11 ; ^'agyu, 

already, 88, 8 ; gyt . . . gti, yet of 

old, 65, 28; io 71, 23; 71, 24; 

geara iu, long ago, 160, 22. 
gisel (gysel), m., hostage: ns. 

gysel 157, 29 ; ds. gisle 15, 6 ; 

ap. gislas 20, 8. [Ger. Geisel.] 
git, see (JB. 
git, see giet. 
gitsian (W. II.), desire: ptc. 

dp. gitsigendum 80, 31. 
glsed, adj., glad, happy, bright, 

shining: ds. glsedum 168, 11; 

gladum 175, 21 ; as. glaedne 83, 

13. _Supl. ns. gladost 175, 7. 
glaedlice, adv. , gladly : 12, 16. 
glaed-mod, adj., glad-hearted: ns. 

181, 7; np. -mode 183, 5. 
glsem, m., gleam, splendor: ns. 

173, 26. 
glses, n., glass: ns. 175, 18. 
gleaw, adj., wise, prudent: ns. 

162, 20 ; (w. gen.) 170, 5 ; np. 

gleawe 166, 8. 
Gleaw-ceaster, f., Gloucester: ds. 

-ceastre 106, 5. 
gleaw-mod, adj., wise, sagacious : 

ns. 184, 28. 
gl^ng, m. (f.), ornament: np. 

gl^ngeas 70, 26 ; ap. gl^ngas 72, 

7. 
gl^ngan (W. I.), adorn: 3 sg. 

gl^nge« 186, 8. 
gleowian (W.II.), be merry, jest : 

ptc. gleowiende 12, 12. 
glidan, glad glidon gliden (1), 



glide : inf. 168, 21 ; pret. 3 sg. 
146, 15. 

gliw (glTg, gleo), n., glee, mirth: 
ds. gliwe 169, 29. 

gliw-stsef, m..,joy : dp. gliwstafum, 
161, 29. 

gnorniaii(W.II.), mourn, lament : 
inf. 159, 18; ptc. gnorngende 
71, 29. 

God, m., God: gs. Godes 2, 5; 
ds. Gode 10, 8; — pi. n., gods, 
np. godo 63, 24 ; gp. goda 63, 20 ; 
ap. godu 6, 3. 

god, adj., good: ns. good 5, 3 ; as. 
god 1, 14 ; 3, 12 ; gode, 2, 24 ; 
godan 47, 2 ; np. goode 53, 2 ; 
gp. godra 11, 22 ; 17, 7 ; godena 
27, 27. — Comp., b^tera (b^ttera), 
ns. 54, 3 ; b^tra 53, 12 ; b^tere 
34, 19 ; b^tre 34, 28. — Supl., ns. 
b^tsta 39, 25 ; is. b^tstan 10, 22 ; 
np. b^tstan 51, 5 ; dp. 51, 5. 

god, n., 1. benefit: ds. goode 53, 
1 ; as. good 7, 24 ; gp. gooda 53, 
3; goda 85, 1. — 2. goods, pos- 
sessions : dp. 10, 29. 

God-bearn, n., Son of God: gs. 
-bearnes 187, 18. 

god-cund, adj., divine : gs. -cundre 

10, 19 ; ds. -cundre 8, 2 ; np. 
-cundan 26, 11 ; gp. -cundra 26, 
4 ; dp. 8, 5 ; -cundan (S. 304, 2) 

11, 18. 

god-cundlic, adj., divine: gs. 

-lican 32, 18 ; as. -lice 50, 20. 
god-cundlice, adv., divinely: 8, 15, 
god-cundnis, f., divine nature, 

divinity : gs. -nesse 63, 13 ; ds. 

-nysse 81, 28 ; 132, 4 ; as. 81, 11 ; 

-nesse 54, 12. 
god-d£ed, f., good deed: dp. 188, 

11. 



3o8 



GLOSSARY. 



Godmundinga-ham, m., Good- 
manliam (Bernicia): ns. 65, 30. 

god-spell, n., gospel: ds. -spelle 
33, 7 ; as. -spel 108, 20 ; 116, 21 ; 
dp. 36, 11. 

god-spellere, m,, evangelist: ns. 
-spellere 74, 1 ; as. 75, 5 : np. 
-spelleras 81, 11. 

god-spellic, adj., evangelical : ds. 
-spellican 81, 27. 

god-sunu, m., god-son: ns. 15, 
26 ; 20, 6. 

god-w^bb, n., purple (cloth) : as. 
godw^b 71, 19 ; ds. -w^bbe 77, 12. 

gold, n., gold: gs. goldes 77, 28; 
ds. golde 36, 4 ; 77, 23. 

gold-faet, n., golden vessel: ds. 
-fate 175, 21. 

gold-hord, n. m., treasure : as. 
76, 20. 

gold-smiS', m., goldsmith: np. 
-smi^as 77, 30. 

gold- wine, m. (gold-friend), treas- 
ure giver, lord: ns. 161, 12 ; as, 
160, 22. 

gQmol, adj., old: ns. 170, 15; 
gQmel 174, 4. [*ga-m£el.] 

gQng (gang), m., path, course : as. 
gang 68, 27 ; gQng 169, 8. 

gQngan (gangan, g^ngan) (R., S. 
396, n. 1), go, walk, advance, 
march: inf. 12, 2; 149, 3; 150, 
19 ; 151, 10 ; ptc. ggngende 9, 11 ; 
12, 6 ; gangffinde 104, 13 ; imp. 2 
sg. gang 115, 8; 127, 27; opt. 2 
pi. gangon 151, 4. 

Got-land, n., 1. Jutland: ns. 41, 
20; 41, 29.-2. Gothland (isl- 
and in the Baltic sea): ns. 42, 11. 

grSdelice, see graediglice. 

I^reedig, adj., greedy : ns. 182, 22 ; 
as, gr^digu^ Udf d. 



greediglice, adv., greedily : gralde- 

lice 79, 7. 
gr£eg, &dU_gray: is. grgegan 143, 

5 ; as. grsege 148, 8. 
gram, adj., grim, angry, fierce, 

cruel : np. grame 157, 26 ; dp. 

152, 17 ; ap. graman 6, 15. 
grama, m., anger, wrath : gs. gra- 
man 91, 12 ; ds. 89, 16. 
granung, f., groaning : ns. 80, 11. 
gr0es--wQng, m., grassy plain : ds. 

-wgnge 167, 27. 
Grecisc, adj., Greek : ns. 87, 4. 
grene, 2,&]., green : np. grene 165, 

13 ; 167, 27 ; ap. grenan 77, 22. 
greot, n., gravel, sand, earth: gs. 

greotes 184, 13 ; ds. greote 159, 

18 ; 174, 13 ; as. greot 84, 14. 
gretan (W. I.), greet: inf. 26, 1; 

3 sg. grete^ 161, 29; gret 107, 

1 ; 141, 1 ; opt. 3 sg. grete 32, 

5 ; pret. 3 sg. grette 9, 14. 
grimm, adj., fierce, cruel : ns. 151, 

9 ; ap. grimme 181, 6. 
grimme, adv., grimly: grymme 

131, 23. 
grindan (3), grind, sharpen: pp. 

pi. gegrundene 152, 26. 
grig", n., peace : as. 150, 14. [0. N. 

gri-S.] 
growan, greow greowon gr5wen 

(R.),grow: opt. 3 sg. growe 3, 13. 
grund, m., ground, bottom, earth, 

country, loorld: ds. grunde 34, 

20 ; as. grund 169, 8 ; ap. grundas 

146, 15. 
grundlunga, adv., from the 

foundation, completely : 82, 21. 
gryre-leo9', n., song of terror: 

gp. -leo^^a 158, 18. 
ga-dsed (iii-d^d), t, former d^ed : 

gp. -d^aa 184, 13, 



GLOSSARY. 



309 



guma, m., man, hero : ns. 146, 18 ; 

161, 22 ; up. guman 152, 11 ; gp. 

gumena 147, 27. 
gniJ, f., battle : gs. gu)?e 155, 17 ; 

ds. 147, 21; 149, 13; 155, 12; 

as. 159, 28. [cf. Mod. gon-falon.] 
guiSC-freca, m., ivarrior^ valiant 

one : ds. -frecan 177, 12. 
guiff-liafoc, m., ivar-hawk : as. 148, 

8. 
guiS-plega, m., ivar-play, battle: 

ns. 151, 9. 
gulj-rinc, m., ivarrior: ns. 153, 25. 
gyden, f., goddess : ap. gydena 6, 

15. [god.] 
gyft (gift,gieft),f.,l. (technically) 

marriage payment, dowry. — 2. 

(in the pi.) marriage : dp. 74, 9 ; 

74, 10. [Mod. gift.] 
gyfl, n. ,/ood; as. 179^ 11. 
gyfu, see giefu. 
gyldan (gieldan) (3), pay, re- 

quite : inf. 40, 12 ; 144, 30 ; 3 

sg. gylt 40, 11 ; gilt 61, 7 ; 3 pi. 

gyldaS 40, 8. 
gylden, adj., golden: ns. 129, 6; 

ds. gyldenum 76, 9 ; dp. gyldnum 

37, 2. 
gylPj gylpan, see gielp, gielpan. 
gylp-word, n., boastful vjord : dp. 

-wordum 158, 7. 
gylt, see gielt. 
gyman, see gieman. 
gyme-least (gieme-least, -Hest), 

1, neglect: ds. -leaste 75, 11. 
gyra-stan, see gim-stan. 
gym-wyrlita, m., (gem-icright), 

jeiceller : np. -wyrhtan 77, 31. 
gyrd, f., rod, twig : gp. gyrda 77, 

21 ; ap. gyrda 77, 22. 
gyrdan (AY, I.), gird: -pret. 3 sg. 

gj^rde 65, 19 ; 143, 5. ' 



gyrela, m., robe, dress, garment: 

dp. 88, 3. 
gyrn, m. f ., sorroio, misfortune : 

is. gyrne 179, 11. 
gyrnan (W. I.), ?/earn, desire, be 

eager, strive : 3 sg. gyrne'S 181, 

7. [georn.] 
gyst (giest), m., guest, stranger: 

np. gystas 152, 3. 
gyt, see "Sn. 

gyt, gyta, see giet. [27. 

gytsere, m., miser : ns. 78, 25 ; 78, 
gytsung, f., avarice : gs. gytsunge 

78, 30. [gitsian.] 



H. 



habban (W. III.), have : inf. 6, 7 ; 
26, 15 ; ger. habbanne 55, 12 ; 
hsebbenne 70, 17 ; 1 sg. hsebbe 
105, 16 ; 2 sg. hafast 62, 12 ; 156, 
26 ; hjfif st 105, 15 ; 3 sg. hafa^S 63, 
18 ; hsefS 3, 9 ; 7,7; 1 pi. hab- 
ba-S 27, 3 ; 2 pi. 61, 15 ; opt. 1 sg. 
hgebbe 63, 17 ; 3 sg. 2, 2 ; 3, 6 ; 31, 
2 ; 3 pi. hsebben 28, 18 ; pret. 3 
sg. hsefde 5, 4 ; 6, 10 ; 3 pi. hsefdon 

14, 19 (see nsebban). 

had, m., condition, rank, office: 
gs. hades 34, 12 ; ds. hade 28, 
23; 32, 24; as. had 90, 21; np. 
hadas 26, 11; gp. hada 26, 4. 
[Mod. -hood.] 

fiador, adj., bright, clear: as, 172, 

15. [Ger. heiter.] 

hgedre, adv., clearly (light or 

sound) : 169, 5 ; 186, 21. 
hadung, f., ordination : ds, -unge 

91,4. 
hafenian (W. II.), raise, lift up: 

pret. 3 sg. hafenode 150, 21 ; 159, 

12- [h^bban.] 



310 



GLOSSARY. 



hafoc, m., hawk : as. 149, 8. 

hseftan (W. I.), seize, hind, make 
captive : pp. pi. gehsefte 133, 28. 

haefting, f . , captivity : as. hsei- 
tinga 133, 27. 

haegel (lisegl, hagol), m., hail : ns. 
hsegl 167, 9 ; gs. hsegles 165, 16 ; 
is. hagle 161, 25. 

haegl-faru, f ., hail-storm : as. -fare 
163, 21. 

hal, adj., hale, whole, sound, un- 
injured: ns. 72, 15 ; 103, 2 ; 104, 
5; ds. halum 53, 21; np. hale 

67, 10 ; 158, 25. 

hSl (halor, S. 289, n. 2), n., wel- 
fare, salvation : ns. 134, 12. 
Hselend (S. 286), m.. Saviour, 
Christ : ns. 113, 1 ; ds. Heelende 

68, 11 ; Hselendum 117, 24; as. 
Hgelende 69, 24. 

halettan (W. I.), greet, salute: 

pret. 3 sg. halette 9, 14. 
haeleS" (hsele), m., man, hero, 

warrior : ns. hsele 162, 20 ; 184, 

11 ; np.hseletS (S. 281, n.2) 156, 

9 ; 157, 13 ; gp. hsele'Sa 147, 2 ; 

151, 22. [Ger. Held.] 
hB\^a,va., saint : np. halgan 130, 

11 ; gp. halgena 88, 9 ; 130, 9. 
halgian (W. II.), hallow, conse- 
crate : pret. 1 pi. halgodon 64, 

28. 
Halgo-land, n., Halgoland (adist. 

of ancient Norway): ns. 41, 8. 
halig, adj., holy : ns. 10, 2 ; haliga 

115, 11 ; gs. "halgan 34, 12 ; ds. 

halgan 34, 10 ; as. halig 10, 18 ; 

gp. haligra (saints) 25, 13 ; 

halegra 35, 8. — Supl., is. halge- 

stan 66, 8. 
halignes, f., holiness, religion: 

gs. -nesse 65, 6 ; 65, 17. 



hselo (hielu), f., salvation: ns. 

54, 1 ; gs. h^le 95, 23 ; ds. 

hsele 68, 12 ; as. hgele 130, 15 ; 

h^lo 64, 26. 
hals (heals), m., neck: ns. 175, 

16 ; as. 153, 28. [Ger. Hals.] 
halsian (W. II.), greet, address, 

entreat, implore : 1 sg. halsige 

132, 28 ; pret. 3 sg. halsode 83, 

10 ; 90, 18. [hal.] 
halsung, f., entreaty: ds. -unge 

137, 17. 
halw^nde, adj., salutary : ns. 72, 

15; ap. 13, 10. 
ham, m., home : ds. hame 158, 25 ; 

ham (S. 237; n. 2) 39, 8 ; 186, 

1 ; ap. hamas 146, 10 ; — adv., 
. ham 9, 9 ; 10, 21 ; 75, 29. 
hamor, m., hammer : gp. hamora 

146, 6. 

Ham-tun-scir (-scyr), f., Hamp- 
shire: ds. -scire 14, 2 ; 23, 22. 

ham-weard, adv. , homewards : 
22, 9. 

ham-weardes, adv., homewards: 
19, 12. 

han-cred, m., cock-crowing (a di- 
vision of the night): ds. -crede, 
84, 11. 

hand, see hQnd. 

hand-bred, n., palm of the hand: 
dp. 101, 17. 

hand-ge-weorc, n., handiwork : 
ds. -weorce 80, 30. 

hand-plega, m., hand-play or en- 
coimter;Jighting:gP:.-ii>\egSinl4:l,2. 

har, adj., hoary, gray, old: ns. 

147, 16 ; 154, 25 ; hira 162, 29. 
hara, m., hare: ns. 5, 16. 
haerfest, m. , harvest, autumn : 

ds. -feste 22, 22 ; 173, 17. [Ger 
Herbst.] 



GLOSSARY. 



311 



has, f., behest, command: gs. 
h«se 143, 4 ; ds. 75, 31 ; 77, 22 ; 
93, 5. [hatan.] 

haso, adj., dark, dusky : ns. haswa 
169, 11. 

haso-pad (hasu-), adj., having a 
gray coat (of an eagle): as. 
-padan 148, 6. 

haswig-feafre, adj., dusky-feath- 
ered : ns. -feSra 170, 14. 

hat, adj., hot, fervid: ds. hatan 
75, 6 ; np. hate 181, 22. 

hatan, heht het (hatte) heton 
haten (R.), 1. order, command: 
1 sg. hate 26, 2 ; 3 sg. hateS 
26, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. heht 10, 12 ; 11, 
1; 65, 26; 143, 7; het 10, 14; 
64, 19. — 2. name : 3 sg. h^t 41, 
24; 42, 22; 1 pi. hataS 17, 29; 
48, 12 ; 3 pi. 6, 16 ; 40, 2. — Pas- 
sive hatte (S. 367, n.), be called, 
*hight' : 3 sg. 5, 2 ; 41, 8 ; 86, 
15; — pp. 5, 4; 14, 10; 22, 8; 
36, 2 ; pi. hatene 42, 10. 

hate, adv., hotly: Supl., hatost 
172, 12. 

hat-heort, adj., hot of heart, pas- 
sionate : ns. 162, 13. 

hat-heorte, f., hot heart; anger: 
ds. -heortan 128, 4. 

hatian (W.II.), hate: inf. 47, 1 ; 3 
sg. hataS 47, 1 ; imp. 2 pi. hatia'S 
61, 13 ; opt. 3 sg. hatige 47, 3. 

hsetu (hffito), f.,heat: ns. 165,17. 

hseiafen, adj., heathen: ns. 101, 21 ; 
h^bena 102, 25 ; np. h^^ene 89, 
4; 151, 3; h^bnan 16, 13; gp. 
-enra82, 23; dp. 101, 24. 

hseS'eii-gyld, n. , idolatry : us.82,20. 

had'en-gylda, m., idolater : ns. 82, 
25 ; 82, 30 ; up. -gyldan 82, 14 ; 
dp. -gyldum 82, 6. 



hS9'en-scipe, m., heathendom, 
idolatry : ds. 82, 5 ; 82, 9 ; as. 
95, 26. 

HselS'iim (set Hfe^'um), Haddeby 
(now Schlesivig): ns. set HeeSum 
41, 24; dat. (of) H£e«um 42, 3; 
(to) 41, 29. 

he, heo, hit, 3d pers. pron. (S. 
333, 334), he, she, it; pi. they : 
Masc. ns. he 1, 1 ; gs. his 1, 5 ; 
ds. him 1, 1 ; as. hine 2,3; 6, 2 ; 
refl. 3,16; 7,8; 12, 26. — Fem., 
ns. heo 10, 12; Mo 7, 16; ds. 
hire 10, 12. — Neut.; ns. hit 1, 8 ; 
his 3, 24. — Plural, nom. hie 14, 
18 ; hi 30, 6 ; hy 12, 20 ; heo 9^ 
6 ; gp. hiera 15, 3 ; hira 21, 17 ; 
hyra 2, 9; heora 2, 14; hiora 
18, 3; dp. him (refl.) 2, 17; 
heom 98, 23 ; ap. hie 15, 21 ; hi, 
1, 1 ; (refl.) hi 55, 20 ; heo 65, 8. 

heaf, m. f. n., mourning, lamenta- 
tion : ns. 72, 23. 

heafela (heafola), m., head: np. 
heafelan 186, 6. 

heafod, n., head : gs. heafdes 124, 
25 ; ds. heafde 124, 23 ; as. hea- 
fod 13, 4; 62, 8; 161, 20; is. 
heafde 170, 4 ; ap. heafdu 6, 7. 

heafod-burh, f., chief city, me- 
tropolis : ns. 95, 2. 

heafod-mQnn, m., chief man : ap. 
-m^nn 99, 20. 

heah (S. 295, n. 1), adj., high : ns. 
163, 14 ; hea 180, 22 ; heah (adv.?) 
166, 2 ; hea (adv.?) 166, 11 ; gs. 
hean 142, 10 ; 144, 8 ; ds. hean 
48, 9 ; 53, 3 ; 54, 6 ; 57, 23 ; 61, 6 ; 
as. heahne 104, 18 ; heanne 162, 
29 ; 169, 2 ; 178, 21 ; heane 32, 
20 ; 01, 4 ; hea 143, 17. — Ccmp., 
ns. herra 166, 7 ; ds. hierran 28, 



312 



GLOSSARY. 



23 ; as. hyrran QQ, 13 ; np. hier- 
ran 24, 6. — SupL, ns. hehste 50, 
14 ; gs. hiehstan 32, 17 ; hehstan 
130, 13 ; ds. 53, 1. 

heah-cyning, m. , high king ; God : 
ns. 169, 19 ; 180, 21. 

heah-diacon, m., archdeacon : np. 
-diaconas 69, 3. 

heah-^ngel, m. , archangel : ns. 

130, 28 ; ds. -^ngle 130, 19. 
heah-fseder, m., patriarch : ds. 

-fsedere 107, 17 ; np. -faederas 

131, 9 ; dp. 129, 11. 
heah-ge-refa, m., high reeve, chief 

officer : ns. 90, 23 ; ds. -geref an 

83, 4; 83, 27. 

heah-mod, adj., proztd; ns. 169, 2. 

heah-seld (-setl), n. , high seat, 
throne : ds. -setle 183, 1 ; as. 
-seld 186, 21. 

heah-setl, see heah-seld. 

heah-3'ungeii (S. 383, n. 3), (pp.) 
adj. , highly prospered ; of high 
rank : np. -'Sungene 43, 5. 

healdan, heold heoldon healden 
(R.), hold, possess, preserve, re- 
gard, observe : inf. 20, 13 ; 18, 
27; 149, 14; (w. gen.) 150,20; 
151, 22 ; 178, 29 ; ger. healdanne 
62, 6 ; -enne 112, 3 ; opt. 2 sg. 
healde 62, 17; 3 sg. 160, 14; 
pret. 1 sg. 132, 24 ; 2 sg. heolde 

84, 21 ; 3 sg. 25, 14 ; 3 pi. hlol- 
don 27, 20 ; pret. opt. 1 pi. heol- 
dan 68, 24 ; 3 pi. heoldon 149-, 20. 

healf, f., half, part, side: as. healfe 
24, 20 ; is. healfe 21, 3 ; ap. liealfe 
21, 4 ; 22, 28 ; ds. on heora 
healfe, on their own part only, 
18, 15 ; gp. on healf a gehwam, 
on every side, 172, 9 ; 176, 24. 

healf, adj., half: ds. healfum 81, 



9 ; np. healfe 18, 26 ; — as. healf 
gear 43, 6 ; ds. o'Srum healfum 
l^s >e, a year and a half less 
than, 25, 15; gs. bynnan feorb'an 
healfes dseges fsece (see feor'San) 
138, 19. 

healic, adj., high, exalted, glori- 
ous : ns. 103, 14 ; ds. -Ileum 81, 
20. 

heall, f., hall: ns. 64, 5; ds. 
healle 156, 9. 

healt, adj., halt, lame: ap. healte 
131,21. 

hean, adj., low, mean, abject, de- 
pressed, humbled: ns. 160, 23; 
184, 11 ; ds. heanan 78, 22. [Ger. 
Hohn.] 

heanlic, adj., ignominious : ns. 
151, 3. 

heannis, f., height; highness, ex- 
cellence : ns. QQ, 15 ; as. -nesse 
187, 2. 

heap, m., heap, crowd, multitude : 
dp. 176, 24. 

heard, adj., hard, severe, cruel, 
intrepid, brave : ns. (w. gen.) 
153, 17 ; gs. heardes 147, 2 ; 
157, 30; ds. heardum 55, 21.— 
Comp., 159, 15. — SupL, 122, 10. 

heardlice, adv., stoutly, bravely: 
157, 25. 

heardnis, f., hardness : as. -nysse 
91, 11. 

hearm, m., harm, injury, grief: 
gp. hearma 156, 18. 

hearm, adj., harmful, hostile: gp. 
hearmra 180, 16. 

hearpe, f., harp : ds. hearpan 6, 
4 ; 9, 7; as. 9, 7. 

hearpere, m., harper: ns. 5, 1 ; 
gs. hearperes 5, 10 ; ds. hearpere 
5, 5; 6, 1. 



GLOSS ABT. 



313 



hearpian (W. II.), harp: inf. 5, 

6 ; pret. 3 sg. hearpode 5, 14 ; 

7,4. 
hearpung, f., harping : ds. -unga 

6, 8; 6, 24; 7, 7. 
hearra, m., lord: ns. 155, 29. 

[Ger. Herr.] 
hearsum (hyrsum), adj., obedient 

(w. dat.): 62, 19. 
hea'd'erian (W. II.), restrain : 3 sg. 

heaSeraS 49, 4. 
heagfo-lind, f . , war-linden, shield : 

ap. -linde 146, 6. 
heaaCo-rof, adj., famed in battle, 

valiant: gs. -rofes 173, 1. 
heaTvan, heow heowon lieawen 

(R.), hev), cut, cut down, kill 

(trans, and intr.): imp. 2 pi, 

heawaS 77, 20 ; pret. 3 sg. -159, 

27; 3 pi. 146, 6 ; 146, 23 ; 155, 6. 
ii^bban, hof hdfon liafen (hsefen) 

(6), heave, raise, lift up: 3 sg. 

h^feS 169, 2; 3 pi. h^bba^ 37, 

11 ; imp. 2 pi. h^bba^ 61, 11 ; 

pret. 3 sg. 62, 11. 
h^flg, adj., heavy, oppressive: dp. 

h^fegum 33, 19. — Comp., np. 

h^figran 161, 26. 
h^figian (W. II.), oppress: pp. 

h^fgad 11, 29. 
h^fignes, f., heaviness, weight: 

as. -nesse 30, 5. 
h^fig-time, adj., oppressive, irk- 
some : ns. 107, 3, 
helan (4), conceal : inf. 59, 15. 

[Ger. hehlen.] 
h^U, f ., hell : ns. 131, 22 ; gs. h^lle 

6, 3; 7, 17; 131, 13; ds. 5, 11; 

35, 1 ; 105, 8; 131, 14. 
h^lle-susl, n., hell-torment : ds. 

-siisle 110, 22. 
h^llic, adj., hellish : ds. -an 129, 3. 



h^U-sceaS'a, m., hell-fiend: np. 
h^lscea^an 155, 5. 

h^ll-waran (-ware, -waras ; S. 
263, n. 7) , m., pi. tant., inhabi- 
tants of hell : np. 6, 20 ; gp. 
-wara 7, 3 ; 7, 5. 

help, f ., help : as. lielpe 160, 16, 

helpan, healp hulpon holpen (3), 
help (w, gen. or dat.) : inf. 45, 
16 ; opt. 3 sg. helpe 46, 18. 

heo, see he. 

heofon (heofone, f.), m., heaven: 
ns. 124, 30 ; gs. heofenes 3, 23 ; 
heofones 49, 22 ; beofenan 74, 2 ; 
80, 5 ; lieofonan 101, 11 ; as. 
heofon 10, 2 ; (or pi.) heofenan 
109, 14 ; gp, heofena 3, 18 ; dp. 
60, 21 ; ap. heofonas 11, 14 ; 
115, 25. 

heofon - cyning, m.. King of 
■ heaven : gs. -cyninges 144, 27. 

Heofon - feld, m., Heavenfield 
(Bernicia) : ns. 99, 12. 

heofon-hrof, n., roof or vault of 
heaven: ds. heofunhrofe 171, ,4. 

heofonlic, adj., heavenly : ns. 10, 
17; heofenlic 85, 3; heofenlica 
136, 12 ; gs, -lican 8, 10 ; 35, 10 ; 
-lecan 11, 17 ; ds. -lican 35, 15 ; 
as. -lice 69, 29 ; is, -lecan 12, 26, 

heofon -rice, n., kingdom of 
heaven : gs. -rices 9, 25 ; 165, 12. 

heofon -tungol, n. m., star of 
heaven : dp, 166, 11. 

heofiing, f., lamentation, griev- 
ing: ds. -unge 91, 23 ; dp. 91, 17, 

heolstor (heolster), m., darkness, 
concealment, cover : ns. heolster 
160, 23 ; is. heolstre 179, 19. 

heolstor-cofa, m., chamber of 
darkness, tomb ■ np. -cofan 166, 
28. 



314 



GLOSS AET, 



heonon, adv., hence: 157, 10. 
heonon-weard, adj., hence-ward, 

passing away : ns. 72, 28. 
heord, f., guardianship, keeping, 

care: ns, 9, 11; as. heorde oi, 18. 
heqro-dreori^, adj., dejected, 

crestfallen, sad unto death: gs. 

-dreoriges 172, 20. [heoro 

'sword'; dreosan.] [5, 15. 

heort (heorot), m., hart, stag : ns. 
heorte, f., heart: gs. heortan .SI, 

28; .34, 16; 161, 26; ds. 80, 12. 
heoriaf-ge-neat, m., hearth-comjmn- 

io;i;retouier.-np.-geneatas 155,29. 
heor3'-wcrod, n., body of heartJi- 

compan ions ; retainers : as. 150, .3. 
heow, n. (?), haw, enclosure: dp. 

65, 8. [haga.] 
her, adv., 1. here: 27, 21; 28, 3. 

— 2. in this year : 14, 1 ; 16, 1. 
h^re, m., army (the Danish army): 

ns.l6, 1; gs.h^rges 147,8; ds.h^r- 

ige 23, 3 ; as. h^re 16, 6 ; is. li^rige 

18, 14 ; np. h^rgas 18, 14 ; 20, 20 ; 

dp. 18, 17; ap. 16, 19. [Ger. Heer.] 
h^re-flyma, m., fugitive from the 

army or from battle : ap. -flyman 

146,^23.' 
h^re-geatu, f. , loar-equijwient, 

arms: as. 150, 27. [cf. Mod. 

heriot.] 
h^re-hyS", f ., loar-spoil, booty : as. 

-hy 5 19, 2 ; ds. -hy 5e 22, 3 ; ap. 

-hy«a 19, 5. 
h^relaf, f., remainder of an army : 

dp. 147, 24. 
h^renis, 1, praise: ds. -nesse 9, 

22; ^nisse 13, 11. 
h^re-toga, m., leader of an army ; 

chief: ns. 131, 14. [Ger. Herzog.] 
h^re-wic, f. n., dwelling : np. 71, 

25. 



h^rgaS", m., harrying, plundering : 

as. 19, 29 ; 20, 13. 
h^rgian (W, II.), harry, ravage, 
plunder : 3 pi. h^rgia'S 41, 2; 41, 

5 ; pret. 3 sg. ii^rgode 20, 11; 3 

pi. -on 22, 10; pp. geh^rgod 22, 

2. [h^re.] 
h^riau (ii^rigean) (W. 1.), praise: 

inf. h^rigean 9, 25 ; 1 sg. h^rige 

137, 18; 1 pi. h^riaS 84, 33; 3 

pi. h^rgaS 183, 27 ; 186, 18. 

[Goth, hasjan.] 
h^rig (hearh), m., {idolatrous) 

temple, sanctuary : ds. h^rige 65, 

25 ; as. h^rig 65, 27 ; ap. h^rgas 

65,7. 
h^rigendlice, adv., praiseworthy 

ily : 87, 7. 
h^riung (h^rung), I., praise: ds. 

h^runge 76, 13. 
hersvimian, see hyrsumlan. 
h^ttend (S. 286), m., enemy : np. 

h^ttend 146, 10; h^ttende 180, 16. 
hicgan, see hycgan. 
hider (hieder), adv., hither : 9, 17; 

21, 27; 148, 13; hieder 26, 14; 

hidres 'Sidres, hither and thither ^ 

35, 19. 
hider-cyme, m., coming hither, 

advent : as. 179, 22. 
hieran (hiran, hyran, heran) (W. 

I.), 1. hear: pret. 3 sg. hierde 

19, 20 ; 1 pi. hyrdon 13, 14. —2. 

hear, obey (w. dat. ) : inf. hyran 

72, 30 ; pret. 1 sg. hyrde 63, 25. 

— 3. belong: 3 sg. hyr« 41, 25; 

3 pi. hyra« 42, 2 ; 42, 8 ; 42, 12. 
hierde (hirde, hyrde), m., shepherd, 

pastor, guardian, guard: ns. 37, 

13 ; hirde 33, 27 ; hyrde 139, 9 ; 

np. hierdas 32, 27; hyrdas 141, 

17; dp. hirdum 33, 28; hyrdon 



GLOSS ABT. 



315 



141, 19; ap. hierdas 37, 14 ; hyr- 

das 120, 8. [heord.] 
hierde-boc, f., pastoral treatise: 

ns. 28, 28. 
hiere-niQnn, m., follower, subject : 

np, -m^nn 38, 4; 33, 14 ; 37, 5; 

dp. 33, 5. [hieran.] 
hige, see hyge. 
higian (VV. II.), hie, hasten, 

strive : inf. 35,. 14. ~~ 

hild, f ., battle, tvar : ds. hilde 149, 

8; 150, 27; as. 150, 12. 
hilde-rinc, m., warrior: ns. 147, 

16 ; 154, 25. 
hindan, adv., /rom behind, behind: 

21,1; 21, 21; 146, 23; 175,11. 
hindan-weard, adj., hindward : 

np. 175, 16. 
hinder-weard, adj., backward, 

slow : ns. 176, 2. 
Mord (heord), f., herd, flock: ns. 

33, 27. 
hirde-, see hierde-. 
hierde-lic (hirde-, hyrde-), adj., 

pastoral: gs. hirdelecan, 30, 4; 

32, 9. 
hired «hTw + rsed) , m. n. .family, 

household: ds. hirede 77, 5. [Ger. 

Heirat.] 
liired-niQnn, m., retainer: np. 

-m^n 157^ 25. 
hit, see heo. 
hiw (beo; S. 250, n. 3), n., hue, 

appearance : gs. hiwes 89, 6 ; 

hywes 138, 22 ; ds. hiwe 52, 13 ; 

119, 1 ; 175, 29 ; hywe 135, 18 ; 

is. hiwe 175, 9; 175, 20. 
hladan, Mod hlodon hladen (6), 

load ; draw water, 'lade,' imbibe : 

inf. 144, 11; pret. 3 sg. 87, 14. 
hlseder, f ., ladder : as. hleedre 30, 

11. 



hlaf, m., loaf, bread: as. 113, 6; 
116, 21. 

hlaford (<hlaf + w^ard), m., lord, 
master, ruler : ns. 15, 17 ; 156, 
19 ; ds. hlaforde 38, 1 ; 101, 6 ; 
159, 21. 

hlaford-leas, adj., without a lord: 
ns. 157, 15. 

hlsew, m. n., mound, hill, moun- 
tain : np. hlsewas, 166, 4. 

hleapan (R.), leap: pret. 3 sg. 
hleop 65, 20. 

hleo (hleow) : 1. n., protection, 
shelter: as. 178, 4; 180, 4.-2. 
TO.., protector, lord: ns. 151, 22. 

hleouian (hlinian, hlynian) (W. 
II.), lean, incline, slope: 3 sg. 
hleonatS 166, 4 ; opt. 3 pi. hlyn- 
igen, recline (at a feast), 32, 6. 

hleoSCor, n., sound, harmonij, song .- 
ns. 187, 27 ; gs. hleo«res 169, 21 ; 
169, 27 ; gp. hleoKa 165, 12. 

hleolSor-cwide, m., (audible) ut- 
terance, command : as. 178, 29. 

hleoS'rian (W. II.), cry aloud, 
proclaim, sing : 3 pi. hleolSriatS 

• 183, 25. 

hlifigan (W. II.) , tower, rise high: 
inf. 143, 17 ; 3 pi. hlifia'5 166, 2 ; 
166, 11. 

hlihhan (hliehhan, blyhhan) (6), 
laugh : inf. 147, 24 ; pret. 3 sg. 
hl5h 154, 3. 

hiinc, m., declivity, hill: np. 
hlincas 166, 4. 

hiisa, m., fame, renown: ns. 104, 
29 ; gs. hlisan 55, 27 ; as. 55, 12. 

hlisfullice, adv., with renown, fa- 
mously : 102, 10. 

hlot, n., lot: as. 113, 3. 

hloiar, f., band, troop: dp. 18, 21. 

hind, adj., loud: ns. 133, 14; ds. 



3i6 



GLOSSARY, 



Muddre 83, 27 ; is. hlude (or adv.) 

144, 18. 
hliitor (hluttor), adj., clear, pure: 

ns. hluttor 171, 14; ds. hluttrum 

74, 11 ; as. hluter 34, 2 ; is. hlut- 

tre 13, 6 ; ap. Mutor, 59, 15. [Ger. 

lauter, ] 
hlyn, m., sound : ns. 169, 25. 
hlynian, see hleonian. 
hlj^st, f., listening : as. 170, 4. 
hnseppan (W.I.), resi upon, strike : 

opt. 3 pi. hnseppen 51, 18. 
hof, n., court; dwelling: ds. liofe 

143, 10. [Ger. Hof.] 

hogian (S. 416, n. 3) (W. II.), 
think, reflect, resolve : imp. 2 pi. 
hogia'S 91, 17 ; pret. 3 sg. hogode 
87, 8 ; 101, 12 ; (w. gen.) 153, 20 ; 
3 pi. -on 153, 10 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
hogode 153, 15 ; pp. geliogod 

144, 2. 

hold, adj., gracious, favorable, 
faithful: ns. 180, 21. — SupL, 
as. holdost 150, 3. [Ger. hold.] 

holm, m., sea, ocean: as. 162, 29. 

holin-J>racu, f ., wave-tumult ; sea : 
as. -j^rsece 169, 5. 

holt, n., holt, grove, forest, wood : 
gs. holtes 149, 8 ; 167, 22 ; 180, 4. 

holt-wudu, m., forest, grove : ds. 
-wuda 171, 2. 

hon, heng hengon hgngen (R.), 
hang (trans.) : pp. geh^ngen, 
laden, 166, 17 ; pi. geliQngene 
167, 20. 

hQnd (hand), 1, hand: ns. hand 
101, 2 ; ds. hQnda 12, 18 ; 13, 12; 
handa 154, 5 ; as. h^nd 62, 8 ; 
hand 137, 6; on gehwsejjre hgnd, 
on both sides, 16, 7 ; 17, 5 ; 152, 
29 ; dp. 61, 12 ; handum 79, 22 ; 
149, 4 ; handon, 149, 7. 



hQngian (W. II.), hang (intr.) ; 

inf. hangian 36, 8 ; 3 pi. hQngia'a 

51,2. 
hopian (W. II.), hope: opt. 1 pi. 

hopien 61, 9. 
hord, n. m., hoard, treasure : as. 

146, 10. 
hord-cofa, m. (treasure- chamber), 

breast, heart ; as. -cofan 160, 14. 
hordian (W. II.), hoard: 3 sg, 

hordatS 78, 31 ; 79, 1. 
horn, m., horn: np. hornas 169,24. 
hors, n., horse: ns. 103, 31 ; as. 

149, 2 ; gp. horsa 21, 6 ; dp. 

21, 25 ; horsan 40, 7 ; ap. hors 

43, 18. 
hors-hwael, m., walrus: dp. 39, 20. 
hors-}>egn, m., horse-thane; an 

officer of the royal household : 

ns. 23, 25 ; 25, 11. 
hosp, m. , contempt, insult : ds. 

hospe 75, 19. 
hra (hraw, hr£e,hr£ew), m., corpse : 

ns. 173, 1 ; ap. hra 148, 4. 

[Goth, hraiw.] 
hraed, adj., rapid, quick: ds. 

hrsedum 133, 5 ; is. hrsede 66, 9. 

[Ger. hurtig, rasch.] 
hraedlice (hradlTce), adv., quickly, 

soon: 2, 19; 37, 12; 64, 6; 67, 

7 ; 78, 6 ; 115, 16 ; hradlice 92, 

11. — Comp., hraedlicor 115, 14. 
hraed-wyrde, adj., quick, hasty oj 

speech : ns. 162, 13. 
hraefn (lir^mm), m., raven: as. 

148, 5; np. hr^mmas 152, 23. 
hraegel (hrsegl), n., garment: ds. 

hraigle 43, 28 ; as. hrsegl 116, 22. 

[Mod. obs. rail.] 
hran, m., reindeer : gs. hranes 40, 

12 ; ap. hranas 40, 4. 
hraafe (hrade, hrte'Se, raSe), adv., 



GLOSSARY. 



317 



quickly, soon : 55, 18 ; ra'Se 120, 

9; 137, 12; 150, 9.— Supl., 

radost 15, 3. 
hra-werig, adj., xoeanj in body: 

ns. 184, 11. 
hream, m., cry, noise, clamor, 

lamentation : ns. 72, 23 ; 133, 14 ; 

152, 23. 
hreman, see hryman. 
hremig, adj., exultant (w. gen. or 

dat.) : ns. hremig 169, 16 ; np. 

hremige 185, 20 ; hremge 148, 3. 
hr^mm, see hraefn. 
hr^mmaii (W. I.), Jmider : opt. 

pret. 3 sg. hr^mde 76, 11, 
hreo (hreoh) , adj., rough, rude, sav- 
age, fierce^ severe : ns. 160, 16 ; 

hreoh 167, 7; 172, 20; as. hreoge 

117, 21 ; gp. hreora 166, 24. 
hreodan hread, hrudon gehroden 

(2), adorn: pp. 167,28. 
hreofla, m,, leper: ap. hreoflan 

131, 22 ; 141, 8. [hreof, ' rough.'] 
hreohnes, f ., roughness : ds. -nesse 

117, 5. 
hreosan, hreas hruron hroren (2), 

fall : inf. 161, 25 ; ptc. hreosende 

163, 18 ; 3 pi. hreosa« 167, 9. 
hreowan (2), rue, repent of : inf. 

57,9. 
hreowsung, f., repentance : ds. 

-unge 80, 21. 
hr^pian (W. II.), touch, treat : 3 

sg. hr^pa'S 81, 10; pret. 3 sg. 

hr^pode 104, 5. 
hreran (W. I.), stir : inf. 160, 4. 

[Ger. riihren.] 
hreffer, m. n., heart, thought : gp. 

hre)>ra 162, 19. 
hrim, m., rime, hoarfrost : ns. 167, 

9 ; gs. hrlmes 165, 16 ; as. hrlm 

161, 25 ; is. hrime 162, 24. 



hrim-ceald, adj., rime-cold: as. 

-cealde 160, 4. 
hrinan, hran hrinon hrinen (1), 

touch, smite : pp. 64, 8. 
bring, m., ring, circle : ds. (or is.) 

hringe 176, 27 ; as. hrincg, bor- 
der, 142, 10 ; dp. 36, 12 ; ap. 

hringas 35, 28 ; ornaments, 154, 

17. 
hring-loca, m., corslet (formed of 

rings) : ap. -locan 154, 1. 
hvl'S ,i.(y^ , snow-storm : ns. 163,18. 
hrof, m., roof: gs. hrofes 104, 21 ; 

ds. hr5f e 10, 2 ; 53, 3 ; 54, 6 ; 144, 8. 
Hrofes-ceaster, f., Rochester: ds. 

-ceastre 20, 3 ; 23, 20. 
hrase, f., earth : gs. hrusan 160, 

23; as. 163, 18. 
hrycg, m., ridge, back: ns. 33, 

10 ; .33, 13 ; as. 33, 19. 
hryman (hrleman, hreman) (W. 

I.), cry out, lament, exult, boast 

(w. gen.) : inf. hreman 147, 16 ; 

ptc. hrymende 127, 17. 
liryre, va., fall, death: ns. 34, 9; 

165, 16 ; gs. hryres (?) 160, 7 ; 

ds. 187, 16. [hreosan.] 
hryigfer (hrrSer, hri^), n., cattle: 

gp. hry Sera 40, 5. [Mod. rother 

beasts ; Ger. Rind.] 
hrylS'ig, adj., storm-beaten, snow- 
covered (?) ; np. hrySge, 162, 24. 
hu, adv., how: 2, 10; 12,28; 26, 

5; 51, 16. 
Humber, f., the Humber : ds. 26, 

17 ; 26, 20. 
bund, m., dog : as. 5, 16 ; np. 

hundas 5, 9. 
bund, num., hundred: 19, 16; 40, 1; 

41, 21; 121, 13; ap. hunde 17,27. 
hund-feald, adj., hundredfold: as. 

4ealdne2, 1; 2,26. 



3i8 



GLOSSARY. 



hund-eahtatig, num., eighty: 93, 7. 

hund-nigontlg,num., ninety: 84, 1. 

huad-tw^lftig, num., hundred and 
twenty : gs. -tw^lftiges (S. 326) 
18, 1. 

hunger (hunger), m., hunger, 
famine : ns. 186, 15 ; gs. hungres 
75, 9'; ds. hungre 110, 22 ; as. 
hunger 110, 20; is. hungre 21, 
7 ; ap. hungras 68, 7. 

hunig, n., honey : ns. 42, 26. 

liunig-swete, adj., honey-sweet, 
mellifluous : ds. -swettre 87, 15. 

hunta, m., hunter : np. huntan 39, 
13 ; dp. 39, 10. 

huntoS" (hunta'S), m,, hunting .• 
ds. hunto«e 38, 6. 

huru, adv., certainly, indeed, espe- 
cially, perhaps, about: 31, 23; 
42, 17; 70, 11 ; 83, 1 ; 91, 9. 

has, n., house : ds. htise 9, 9 ; 12, 
6 ; 75, 30 ; as. hus 9, 10 ; 64, 6 ; 
np. hus 90, 12 ; dp. 43, 7. 

hasl, n., housel, eucharist: gs. 
husles 12, 15 ; as. hiisl 12, 14 ; 
12, 17. 

hasl-gang, m., attendance upon, 
or partaking of, the eucharist: 
ns. 78, 24. 

hwa, hwset (S. 341), pron., 1. 
(interr.) who, what: ns. hwa 
64, 3 ; 65, 10 ; hua 31, 20 ; 152, 
12 ; 153, 11 ; hwset 4, 11 ; 10, 
15 ; 32, 25 ; gs. hwses 54, 5 ; ds. 
hwam 3, 18 ; 78, 31 ; 79, 2 ; as. 
hwset 3, 7; 9, 20 ; 33, 6 ; 39, 17; 
— ds. t5 hwgem, ivherefore, 116, 
12; for hw^m 48, 7; is. hwT, 
why, wherefore, 4, 9 ; 108, 16 ; 
hwy 48, 7; 60, 9; for hwl 53, 
25 ; for hwy 53, 20 ; 60, 8 ; for 
hwon 124, 18 ; for hwan 127, 21 ; 



162, 6; — hwset, interj., what] 
lo ! behold ! 7, 12 ; 62, 12 ; 64, 
8; 67, 1; 72, 27.-2. (indef.) 
anyone, anything : ns. hwa 3, 5 ; 
29; 13; 76,' 12; 112, 17; 151, 19; 
hwset 54, 16 ; swa hwa swa, 
whosoever, 7, 20 ; ds. hwgem 30, 
6 ; 54, 16 ; as. hwsene, some 
one, 149, 2 ; hwaet 54, 9 ; sws, 
hwset swa, whatsoever, 8, 4 ; 49, 
10 ; 67, 5 ; to "Sees hwon, how- 
ever, 93, 14. 

hwael, m., whale : ns. 39, 23 ; gs. 
hwales 40, 9; hwseles 40, 10; 
40, 15 ; np. hwalas 39, 23. 

hwael-hunta, m., whale-fisher: 
np. huntan 38, 12. 

hw8el-hunta9', m., whale-fishing : 
ns. 39, 25. 

hwanan, see hwQnan. 

hw^aenne, see hwQnne. 

hAvser (hwar), adv., 1. (interr.) 
where, wherever : 22, 26 ; 70, 24 ; 
161, 3. — 2. (indef.) everywhere, 
anywhere : 29, 13 ; wel hwser, 
nearly everyujhere, 29, 11 ; swa 
hwjer swa, wheresoever, 101, 16. 

hwaet, see hwa. 

hwsete, m., wheat: as. 3, 15. 

hwset-hwugu (-hwegu), 1. pron., 
something : as. 9, 15 ; 37, 5. — 
2. adv., somewhat : 51, 19. 

hwseffer, pron. adj. (S. 342), 1. 
(interr.) luhether, vjhich of two : 
as. hwseSerne 45, 13 ; hwse'Ser 
39, 2. — 2. (indef.) ds. bi swa 
hwa^erre efes swa, on whichever 
side : 18, 21. 

hwaBiaCer, conj. adv., lohether : 12, 
13 ; 38, 8 ; 45, 5 ; 53, 10 ; 62, 8 ; 
117, 5. 

hwseiarre ThwaeSere), adv., how 



GLOSSARY, 



319 



ever, nevertheless : 8, 12 ; 9, 19 ; 
11, 29 ; 172, 25; hwsebere 63, 5 ; 
119, 19. 

hwearfian (W. II.), tuim, revolve, 
move (intr.): ptc. hwearfiende 
50, 5 ; 3 sg. hwearfa-S 50, 5 ; 3 
pi. hwearfia-S 50, 9. 

liwelc, see hwilc. 

liwene, see hwon. 

hweol, n., luheel : ns. 6, 23 ; 50, 
11 ; gs. hweoles 51, 9 ; np. hweol 
50,9. 

hweorfan, hwearf hwurfon hwor- 
fen (3), tuj'n, return, move, go, 
come (intr. ) : inf. 162, 19 ; 3 sg. 
hwerf-S 50, 11 ; 3 pi. hweorfaS 
182, 15 ; imp. 2 pi. hweorfaS 
118, 11. 

hwider (hwseder), adv., ichUher : 
116, 5 ; 162, 19; swa hwider swa, 
whithersoever, 100, 13 ; 105, 22. 

hwlerfan (hwirfan, hwyrfan) (W. 
I.), turn, return (intr.): ptc. 
hwyrfende 128, 1 ; 2 sg. hwyrf- 
est 117, 8 ; imp. 2 sg. hwyrf 127, 
25 ; pret. 3 sg. hwirfde 121, 3 ; 
3 pi. hwirfdon 121, 27. 

hwil, f., ichile, time : ds. hwile 78, 
5 ; as. "Sa hwile "Se, the while that, 
ichile, 6, 12 ; 7, 4 ; 19, 7 ; 28, 19 ; 
ealle hwile, all the while, 159, 7 ; 
ealle "Sa hwile J?e, all the lohile 
that, 43, 7 ; ds. oSre hwile . . . 
o5re hwile, at one time . . , at 
another time, 50, 19 ; dp. hwilum, 
sometimes, 43, 4 ; 46, 9 ; 53, 6 ; 
hwilum . . . hwilum 28, 29; 
41, 2; 49, 23; hwilon 31, 25; 
(nnce) 107, 14; 108, 1. 

hwile (hwylc, hwelc), pron. adj. 
(S. 342), i«/iic/i, lohat, 1. (interr.) : 
91, 18 ; hwyk 12, 15 ; 53, 5 ; 53, 



11 ; 59, 3 ; ds. hwilcere 88, 25 ; 
hwylcum 3, 19 ; as. hwylc 10, 
10 ; np. hwilce 50, 3 ; hwydce 50, 
4 ; hwelce 26, 3 ; hwelc 27, 7. — 
2. (indef . ) : ns. swa hwelc swa, 
whosoever, 15, 2. 

hwil-w^nde, adj., temporary, 
transitory : ap. -w^ndan 78, 12. 

hwil-w^ndlic (wil-, -^ndlic), adj., 
temporary, transitory : ns. hwil- 
^ndlic 59, 17 ; gs. wilw^ndlices 
62, 18 ; as. -lican 101, 12 ; dp. 
wilw^ndlecum 62, 17. 

hwylc, see hwile. 

hwil-w^ndlice, adv., temporarily: 
7S,1. 

hw^irfan, see hw^ierfan. 

hwit, adj., ivhite : gs. hwites 88, 
23 ; as. hwit 148, 7 ; np. 175, 16. 

hwon, n., trijle : adv. hwou 
(ace), hwene (instr.), a little, 
somewhat : hwon 38, 17 ; hwene 
40, 23. 

hwQnan (hwanan), adv., whence: 
10, 15 ; 56, 20 ; hwanan 136, 1. 

hwouliee, adv., moderately, slight- 
ly : 101, 13. 

hwQnne (hwanne, hwsenne), adv., 
when, 1. (interr.) : 69, 12 ; 168, 12 ; 
hwsenne 151, 15. — 2. (indef.): 
na hwQune, just now, 53, 4 ; 

. hwgenne, at any time, 2, 8. 

hwopan (R.) {boast), threaten: 
inf. 185, 10. 

hwylc, see hwile. 

hwyrfan, see hw^ierfan. 

hycgan (hicgan ; S. 416, n. 3) 
(W. III.), think, resolve: inf. 
hicgan 149, 4 ; opt, 3 sg. hycge 
160, 14. 

hyd, 1, hide : ns. 39, 22 ; ds. hyde 
40. 10. 



320 



GLOSS ABY. 



hyge (hige), m., mind, heart: ns. 

Mge 159, 15 ; ds. hige 149, 4 ; is. 

hige 181, 22. 
hyge-gaels, adj., hesitating, slow, 

sluggish: ns. -g^lsa 176, 2. 

[g^lan.] 
hyht (liiht), m., hope: ns. 179, 

24 ; hiht 123, 28. 
hyhtlioe, Sidy., joyfully : 167,28. 
hyldo, f., grace, favor: ns. 144, 

31. [hold.] 
hynan (hienan, henan) (W. I.), 

treat with insult, despise, injure, 

lay low, fell : inf. 155, 5 ; henan 

45, 17 ; pret. 3 sg. hynde 159, 27. 

[hean.J 
hyran, see hieran. 
hyrde, see hierde. 
hyrne, f ., eorner : ds. hyrnan 103, 

24 ; np. hyrnan 36, 9 ; dp. 36, 

8 ; ap. 36, 1. [horn.] 
hyrned-n^bb,adj., having a horny 

beak : as. -n^bban 148, 6. 
hyrsumian (hersumian) (W. II.), 

obey (w. dat.) : 1 pi. hersumia'5 

124, 8 ; 3 pi. hyrsumia« 4, 12 ; 

pret. 3 pi. hersumedon 26, 7. 
hyse, m.., young man, imrrior : ns. 

154, 8 ; gs. hysses 153, 28 ; np. 

hyssas 152, 29; 153, 10; gp. 

hyssa 149, 2 ; 153, 15. 



I. 



ic, first pers. pron. (S. 332), /.- ns. 
9,16; 9, 17 ; gs. min 30, 3; 117, 
10; ds. me 9, 15; 9, 19; 26,2; 
as. mec (me) ; mec 161, 5 ; me 
114, 4. — Dual, nom. wif60, 5; 
60, 6 ; 138, 14 ; 143, 21 ; wyt 
131, 26 ; gen. uncer (twega) 143, 



22; dat. unc (bam) 132, 27; 

ace. unc. 132, 2. — Plural, nom. 

we 3, 18 ; 13, 2 ; gen. ure 27, 19 ; 

27, 24; dat. us 27, 7; 60, 10- 

60, 11 ; ace. usic 187, 1 ; us 72, 

30. 
idel (ydel), adj., idle, vain, useless, 

empty, desolate : ns. 163, 26 ; 

ydel 76, 14 ; gs. Idles 8, 17 ; ds. 

idelum 96, 28 ; as. idlan 65, 14 ; 

np. idlan 70, 26; idlu 163, 3; 

on Idel, adv., in vain, 79, 1. 
idig (?), adj., greedy (V) : np. 

idge 179, 8. 
ieldra, see yldra. 
ierming (earming), m., poor, 

wretched one : gp. ierminga 34, 

18. 
ieierian (y^ian) (W. II.), fluctu- 
ate : ptc. ie^egende 35, 16. 
iggaS" (Iga«, Igeo>, Igott), m., 

e'yot, small island : ds. IgeotSe 75, 

9 ; a^. igga^ 19, 7. 
ig-lQnd, n., island: ns. 165, 9; 

ds. iglande 93, 17; as. Igland 

22, 7 ; np. igland 41, 15 ; 42, 1 ; 

gp. -landa 41, 30. 
ilea (ylca), pron. (S. 339), the same: 

ns. ylca 132, 27 ; ilc8 6,26; gs.il- 

can24, 9; ds. ilcan 33, 8; as.ilcan 

20, 12 ; ilce 20, 14 ; is. ilcan 35, 

27 ; ylcan 22, 13 ; 22, 17. 
Ilfing, the Elbing : ns. 42, 19 ; as. 

42, 21. 
in, prep., in, into : 1. (w. dat.) : 8, 1 ; 

160,18; 161,21; 162,28; 162,31.— 

2. (w. ace): 11, 13 ; 62,18.— Adv., 

in (on): 21,29; 38, 15; inn 36, 12. 
in-bryrdnis, f., inspiration, ardor : 

as. -nisse 8, 7 ; -nesse QQ, 1. 
inca, m., scruple, offence, ill-will: 

ds. incan 12, 19 ; as. 12, 21. 



GLOSSABY, 



■321 



incer, dual poss. pron., of you 

tivo : as. incre 77, 20, 
In-cund, adj., inward: ds. in- 

cundan 96, 20. 
in-dryliten, adj., very noble : ns. 

160, 12. 
In-dryhto, f., honor, glory : dp. 

172, 1. [94, 23. 

in-faer, n., entrance: as. 91, 10; 
in-ge-hid (-hygd), f., thought, 

purpose : as. Ill, 4. 
in-ge-iaeQnc, m. n,, thought, mind : 

as. 30, 11 ; is. -'S^nce 30, 2. 
in-gQng, m., entrance : gs. -ganges 

139, 9; ds. -gQnge 11, 10; as. 

-gQng 12, 27. 
in-ggngan (R.), go in : ptc. -gQiig- 

ende 62, 7. 
inuan, 1. prep. (w. dat., ace), in, 

within : w. ace. 23, 7. — 2. adv. : 

172, 3. 
innan-bordes, (gen.) adv., within 

borders, at home : 26, 9. 
inne, adv., within, inside, in : 12, 

12 ; 12, 14 ; 18, 5 ; 43, 3. 
iutinga, m., cause, sake, occasion: 

ns. 9, 6. 
in-to (cf. in and to), prep. (w. 

dat. and ace), into, to, against: 

84, 15 ; 106, 5. 
in-weard, adj., inward, earnest: 

ds. -weardre 80, 12 ; — adv., 

vnthin, 138, 6. 
in-weardlice, adv., inwardly, 

deeply : 74, 17. 
in-wit (in-wid), n., guile, wicked- 
ness : ns. 69, 8. 
in-wit (in-widd), adj., hateful, 

malign : ns. inwitta 147, 23. 
10, see gio. 

iowan (eowan, lewan) (W. I.), 
shoio, expound: inf. 37, 7. 



Ira-land (Ir-land), n., 1. Ireland: 
ds. Irlande 104, 30. — 2. (proba- 
bly an error for Iceland): ns. 41, 
15 ; ds. 41, 15. 

iren (isen, isern), n., iron: 157, 
17. 

irnan, see yrnan. 

is (ys), see been. 

is, n., ice : ds. ise 99, 6. 

isen (ysen, Isern, iren), adj., iron, 
made of iron : ap. ysenan 133, 
26 ; 134, 5. 

iu, see gio. 

ludeas, n. pi., the Jews: dp. 119, 
21. 

ludeisc, adj., Jewish : np. Judeis- 
can 112, 1 ; dp. 109, 18. 

iugoS", see geogoff. 

iung, see geong. 



la, interj., To! behold! 136, 18; 

hwset la 78, 7 ; wei la wei, alas ! 

7, 12. 
lac, n., present, offering, sacrifice: 

ds. lace 111, 10 ; as. lac 142, 14 ; 

145, 12 ; dp. 96, 13 ; ap. lac 96, 

25. [cf. Mod. wed-lock.] 
lacan, leolc lee leeon laeen (R.), 

leap, play, sport: 3 pi. lacat? 

176, 4. 
Isece, m., leech, physician : ns. 53, 

21 ; ds. ISce 46, 15 ; np. leeeas 

31, 28; Iseceas 31, 25; 53, 26; 

ap. Ifficas 31, 21. 
Isece-dom, m., medicine, remedy: 

ns. 76, 14. 
lacnian (W. II.), treat with medi- 
cal skill ; cure : inf. 31, 22 ; 3 sg, 

lacna'S 56, 19. 



322 



GLOSSABT. 



laedan ( W. l.),lead, conduct, bring: 
inf. 5, 11; 12, 4 ; 47, 7 ; 2 sg. 
ISdest 133, 9 ; 3 sg. l£et 33, 8 ; 
opt. 3 sg. l^de 46, 14 ; pret. 3 sg. 
Igedde 7, 12; 25, 5; 3 pi. -on 6, 21. 

lifieden (Leden, Lyden), adj., Latin: 
ns. Leden HI, 19; gs. Ledenes 
111, 25 ; ds. L^dene 26, 19 ; Le- 
denum 87, 5 ; Ledene 86, 8 ; 107, 
2 ; as. L^den 28, 28 ; Lyden 107, 
17. 

liseden-boc (Lyden-), 1, Latin 
book : dp. 108, 9. 

liseden -ge-ffeode (-^lode), n., 
Latin language : gs. -'Siodes 28, 
24 ; as. -^lode 28, 22. 

Lseden-ware, pi. m., Latin peo- 
ple; Bomans : np. 28, 8. 

laf, f., remnant, remainder : ns. 
21, 15 ; 70, 23 ; daro«a laf, leav- 
ings of darts, survivors of battle, 
147, 31 ; gs. lafe, inheritance, 178, 
6; ds. to lafe, remaining, 43, 11; 
115, 3 ; 115, 10 ; as. wyrmes lafe 
71, 18 ; swoles lafe, survival of 
the burning, 174, 15 ; ades lafe 
174, 18 ; fyres lafe 174, 22 ; dp. 
hamora lafum, leavings of ham- 
mers ; swords, 146, 6. 

Isefan (W. I.), leave : pret. 3 sg. 
Iffifde 15, 10 ; 3 pi. -don 27, 21. 

lagu (lago), m., sea, lake, water: 
as. 168, 20. [Ger. Lache.] 

lagu-flod, m., ocean-flood, sea : gp. 
-floda 167, 19. 

lagu-lad, f., ocean-ivay, sea: as. 
-lade 100, 3. 

lagu-stream, m. , ocean-stream, 
sea, river: np. -streamas 151, 14; 
167, 11. 

Lae-land, n., Laalnnd (Denmark) : 
ns. 42, 7. 



lam, m., loam, clay: is. lame 184, 

12. 
l£en, n., loa7i : ds. liene 29, 13. 

[Ger. Lehen.] 
land, see Ignd. 
land-ar, f ., possessions in land : 

ap. -are 78, 3. 
l£ene, adj., granted as a loan, tem- 
porary, transitory, perishable : 

ns. 163, 24 ; gs. leenan 71, 5 ; 

181, 1 ; as. Isenne 172, 23 ; np, 

leene 52, 6. 
lane (lyne, iQnu), f., lane, street: 

ap. l^nan 119, 15 ; lanan 123, 1 ; 

123, 6. 
Langa-land, n., Lang eland (Den- 
mark) : ns. 42, 6. 
langian (W. II.), cause longing 

(impers. w. ace. of pers.): inf. 

71, 13. 
langsum, adj., long, lasting a long 

time : gs. -suman 93, 24 ; ds. 

-sumum 79, 21. 
langung, f., longing, grief: ns. 

71, 11 ; ds. -unga 71, 8. 
lar, f., lore, teaching, learyiing, 

doctrine, advice : ns. 63, 13 ; 76, 

15 ; gs. lare 10, 19 ; ds. lare 1, 5 ; 
11, 15 ; 64, 24 ; as. lare 26, 12 ; 
30, 22 ; ap. lara 111, 5. 

lar-cwide, m., precept, instruc- 
tion : dp. 161, 15. 

Iseran (W. I.), teach, advise, ex- 
hort: inf. 1, 1 ; 11, 1 ; 28, 22; 
ger. Iseranne 31, 16; 37, 12; 
ptc. leerende 36, 20 ; 1 sg. Isere 
30, 7 ; 64, 26 ; 3 sg. l^rS 32, 12 ; 
ISre-S 62. 20 ; 3 pi. l^ra^S 7, 16 ; 
33,25; opt.3sg.l^re28,21; 30, 

16 ; pret. 3 sg. 1, 5 ; iO, 20 ; 62, 2 ; 
pp. leered 63, 14 ; gelared 8, 14, 

lareow [O. N. lero, lereoj, 



GLOSSARY, 



32^ 



m., teacher ; ns. 32, 2 ; 76, 17 ; 
117, 16 ; gs. lareowes 33, 3 ; as. 
lareow 80, 13 ; np. lareowas 11, 
6 ; 31, 8 ; gp. lareowa 27, 3 ; dp. 

33, 17 ; ap. lareowas 93, 21. 
lareow-dom (lariow-), m., in- 
struction; gs. -domes 31, 10; 
lariow- 31, 18 ; ds. lariowdome 
32, 12 ; as. -dom 31, 15. 

laerig, m. , edge, border (of a 
shield) : ns. 158, 17. 

laes, comp. adv., less: 25, 9; 25, 
15 ; 64, 23 ; he Ises, the less, 51, 
20 ; he (by, hi) lees, conj., lest 
(w. opt.) 2, 8; hy l^s 30, 6 ; 
115, 1 ; hi Ises 76, 10. 

l£essa, comp. adj., less: ns. 39, 
23 ; l*sse 140, 12 ; ds. Igessan 

34, 28 ; 59, 10 ; as. l^sse 35, 1 ; 
Isessan 46, 9. — Supl., l^st ns. 
3, 21 ; Iffista 43, 16 ; Isesste 64, 10. 

l^st, see Igessa. 

last, m., track, footprint: ds. on 

laste, behind, 163, 13; 180, 15; 

as. on last l^cg^iw, follow, 146, 22 ; 

ap. lastas l(jcgan, go, 142, 6. 
Isetan, leort let leton l^ten (R.), 

let, allow, leave : inf. 46, 29; 3 sg. 

l^t 55, 21; 3 pi. l^taS {place) 

51, 14; imp. 2 sg. l^t 36, 25; 

119, 12 ; pret. 3 pi. 152, 25. 
late, adv., late, tardily, sloidy : 

60, 6; 176, 4. flahes 167,'2. 

laj>, n., injury, misfortune : gs. 
laff, adj., loathly, hateful, hostile : 

ds. latere 152, 7 ; np. laSe 152, 

3; gp. laSra 146, 9; dp. 146, 22. 

— Comp., as. laSre 150, 29. 
Ia9'-ge-iii3'la, m., (hostile) perse- 
cutor, foe : ns. 166, 29. 
Ia9'-lic, adj., loathsome : ns. -llco 

70, 21, 



IseaPa" (lS^'■5ll), f., injury, offence. 

malice : dp. 185, 10. 
Isewede, adj., unlearned, lay : ns. 

93, 4 ; ds. Isewedan 100, 15 ; -um 

(for -an) 108, 25. [Mod. lewd.] 
leaf, n., leaf: np. 166, 18. 
leaf-scead, n., leafy shade: ds. 

-sceade 172, 8. 
leahtor, m., moral defect, offence, 

crime : ds. leahtre 136, 4 ; ap. 

leahtras 76, 16 ; 181, 1. [lean, 

* to blame.'] 
lean, m. n., reward, gift, favor: 

ds. leane 178, 16 ; gp. leana 57, 

8 ; 145, 12. [Ger. Lohn.] 
leanian (W. II.), reward, recom- 
pense (w. dat. of pers. and ace. 

of thing): inf. 57, 2. 
leas, adj., 1. loose, free from, bereft 

of (w. gen.): np. lease 163, 2; 

dp. 180, 29. — 2. false, deceptive . 

ns. 112, 15 ; np. 7, 16 ; ap. 112, 19. 
leasung, f., deception, falsehood: 

gs. -unge 8, 16 ; ap. -unga 141, 24. 
l^ccan ( W. I.), irrigate, lave : 3 pi. 

l^ccah 167, 13. [liccian, ' to 

lick.'] 
l^cgan (W, I.), lay, put: imp. 

2 sg. l^ge 83, 19 ; opt. 3 sg. l^cge 

161, 19 ; — inf. lastas l^cgan, go, 

journey, 142, 6 ; pret. 3 pi. on 

last l^gdon, /oZZoiw (w. dat.), 146, 

22. [licgan.] 
lefan, see liefan. 
Lega-ceaster, f., Chester : ns. 21, 

20. 
leger, n., lying ; illness : ns. 167, 

5 ; ds. legere 43, 29. [licgan,] 
l^ncten, m., spring : ds. l^nctenne 

173,27. [Mod. lent.] 
leo, m., lion : ace. sg. leon 5, 16. 

[Lat. leo.] 



324 



GLOSSARY. 



leod, 1, 1. a people, nation: ds. 
leode 90, 9. — 2. pl.leode (leoda) 
(S. 264) , people : np. leoda 103. 
15 ; dp.' 150, 29 ; ap. leoda 99, 19 ; 
150, 16. [Ger. Leute.] 

leod-bisceop, m., bishop (of a dis- 
trict') : np. -bisceopas 81, 15. 

leod-fruma, m., first among a 
people, prince, king : as.-fruman 
177, 4. 

leod-scipe, m., people, nation, 
country : ds. -scipe 185, 10. 

leof, adj., lief, pleasing, dear, he- 
loved: ns.68, 5;69, 8; 70, 17; 72, 
15 ; gs. leofes 142, 14 ; ds. leofan 
74, 18; as.leofiie 149,7; np. (voc.) 
leofan 12,24. — Comp., ns.leofra 
15, 16 ; leofre (or -ra) 144, 30.— 
Supl., ns. leofost 70, 16 ; 150, 2 ; 
ns. (voc.) leof usta 30, 1 ; np. (voc.) 
leofostan 67, 2 ; -estan 72, 5. 

leoflic, adj., pleasant : as. 180, 15. 

leogan, leag lugon logen (2), lie, 
litter falsely : pret. 3 pi. 141, 5. 

leoht, adj., light, not heavy ; easy : 
ns. 31, 9; 176, 5; np. leohte 30, 
6; ap. 41, 7. 

leoht, adj., light, bright, clear : is. 
leohte 181, 24. 

leoht (lioht), n., light, brightness: 
ns. 78, 21 ; 85, 3 ; gs. leohtes 7, 
13; ds. liohte 7, 18; leohte 80J 
7 ; as. leoht 7, 15. f3, 1. 

leoht-fset, n., lantern, lamp : ns. 

leohtKc, adj., light, of little weight 
or importance: dp. 110, 18. 

leoma, m., light, radiance; ray or 
beam of light: ns. 168, 22 ; 169, 
6 ; ap. leoman 85, 5. 

leornere, m., learner, disciple, 
scholar : gs. leorneres 30, 1 1 ; 
np. leomeras 179, 25 ; ap. 10, 13. 

leornian (liornian) (W.II.), learn : 



3 pi. leornia'S 34, 3 ; opt. 3 sg. 

leornige 30, 13 ; 3 pi. -en 55, 21 ; 

pret. 3 sg. leornode 31, 17 ; -ade 

8, 14; liornode 32, 12; 3 pi. 

-odon 11, 7 ; 33, 22. 
leorning-cniht, m., disciple : ds. 

-cnihte 74, 19 ; np. -cnihtas 31, 8 •, 

dp. 3, 26. 
leornung (liornung), f ., learning : 

gs. -unge 36, 30; ds. liornunga 

28, 19; -unge 35, 21; as. lior- 
nunga 26, 12. 
leoiar, n., song : gs. leofes 8, 17; as. 

leo« 9, 4; 10, 14; is. leofJe 10, 23; 

np. leo« 11, 5 ; ap. 8, 3 ; 8, 12. 
leoS'-craeft, m., poetic skill or art : 

as. 8, 14. 
leo>-sQng, n., sojig, poem: gs. 

-S(^nges 10, 20 ; dp. 8, 8. 
leoSSu-crseftig, adj., skilful of 

limb : as. 174, 14. 
letania (Isetania), m. f., litany.- 

dp. letanium 93, 6 ; ap. letanias 

93, 1 ; 93, 9. [Lat. litanla.] 
jLevita (Lauita), gp. the Lapithae: 

6, 24. 
libban (lybban, lifgan) (W. III., 

S. 415), live : inf. 33, 21 ; lybban 

107, 11 ; lifgan 188, 14 ; ptc. 

lybbende 95, 10 ; lyfigende 134, 

2 ; gs. lifigendan 84, 31 ; ds. 99, 
19 ; 3 sg. leofa« 73, 4 ; 97, 12 ; 
105, 29 ; 3 pi. libbaS 33, 26 ; 55, 
13 ; 126, 30 ; lifga« 185, 24 ; opt. 

3 sg. libbe 30, 15 ; lybbe 92, 6 ; 
lifge 68, 21 ; pret. 3 sg. lifde 71 ; 

4 ; leofode (S. 416, n. 2) 87, 7 ; 
100, 9 ; 3 pi. leofodon 107, 12. 

lie, n., body, corpse : ns. 17, 10 ; 
43, 8 ; ds. lice 75, 26 ; as. lie 75, 
23 ; ap. He 83, 20. [Ger. Leiche.] 

licettan (W. I.), profess falsely, 
pretend : 3 sg. licet 32, 2. 



GLOSSARY. 



325 



licgan, Iseg Isegon (lagon) legen 

(5), 1. lie, lie dead: inf. 159, 22 ; 

ptc. licgende 104, 8 ; 118, 15 ; 3 

sg. 1I> 17, 10 ; 43, 2 ; 103, 6 ; 

ligeiS 156, 17 ; 3 pi. licga'5 44, 5 ; 

pret. 2 sg. lage 135, 19; 3 sg. 

15, 12; 3 pi. 15, 5; 152, 29; 

Llgon 147, 5 ; 155, 8. — 2. extend, 

run (of land and stream) : 3 sg. 

115 18, 2; 40, 18; 41, 21; 42, 

16 ; 3 pi. licgaS 40, 19 ; pret. 3 

sg. 39, 3 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. Isege 

38,8. 
Iic-hQma (-liama), m., body : ns. 

-hama 69, 10 ; gs. -haman 31, 

21 ; 88, 23 ; ds. -ligman 33, 14 ; 

52, 3 ; as. lychaman 130, 23. 

[Ger. Leiclmam.] 
lic-hQmlic (-hamlic),adj., bodily : 

ds. -Here 11, 29 ; licliamlicere 

85,9. 
lic-hQmlice, adv., corporally: 61, 1. 
lician (W. II.), like, please (w. 

dat.; personal and impers. ) : inf. 

183, 3 ; 3 sg. llca^S 119, 11 ; 3 pi. 

licia« 7, 23 ; opt. 3 sg. licige 122, 

30 ; 1 pi. lician 68, 30 ; pret. 3 

sg. licode 123, 4. 
lic-mgnn, m., pall-bearer : gp. lic- 

manna 79, 19 ; dp. -mannum 79, 

16. 
lic-r^st, f., sepulchre : ds. -r^ste 

103, 12. 
lid, n., ship : gs. lides 147, 4 ; 147, 

11. [li^an.] 
lid-mQnn, m., sailor, pirate : np. 

-m^n 152, 16 ; gp. -manna 154, 20. 
liefan (lifan lefan) (W. I.), allow, 

permit : pret. 1 pi. lefdon 27, 9. 

[leaf.] 
lif, n., life : ns. 30, 18 ; gs. ITfes 8, 

10; 12,27; as. llf 11,26; 34,29. 



lifer, f ., liver : as. lifre 7, 2. 
liflic, adj., pertaining to life: ds. 

80, 15. 
lig (\eg), m.., flame, Jire : ns. 1Q6, 

18 ; 172, 21 ; 174, 14 ; 182, 20 ; 

is. lige 142, 13 ; dp. 80, 9. [Ger 

Lohe.] 
lig-bryne, m., burning of flames, 

burning : ds. 185, 5. 
lig-}>racu, f., violence of flames : 

ds. -hrsece 172, 28 ; 177, 29. 
lihtan (W. I.), alight {from a 

horse) : pret. 3 sg. lihte 150, 2. 
lihtan (lyhtan) (W . 1.) , shine : 3 

sg. lyhte-S 171, 18; llhte'S 185, 

15. [leoht.] 
lim, n., limb, bodily member : dp. 

104, 6 ; leomum 187, 20 ; ap. 

leomuO, 13; 71,21; 182, 28. 
liimen, f., the Limen (river or 

estuary in Kent) : gs. Limene 

17,27; 19, 27; 23,10. 
lind, f., (linden) , shield : as. linde 

157, 8 ■ ap. linde 152, 16. 
Lindes-ig, f ., Lindesey (dist. in 

Lincolnshire) : ds. -ige 103, 8. 
Iiindis-farn-ea (-farena-ea) , f,, 

Lindisfarne Island, Lindisfarne : 

gs. 103, 1. 
liss « liSs), f., favor, delight : gp. 

lissa 170, 11 ; i84, 20 ; dp. 144, 30. 
litel, see lytel. 
lit-hwon, adv., little : 105, 3. 
liiafe, adj., mild, gentle: as. IKne 

53, 23. [Ger. gelinde ; Mod. 

lithe.] 
lixan (W. I.), shine, glitter : inf. 

168, 13 ; 3 sg. lixeS 166, 12 ; 175, 

8 ; 175, 17 ; 3 pi. llxa« 186, 6. 
locc, m., lock {of hair) : ns. loc 

124,23; np. loccas 124, 25; ap. 

125, 2. 



326 



GLOSSARY, 



locian (W. II.), look: ptc. loci- 

ende 60, 24 ; 114, 12 ; imp. 2 sg. 

loca 35, 25 ; opt. 3 sg. 15cie 50, 

20 ; pret. 3 sg. locode 118, 22 ; 

locude 14, 17. 
lof, m., praise, glory, song of 

praise : ds. lofe 89, 22 ; as. lof 

12, 29; 13, 10; 72, 1; 102, 3; 

114, 23. [Ger. Lob.] 
lofian (W. II.), praise : 3 pi. lofia^ 

176, 25. 
lof-sang, m., so7ig of praise : as. 

137, 24. 
iQnd (land), n., land, country : ns. 

land 38, 4 ; gs. l^ndes 15, 14 ; 

ds. iQnde 11, 10 ; 18, 29 ; lande 

1, 4 ; as. land 1, 14 ; 3, 12 ; Iqnd 

22, 5 ; np. land 42, 10 ; gp, Ignda 

165, 2. 
iQnd-wela, m., earthly possessions : 

ap. -welan 182, 20. 
iQng (lang) , adj., long : ns. lang 

18, 1 ; 38, 4 ; ds. langum 102, 

5 ; np. lange 24, 4 ; 39, 26. — 

Comp., ns. l^ngra 18, 1 ; 39, 24. 
iQnge (lange), adv., Jong: 7, 5 ; 17, 

4 ; 29, 10 ; lange 104, 8. — Comp., 

l^ng 51, 20 ; 71, 8 ; l^ncg 43, 5. 

— Supl., longest 14, 4 ; 19, 8. 
Ignglice (lang-) , adv., long : lang- 

ITce 79, 22. 
losian ( W. IT.) , he lost, escape : 

opt. 3 sg. losige 105, 26 ; pret. 3 

sg. losade 7, 16. 
lot-wr^nc, m., deception, fraiid, 

loile : ap. -wr^ncas 49, 23. 

[lutan.] 
lacan, leac lucon locen (2) lock, 

interlock, close up (trans, and 

intrans.): inf. 172, 28; pret. 3 

pi. 151, 14. 
lufian (lufigean) (W. II.), love : 



inf. 56, 10; 70, 10; -igean 10, 

25 ; 1 sg. lufige 35, 25 ; 3 sg. 

lufa-S 70, 19 ; imp. 2 pi. lufiaS 

61, 14 ; 127, 8 ; pret. 3 sg. lufode 

71, 7; 95, 21 ; 1 pi. lufodon 27, 

8 ; pp. gelufod 74, 17 ; as. geluf- 

edan 75, 11. 
luflice, adv., lovingly : 26, 2. 
luf-tyme, adj., benevolent : as. 93, 

14. 
lufu, f., love : ds. lufan (S. 279, n. 

1) 11,20; 70, 2; as. lufe 7, 11 ; 

35, 13 ; 61, 6 ; dp. 35, 7. 
liunden-burg, 1, London: ds. 

-byrg 19, 23; -byrig 20, 2; 22, 

18 ; 23, 4. 
lust, m., lust, desire, pleasure : dp. 

74, 18; 79,9; 112, 12. 
lustlice, adv., willingly : 46, 29. 
lyb-craeft, m., skill in the use of 

drugs and of poison : ds. -crsefte 

113, 11. 
lyft, m. 1. n., the air: ns. 52, 12; 

ds. under lyfte 166, 18 ; on lyfte, 

on high, aloft, 169, 13 ; 176, 28 ; 

under lyft 168, 20 ; is. lyfte 167, 

11. [Ger. Luft.] 
Iiyge, f., the Lea : ds. Lygan 22, 18; 

as. 22, 15. 
lyge-word, n., hjing word, lie: 

dp. 184, 4. 
lyre, m., loss : ns. 167, 2. [leosan.] 
lysan ( W. I.), release, deliver : inf. 

150, 16. [leas.] 
lystan (W.I.), list; cause pleas- 
ure or desire (impers. w. ace. of 

pers. and gen. of thing): pret. 3 

sg. lyste 6, 2. 
lyt n., little, small number, few: 

as. 161, 8. 
lytegian (W. II.), dissemble, 

feign : inf. 152, 3. 



GLOSSARY. 



327 



lytel (litel), adj., little, small: ns. 

135, 17 ; ds. litlum 110, 16 ; as. 

lytel 60, 9 ; lytle 27, 16 ; is. lytle 

14, 11; 17, 13; 147, 11; ap. 

lytle 41, 6. (See ISssa.) 
lytlian (W. II.), lessen, diminish: 

3 sg. lytla« 159, 16. 



M. 



ma (m^), comp. adv., more: 63, 

24 ; Jjon ma )?e, any viore than, 
15, 21; 51, 8; — noun (adj.) 
indecl., nom. 155, 20 ; ace. 24, 5 ; 
28, 4 ; 40, 5 ; 43, 12. 

mseden (mtegden), n., maiden: 
ns. 84, 27 ; 104, 8 ; gs. mSdenes 
74, 21 ; as. mseden 104, 10. 

mSg, m., kinsman: ns. 15, 16 ; 
71, 21; 101, 10; (son) 143, 8; 
ds. mSge 145, 2 ; np. mgegas 15, 

15 ; magas (S. 240) 86, 15 ; gp. 
maga 83, 32; 147, 17; 161, 28; 
dp. msegum 15, 18 ; magum 43, 
3 ; 98, 4. 

magan (PP., S. 424), may; be 
able : 1 sg. mseg 27, 1 ; 50, 2 ; 

2 sg. meaht 9, 19 ; 50, 3 ; 51, 20 ; 

3 sg. mfeg 7, 11 ; 1 pi. magon 28, 

16 ; 2 pi. 61, 5 ; mage ge 2, 10 ; 
3 pi. 3, 24 ; 31, 23 ; opt. 2 sg. 
msege 27, 5 ; 3 sg. 36, 5 ; 41, 20 ; 
46, 16; 1 pi. msegen 28, 15 ; 3 pi. 
28, 19 ; 53, 20 ; 55, 24 ; pret. 1 
sg. meahte 29, 5 ; 3 sg. meahte 
5, 5; 5, 12; 11, 3 ; m^lite 39, 3 ; 
3 pi. mealiton 27, 17; m^liton 19, 
14 ; mihton 3, 25 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
meahte 8, 13 ; 10, 20 ; 12, 7 ; 38, 
14; 45, 5; m^lite 18, 19; m^hte 40, 

25 ; 3 pi. meahten 24, 8 ^ 46, 25. 



maegen, n., main, strength, might, 

valor, virtue : ns. 159, 16 ; gs. 

meegenes 32, 18 ; 63, 17 ; ds. 

msegne 90, 16 ; as. msegen 31, 

10 ; 72, 2 ; is. msegene 59, 1 ; 68, 

17 ; maegne 181, 16 ; dp. 88, 15 ; 

(miracles) 117, 16. 
maegen - >rymm, m. , great 

strength, majesty, glory : gs. 

-Kymmes 188, 7 ; ds. ->>rymme 

77, 26 ; 135, 15 ; 136, 3. 
magister, m., master : ns. 107, 15. 

[Lat.] 
m^glic, adj., belonging to kins- 
men : 74, 4. 
mago (magu), m., son, man: ns. 

(voc.) 144, 26; 163, 8. 
meegar, f., kin, tHbe, province, 

nation : ns. 44, 4 ; ds, mSg^e 66, 

20 ; 86, 14. 
maegS'-liad, m.^ virginity, purity : 

gs. -hades 74, 6 ; ds. -hade 74, 

6 ; 74, 7 ; 74, 16. 
magu->egn, ra., thane, vassal, re- 
tainer : np. 4egnas 162, 9. 
meel, n., time, occasion : ap. msela 

156, 7. [cf. Mod. meal.] 
meeldan ( W. I.), speak, announce : 

pret. 3 sg. meelde 144, 22 ; 150, 

5 ; 150, 22. 
man, n., evil, sin: gs. manes 187, 

4. [cf. Ger. mein-eid.] 
msenan (W. I.), mean, intend: 

pret. 3 sg. mgende 48, 2, 
mancus, m., mancus (the eighth 

of a pound, the sum of thirty 

pence) : gp. mancessa 29, 7. 
man-daed, f., evil deed: gp. -dseda 

11, 21 ; ap. -dgede 181, 2. 
man-fr^mmend (ptc), m., eviU 

doer : dp. -fr^mmendum 165, 6. 
manfullice, adv., sinfully : 91, 27. 



328 



GLOSSARY, 



manian (mQnian) (W.II.), ad- 
monish, exhort, warn: inf. 156, 
23 ; ger. manigenne 93, 10 ; 1 sg. 
manige 68, 20 ; 3 sg. mana« 92, 1 ; 
pret. 3 sg. manode 37, 14 ; 96, 
15 ; niQnade 10, 26 ; manade 35, 
22 ; pp. pi. gemanode 156, 26. 

manig, see mQnig. 

maenigeo, see m^nigu. 

manig-feald, see mQnlg-feald. 

mann, see niQnn. 

manna, in. (?), manna: ns. 85, 11 ; 
ds. mannan 85, 11. [Lat.] 

mann-cwealm, m., mortality , pes- 
tilence : ns. 90, 8. 

mara, see micel. 

inseran (W. I.), make famous, glo- 
rify, honor: 3 pi. mgera'S 176, 
26 ; 177, 3 ; pp. gemSred 8, 2. 

msere, adj., famous, glorious : ns. 
99, 15; 146, 14; gs. mseres 99, 25; 
as. m^ran 75, 4; np. msere 78, 16. 
— SupL, ns. m^rost 169, 9. [Goth, 
-mers ; Ger. Mare, Marchen.] 

msersian (W.II.), make famous, 
celebrate, glorify: 2 sg. m^rsast 
92, 21 ; 3 pi. m^rsia« 186, 19. 

martyr, m., martyr: gp. martyra 
96, 26. [Lat] 

meerff, f ., fame, glory, honor : ns. 
137, 29; gp. mserSa 181, 17; ap. 
mser>a (famous things) 111, 2. 

Maser-feld, m., Maserfeld, Oswes- 
try : ds. -felda 102, 19. 

maesse, 1, 1. mass: as. maessan 
84, 12. — 2. festival day: ds. 
msessan 25, 13. [L. Lat. missa.] 

maesse-preost, n., mass-priest : ns. 
105, 1 ; ds. -preoste 29, 2 ; np. 
-preostas 69, 2. 

maesse-reaf, f., mass-robe : djD. 
-reafum 96, 25. 



m£est, see micel. 

msete, adj., intermediate, inferior . 
Comp., np. mgetran 50, 26.— 
SupL, np. msetestan 51, 4 ; 51, 6, 

mgeS", 1, measure, degree, condi- 
tion, fitness, right, honor : ns. 59, 
3 ; 155, 20 ; ds. mseSe 59, 4. 

msei5'el, n., popular assembly : ds. 
ni»«le 183, 24. 

ma>elian (W.II.), address, ha- 
rangue, speak : pret. 3 sg. ma- 
helode 144, 2 ; 150, 21 ; 159, 12. 

masafel-st^de, m., place of assem- 
bly ; battle-field : ds. 155, 24. 

maj>]?um-gyfa (ma>um-), m., giver 
of treasure, lord: ns. 163, 8. 

ma)7um (mabbnm), m., gift, treas- 
ure : gp. maj^ma 27, 15. 

me, see ic. 

meagol, adj., mighty, emphatic: 
dp. 176, 26. [magan,} 

meaht, meahte, see magan. 

meaht (miht), f., might, power.' 
as. meaht 165, 6 ; ap. meahte 9, 
26 ; mihte 63, 24 ; 82, 8 ; 82, 11. 

meahtig (mihtig, myhtig), mighty, 
powerful : ns, 183, 24 ; myhtig 
131, 25 ; meahta 178, 7. 

mearcian (W.II.), mark, repre- 
sent; mark out, design: 3 sg. 
mearca'S 49, 11 ; 3 pi. -ia-5 176, 
21. 

mearh (mearg), m., horse : ns. 
mearg 163, 8 ; ds. meare 157, 3 ; 
as. mear 155, 13. 

mearm-stan (marm-), m., marble- 
stone : ds. -stane 176, 21. [Lat. 
marmor.] 

inear>, m., marten : gs. mearSes 
40, 12. 

niec, see Ic. 

mece, m., sword : as. 154, 23 ; 



GLOSSARY. 



329 



156, 31 ; gp. meca 147, 17 ; dp. 
147, 1. 

med (meord), f., meed, reward: 
ns. 94, 2 ; gs. mede 53, 14 ; as. 
mede 92, 10 ; meorde (dial.) 181, 
17 ; dp. 144, 26. 

med-micel (-my eel), adj., moder- 
ately great ; limited, small : ds. 
-miclum 8, 6 ; 64, 11 ; as. -mycel 
13, 4 ; 116, 14 ; dp. -mycclum 
67,6. 

medo (medu, meodo), m., mead: 
ns. 43, 1 ; ds. meodo 156, 7 ; as. 
medo 42, 28. 

medomlice (medumlice), adv., 
moderately, worthily : 32, 10. 

med-trymnes (-trumnes), f., in- 
firmity, illness, disease : as. -nesse 
31, 24 ; 53, 28. 

mele-deaw, m. n., honey-dew (?), 
mildew : gs. -deawes 174, 6. 

m^n, see mQnn. 

in^ngan (W. I.), mingle, mix, com- 
bine ; disturb, lacerate : pret. 
3 sg. m^ngde 132, 14 ; pp. ge- 
m^nged 53, 8 ; 55, 17 ; 123, 7 ; 
161, 25 ; pi. gem^ngde 124, 26. 

m^nig, see mgnig. 

m^-nigu (m^niu, m^nigeo, msenig- 
eo), f., multitude: ns. m^negu 
1,2; 82, 20 ; 93, 3 ; mt^nigeo 27y 
15 ; msenigeo 133, 28 ; as. m^nigu 
3, 29 ; m^ngu 179, 21. 

m^nnisc, n., folk, race, people : ns. 
89, 2. 

iiKjnnIsc, adj., human : ns. -isce 
54, 11 ; ds. -iscum 103, 10; ap. 
-isce 130, 29. 

m^nniscnes, 1, human condition; 
incarnation: ds. -nesse 11, 12; 
-nisse, 108, 13 ; -nysse 74, 14 ; 
81. 12 ; 132. 2. 



meodo, see medo. 

meodu-heall (medu-), f., mead- 
hall: ds, -healle 161, 4. 
meolc, f., milk: as. 42, 27. 
meord, see med. 
3Ieore, More (dist. in Sweden) : 

ns. 42, 11. 
meos, n., moss: gs. meoses 99, 9. 
Meotod, see Metod. 
M^ran-tnn, m., Merton (Surrey) : 

ds. -tiine 14, 12. 
m^re, m., mere, lake, sea: ds. 

m^re 42, 22 ; as. m^re 147, 31 ; 

np. m^ras 41, 4 ; ap. 41, 5. [Ger. 

Meer.] 
m^re-flod, m., sea-flood, sea: ns. 

166, 21. 
3Iere-tnn, m., Merton (?), or Mar- 
den (?) (Wilts.): ds. -tune 17, 2. 
M^res-ig, f., Mersea (Essex) : ns. 

22, 8 ; as. -ige 22, 14. 
mergiSr, see myrgS*. 
metan (W.I.), meet, find: 3 pi. 

meta'S 173, 20 ; pret. 1 sg. mette 

64, 23; 3 sg. 39, 7; 3 pi. -on 15, 11. 
metan, mset m^ton meten (5), 

mete, measure, compare: ger. 

metanne 52, 6 ; 2 pi. meta'S, 3, 7; 

pp. gemeten 3, 8. 
m^te, m., meat, food : ns. 70, 24 ; 

85, 11; ds. 114, 25; as. 19, 8; 

dp. m^ttum 88, 10. 
m^te-liest (lyst), f., want of food : 

ds. -lieste 21, 5. 
metgian (W. II.), assign in due 

measure : 3 sg. metga'S, 54, 7. 
3Ietod (Meotod), m., Creator, 

Lord: ns. 143, 11 ; gs. Meotodes 

9, 26; Metodes 144, 17; ds. 

Metode 154, 3. 
met-trum (med-), adj., infirm, 

ill : np. -trume 103, 22. 



330 



GLOSSARY. 



meiafe, adj., vjeary : gp. me^ra 179, 
23. [Ger. miide.] 

micel (my eel, miccel, myccel), 
great : ns. 17, 4 ; mycel 1, 2 ; 
4, 2; micla 17, 23; 19, 26; gs. 
miclan 17, 28 ; micelre 11, 25 ; 
ds. mycelum 140, 19 ; micclum 
4, 10 ; as. miclne 21, 6 ; micle 
16, 5 ; 19, 1 ; mycele 1, 9 ; is. (w. 
comp.) Sidy, {much), micle 23, 16; 
39, 23; 50, 12; 51, 20; micele 
80, 29; micele 94, 2; 150, 29; 
np. micla 59, 10 ; dp. mycelum 
67, 6; adv. (greatly), mielum 
14, 17 ; 44, 3 ; ap. mycele 3, 23. 
— Comp., mara, ns. 28, 3; mare 
46, 11 ; 53, 5 ; 94, 2 ; as. maran 
63, 21 ; ap. maran 43, 5. — Supl., 
m^est, ns. 3, 22 ; 40, 7 ; 156, 18 ; 
as. msest 181, 7 ; msestan 8, 6 ; 
43, 14 ; mseste 154, 31 ; is. mgeste 
186, 20 ; np. msestan 39, 26 ; gp. 
m^stra 18, 23. 

micelnes, greatness : gs. -nesse 31, 
11; ds. -nysse 92, 8; as. -nesse 
60, 29. 

mid, prep, (with dat., instr., and 
ace), with (association, means, 
condition) : 1. (w. dat. and in- 
str.) 2, 4; 2, 16; 4, 2; 6, 20; 
10, 29; among, 40, 4; 43, 1; 
44, 1 ; prep, adv., 15, 15 ; 15, 
25; 36, 13; 40, 4; 65, 19; 70, 
27 ; instr. 7, 3 ; 12, 26 ; 18, 14 ; 
30, 2 ; 57, 12 ; myd eallum, al- 
together, entirely, 130, 24; mid 
ealle, with all else, withal, 17, 
26 (see ealle) ; mid \>j, when, 
12, 10 ; mid M 126, 12 ; mid hy 
\>e, when, 65, 5; 113, 11; mid 
>am, vnth that, thereupon, 140, 
20 ; mid ham l-set, from the fact 



that, because, 23, 18 ; mid ham 

he 110, 8 ; when, 75, 22.-2. (w. 

ace.) 8, 6; 11, 3; 17, 27; 77, 

13. 
midd, adj., middle : ds. middre 

174, 8; as. midde 121, 20; dp. 

125, 14; 176, 28. — Supl., np. 

midmestan 50, 16 ; 50, 25 ; 51, 

4 ; dp. 51, 4. 
middan-geard (-card), m., earth, 

world: gs. -geardes 11, 7; 36, 

9; -eardes 81, 9 ; as. -geard 10, 

3; 13, 8; is. -gearde 58, 2; 59, 

16. 
middan-geardlic (-eardlic), adj., 

worldly : ap. -eardlice 95, 7. 
middel, adj., middle : Supl., dp. 

midlestan (S. 293, n. 2) 50, 18. 
middel (midel), n., middle: ds. 

midle 167, 14. 
Middel-tun, m., 3Iilton Royal 

(Kent): ds. -tune 18, 8; 19, 25. 
midde-neaht (-niht), f ., midnight : 

as. 12, 13. 
midde-weard, adj., mid-v:ard, 

middle of: ns. 40, 24; 50, 23. 
miht, see meaht. 
mihte, see magan. 
mil, f., 7nile : ds. mile 43, 13 , gp. 

mila 18, 1; dp. 43, 19. [Lat. 

mllia.] 
milde, adj., mild, merciful : ns. 

milde 112, 16; ds. mildan 187, 

28 ; as. mildne 67, 9. 
mild-heort, adj., mild-hearted, 

merciful : ns. 61, 11 ; -heorta 92, 

17. — Supl., ns. myldheortesta 

131, 6. 
mild-heortnis, f., mild-hearted- 

ness, mercy : gs. -nysse 130, 22 ; 

ds. -nesse 54, 26 ; as. -nysse 80, 

28; 92, 18; -nesse 116, 22. 



GLOSSABT, 



33T 



milts, f ., mercy : gs. miltse 6, 19 ; 

160, 2 ; gp. miltsa 68, 18 ; 73, 2. 
niiltsian (W. II.), shoio mercy, 

pity (w. dat.) : inf. 80, 30 ; 92, 
22 ; 3 sg. miltsa^" 80, 29 ; opt. 3 
sg. miltsige 47, 4 ; pret. 3 sg. 
miltsode 80, 28. 

miltsung (mildsung), 1, mercy: 
ns. 93, 11 ; mildsung 47, 4 ; gs. 
-unge 83, 29 ; ds. 80, 16. 

inin, poss. pron., my, mine: gs. 
mines 151, 1 ; mines "S^nces, 
adv., by my will, 32, 15 ; ds. 
minum 28, 30 ; 159, 21 ; is. mine 
171, 7 ; np. mine 12, 24. 

mine, ni., mind, pui'pose, re- 
membrance, favor: as. minne 

161, 4. [Goth, muns ; Ger. 
Minne.] 

mirce (myrce), adj., murky, dark, 

evil : ap. 181, 2. 
miscian (W. II.), mix, apportion : 

3 sg. miscaiS 54, 7. 
mis-deed, f., misdeed: np. -dseda 

110, 15. 
mis-faran (6), go astray, trans- 
gress: 3 pi. -faraS 33, 4. 
xnislic, adj., various : dp. 28, 26 ; 

103, 22 ; ap. mislice 68, 6 ; mis- 

leca48, 11. 
missenlie, adj., various: np. -lice 

1(52, 22. 
i;)is-w^ndaii (W. I.), pervert: 

pp. pi. misw^nde 80, 2. 
mi 3* an, ma^S mib'on mi'Sen (1), 

conceal (with gen.) : pret. 1 sg, 

30, 3. [Ger. meiden.] 
mod, n., mood, mind, courage, 

pride : gs. modes 30, 13 ; 31, 20 ; 

ds. m5de 27, 25 ; 50, 19 ; as. 

m5d 7, 21 ; 12, 19 ; is. mode 12, 

11 ; 13, 6 ; 181, 16 ; np. mod 8, 9. 



mod-cearig, adj., sorrowful of 

heart : ns. 160, 2. 
modelie, adj., proud, splendid: 

ap. -lico 70, 13 ; 71, 3. 
mod-ge-]?anc, m., pmrpose of 

mind: as. 9, 26. 
modlg, 2iA].,resolute, brave, proud^ 

haughty : ns. 69, 7 ; modi 154, 

3 ; as. inodigan 98, 18 ; np. 

modige 151, 28. 
modignis, f . , pride, haughtiness : 

gs. -nysse 136, 21. 
modor (moder), f., mother: ns. 

79, 15 ; moder 84, 27 ; gs. meder 

(S. 285, n. 2) 79, 19 ; as. modor 

74, 19; np. modru 91, 21. 
modrige, f., maternal aunt: gs. 

moddrian 74, 3. [modor.] 
mod-sefa, m., mind, heart : ns. 162, 

6 ; as. -sefan 160, 10 ; 160, 19. 
mold-sern, n., grave : ds. -aerne 

184, 21. 
molde, f ., mould, earth, land, world, 

country: gs. moldan 71, 18; ds. 

69, 11 ; 174, 6 ; as. 104, 26 ; 165, 

10. 
mold-gr£ef, n., grave : dp. 183, 10. 
molsnian (W. II.), moulder, de- 
cay: pp. molsnad 184, 21. 
mona, m. , moon : gs. mSnan 78, 

21. 
monaS", m., month : ds. mon'Se 

41, 12 ; as. mona« 17, 12 ; 43, 3 ; 

gp. mon'Sa 167, 15 ; ap. m5na^ 

(S. 281, n. 2) 17, 1; 18, 10; 21, 

26 ; mon'Sas 97, 10. 
mQn-dryhten, m., liege lord: as. 

161, 18. 
mQnig (manig, msenig), adj., many, 

many a : ns. 146, 17 ; mgni 157, 

3 ; as. manigne 157, 7 ; m^nig 

10,8; 11,17; 13,10; 22,12; np. 



332 



GLOSSARY. 



mQnige 8, 11 ; 21, 10 ; m^nige 95, 
13 ; manega 59, 9 ; 86, 6 ; gp. 
niQiiigra 8, 9 ; dp. mQnegam 11, 
11 ; manegum 3, 24 ; msenegum 
56, 16 ; ap. manega 48, 11. 

mQnig-feald (manig-, m^nig-, 
-fald), manifold^ various : dp. 
manig- 28, 26 ; m^nig- 86, 2 ; 
110, 25 ; ap. manigfeald 55, 10 ; 
m^nigfealde 78, 28. 

mQuig-fealdian ( W.II.), multiply: 
pp. pi. gemgnigfealdode 67, 19. 

mgnig-fealdlic (manig-, m^nig-, 
-fald), adj., various : ns. manig- 
faldlic 49, 15. 

mQnig-fealdlice (m^nig-), adv., in 
the plural number: m^nig-110,11. 

mQnn (m^n, mann, man), m., 
man : ns. m^n 9, 14 ; mgnn 34, 
13 ; gs. mgnnes 35, 18; mannes 6, 
18; ds.m^nl0,26; 33,11; 53,21; 
as. mqii 7, 17; 8, 14; mgnnan (S. 
281, n. 1) 47, 6 ; mannan 47, 1 ; 
np. m^nn 28, 1 ; m^n 5, 8 ; gp. 
m^nna 8, 9; 28, 18; dp. 5, 13; 
ap. m^n 10, 13 ; 21, 23. — Indef., 
one, 5, 5; 7, 11 ; 18, 22; 20, 4. 

mQnn cynn (mann-), n., man- 
kind : gs. -cynnes 10, 3 ; 179, 23 ; 
mQn- 11,8; 144, 5 ; as. manncynn 
74, 20. 

mQn->w£ere, adj., gentle, gra- 
cious : 60, 25. 

mor, m., moor : ns. 40, 26 ; gs. 
m5res 40, 31 ; ds. more 40, 26 ; 
as. mor 41, 2; dp. 40, 21; ap. 
moras 41, 4. 

morgen (mergen), m., morning: 
ns. mergen 118, 14 ; ds. on mor- 
genne 10, 9; 10, 22; 15, 7 ; as. 
on mergen 103, 17 ; 116, 1 ; 124, 
IS ; on oSerne mergen 98, 22. 



morgen-tid, f., morning-time - as. 

146, 14. 
motan (PP.)j may, have oppor* 

tunity, must : 2 sg. most 150, 9 ; 

3 sg. mot 170, 9; 1 pi. moton 

72, 29 ; 3 pi. 36, 27 ; 49, 5 ; opt. 

1 sg. m5te 94, 8 ; 3 sg. 69, 10 ; 

152, 12 ; 155, 2 ; 171, 21 ; pret. 

3 pi. moston 151, 31 ; pret. opt. 

1 sg. moste 65, 17 ; 84, 19 ; 2 sg. 

45, 13 ; 3 pi. moston 152, 4. 
mund, f., hand: dp. 176, 21. [cf. 

Ger. Vor-mund.] 
munt, m., mountain : np. muntas 

165, 21 ; dp. 5, 14. [Lat. mons.] 
niunuc, m., monk : ns. 107, 1 ; 

dp. munecum 69, 4; 93, 22, 

[Lat. monachus.] 
munuc-had, m., monkhood, mo- 
nastic rank : gs. -hades 93, 4 ; 

as. -had 10, 27. 
munuclic, adj., monastic: ds. 

-Here 99, 25 ; -lican 88, 16. 
munuclice, adv., mo?iastically . 

100, 15. 
munuc-lif, n., monastic life; 

monastery : ap. 87, 20. 
murnan, mearn murnon — (3), 

7nourn, have anxiety or fear (w. 

prep, for) : inf. 157, 23 ; pret. 3 

pi. 152, 13. 
muiS', m., mouth : ds. mii^e 11, 6 ; 

84, 23 ; as. mu5 83, 9. 
mud'a, m., mouth of a river, 

estuary : ns. 17, 28 ; ds. mul>an 

18, 4 ; 24, 14 ; as. 24, 12 ; on 

Lymene mOban 17, 27 ; on 

T^mese mu'San 18, 7. 
mycel, see micel. 
niylen-seearp, adj., ground sharp : 

dp. -scearpum 147, 1. [my leu 

*mm.'J 



GLOSSABY, 



333 



myndgung, t., admonition : ns. 

35, 12. 
mynegung, f,, admonition : ds. 

-unge 94, 6. 
myngean (mynegian) (II.), admon- 
ish^ exhort : 1 sg. myngie 67, 3. 
mynster, n., 1. monastery: ds. 

mynstre 8, 1 ; 29, 9 ; as. mynster 

10, 28; ap. mynstru 87, 23.-2. 

minster, cathedral: as. 101, 10. 

[Lat. monasterium.] 
mynsterlic, adj., monastic : ap. 

-lice 100, 19. 
mynster-niQnn, m., monk: np. 

-m^n 103, 9. 
Myrce (Mierce, Merce), m. pi., the 

Mercians, 3Iercia : np. 147, 1 ; 

gp. Myrcena 102, 15 ; 106, 5 ; dp. 

Myrcon 156, 12 ; Myrcan 103, 7. 
my reels, m., mai'k : ds. myrcelse 

102, 27. [mearc] 
myre, 1, mare : gs. myran 42, 27 ; 

ds. 65, 18. [mearh.] 
myrgS" (myrhS, merg^), f., mirth, 

joy : ds. merg^e 6, 1 ; myrh-Se 74, 2. 



X. 



na (no), adv. (adv. conj.), no, not, 
not at ally nor (usually 
strengthens ne) : 2, 7 ; 3, 26 ; 
5, 9 ; 7, 11 ; 17, 19 ; 46, 17 ; no 
25, 9 ; 45, 12 ; 54, 17 ; 61, 8. 
neebban (< ne habban) (W. III.), 
not to have: 3 sg. nasf^ 3, 9; 
nafa^^ 70, 18 ; 2 pi. nabbe ge 
(S. 360, 2) 4, 9 ; 3 pi. nabbaS 2, 
17 ; opt. 3 pi. nsebben 65, 26 ; 
nabbe ge 116, 2L; pret. 3 sg. 
nsefde 1, 9 ; 3 pi. nsefdon 32, 27. 
; nacod, adj., naked, hare: as. na- 
il cedan 109, 6 ; np. nacode 78, 20. 



nsedre, f., adder, serpent : gs. 
n^dran 179, 14. 

naefde, nsefdon, see naebban. 

nSfre, adv., never : 7, 8 ; 8, 16 ; 
9, 4 ; 15, 17. 

nafu, f., nave : ns. 50, 12 ; 51, 12 ; 
ds. nafe 50, 18 ; 50, 23. 

usegel, m., nail: dp. nseglum 132, 
16. 

nsegled-cnearr, m., nailed ship: 
dp. 147, 30. 

nah « ne ah, S. 420, 2) (PP.), 
1 sg. have not : 112, 18. 

naht, see na-Aviht. 

na-hwger, adv., 7ioichere ; in no 
case : 84, 22. 

na-hwaeiarer (no-hwse'Ser, nawSer, 
nowSer, naSer), 1. pron., nei- 
ther: ns. naber 140, 12; as. 
nSuSer 31, 23. — 2. Conj., nei- 
ther: ndhwae'Ser ne . . . ne, 
neither . . . nor, 27, 8 ; navs^^er 
ne . . . ne 24, 6 ; 53, 12 ; nau'Ser 
ne . . . ne 46, 20 ; 59, 19 ; na>er 
ne . . . ne 132, 2. 

nalaes (nales, nalles, nals, <na 
ealles), adv., not at all: 8, 13; 
161, 10; nales 161, 9; nalles 
143, 3 ; nals 34, 5. 

nama (nQma), m., name : ns. 5, 3 ; 
ds. UQman 9, 15 ; as. naman 27, 
9 ; nQman 34, 11 ; np. naman 
48, 17. 

nan (<ne an), pron. adj., not one, 
none: ns. 3, 3; 5, 15; 24, 22 
gs. nanes 6, 2 ; ds. nanum 6, 16 
nanre 28, 20 ; as. n^nne 5, 16 
27, 29 ; nane 6, 17. 

nsenig (<ne ^nig), pron., no one, 
none : ns. 8, 12 ; 15, 4 ; gs. 
n^nges 178, 27 ; as. nSnigne 12. 
21 ; UEenig 9, 4. 



334 



GLOSSARY. 



nan-wuht (-wiht ; S. 348), n., 

nothing : as. 27, 17 ; 60, 15. 
neere, nseron, see beon. 
naes, see beou. 

naes, adv., not, not at all : 32, 14 ; 

32, 16 ; 52, 20 ; 68, 31. 
na>er, see na-hwaeO'er. 
nauht, see na-wiht. 

na-wiht (no-whit, nauht, naht, 
n5ht, S. 348), n., not a lohit, 
nought, nothing : ds. nauhte 51, 
7; as. nauht 59, 15; 60, 16; 61, 
5 ; naht 9, 18 ; n5ht 8, 16 ; 9, 16. 
— Adverbial: not, not at all: 
noht 26, 20 ; 65, 29 ; noht \>on 
l^s 63, 21. 

nawiafer, see na-hwseS'er. 

ne, adv., not: 2, 7; 2, 8. 

ne, adv. conj., and not, nor: 5, 16 ; 
8, 17; 33,21 ; ne . . . ne, neither 
. . . nor, 27, 8 ; 31, 23. 

nead, see neod. 

neah (neh), near : 1. adv., 12, 9 ; 
67, 1 ; 161, 3 ; 171, 23 ; (of de- 
gree : nearlij, almost) 39, 19. — 
Comp., nSar (S. 321) 50, 26 ; 
near and near, nearer and nearer, 
30, 12. —2. adv. prep. (w. dat.) 
22, 10 ; 50, 23 ; neh 152, 20. — 
Supl., nyhst 43, 16; nehst 50, 
12 ; nehste 50, 15 ; neahst 50, 16 ; 
neaxst 51, 12. — 3. adj., Supl. 
as. niehst 18, 17; set nextan, 
next, finally, 79, 21 ; 95, 16 ; 132, 
16. 

neaht, see niht. 

nea-lsecan (-lecan) (W. I.), draw 
near, approach (w. dat.) : inf. 
-lecan 9, 8 ; 3 sg. -l^c> 68, 19 ; 
pret. 3 sg. -l«cte 11, 27; -lehte 
65, 23. 

n&an, adv., /row near: 176, 14, 



near, see neah. 

nearolice, adv., narrowly, acch, 
rately : 111, 15. 

nearwe, adj., narrowly, artfully i 
179, 14. 

neat (cf. nyten), n., neat, cattle : 
gp. neata 9, 11. 

nea-wist (-west), f., heing near ; 
proximity, presence, neighbor- 
hood : ns. -wist 70, 21 ; ds. -weste 
12, 2 ; 22, 23. [neah, wesan.] 

n^bb, n., hill, beak: ns. 175, 17. 

ned, see neod. 

ned-lSTearf, see nied-3'earf. 

neh, see neah. 

neh-ni£eg (neah-), m., near kins' 
man : gp. -maga 71, 6 ; dp. 
-magum 70, 18. 

n^innan (W.I,), name : 1 pi. n^m- 
natS 50, 14 ; pret. 1 sg. n^mde 
23, 26 ; 3 sg. n^mnde 9, 15 ; pp. 
n^mned 65, 30 ; gen^mned 28, 
28 ; 130, 17 ; pi. gen^mnode (S. 
405, 5) 89, 9. 

nemne (nefne), conj., unless, ex- 
cept : 174, 6. 

nein]>e (niin)?e, nyml^e), conj., un- 
less, except : 164, 2. 

neo-b^dd, n., bed for a corpse: 
as. 184, 10. [Goth, naus.] 

need (nead, nied, nyd, ned), f., 
need, necessity, compulsion, 
force: ns. 171, 20; 180, 7; is. 
neade, necessarily, 147, 10 ; nede 
60, 7. 

neodlTce, adv., zealously : Comp., 
neodlicor 63, 19. [need, ' desire.'] 

neorxiia-w^Qni? (neorxena-) , m., 
paradise : gs. -wanges 130, 20 ; 
139, 9 ; ds. -wange 138, 10 ; as. 
-wang 131, 7 ; -WQng 178, 27 ; 
neorxena- 138, 5. [ue wjrcuuj 



GLOSSARY, 



335 



ueosung, f., visitation : ns. 78, 24 ; 
as. -unge 74, 2. 

neotan (2), enjoy, use, employ (w. 
gen.) : inf. 159, 11 ; 170, 10 ; 177, 
20 ; 178, 14. [Ger. geniessen.] 

neoffan (ni-San), adv., beloiv, be- 
neath, doicn : 175, 25. 

u^rgeud, m., Savioi' (Christ, God) : 
ns. 182, 13; gs. -es 143, 3. 
[n^rian.] 

nest, n., nest : ds. neste 172, 18 ; 
as. nest 171, 20 ; 180, 7. 

neten, see nyten. 

nied-be-3'earf, adj., necessary : 
Supl., np. medbe^earfosta 28, 13. 

nied-afearf (ned-), f., 7ieed, neces- 
sity : ns. 36, 28 ; ned- 60, 24 ; 
as. nedSearfe 61, 15 ; 69, 18. 

Dies'- afearf (ned-), adj., necessary : 
ns. ned- 69, 4. 

iiig-hworfen (pp.)* f^dj., newly 
conctrted: ds. -liworfenum 90, 8. 

nigon, num., ni7ie : nom. 121, 13 ; 
dat. nigonum (S. 325) 24, 11. 

nigosaCa, num., ninth : ds. nigo'San 
102, 13. 

niht (neaht), f., night; in reckon- 
ing time, the equivalent of Mod. 
day (cf. senniglit, fortnight) : 
gs. neahte 12, 5 ; nihtes (adv., 
masc. form dile to association 
with d£3ges ; S. 284, n. 1 ; 320) 
3, 13 ; 5, 14 ; 21, 18 ; 79, 7 ; ds. 
neahte 9, 12 ; gp. nihta 114, 18 ; 
dp. 25, 12 ; 42, 4 ; ap. IG, 2 ; 16, 
4 ; nyht 132, 25. 

niht-helm, m., cover or shade of 
the night : as. 163, 12. 

niht-r^st, f. , nighVs rest, couch: 
as. -rt^ste 143, 3. 

niht-scua, m., shadow of night : 
ns. 163, 20. 



niman, n5m (nam) nomon (nam 
on) numen (4), take, seize: inf 
157, 16 ; 3 pi. nimaS 43, 31 
imp. 2 sg. nim 83, 19 ; 2 pi 
nima'S 78, 2 ; pret. 3 sg. 65, 19 
nam 16, 4 ; 3 pi. namon 16, 24 

Niniiieisc, adj., Ninevitish : gs, 
i Niniueiscre 92, 8. 

nioS'o-weard, adj., beneath: ns. 
175, 17. 

nipan, nap nipon nipen (1), grow 
dark : 3 ag. nipe 5 163, 20. 

ais, see beoii. 

nlfS, m., hatred, envy, malignity : 
ns. 179, 1 ; as. 179, 14 ; gp. 
nrSa 69, 7 ; 180, 26 ; 181, 14. 

nij^era (nil^erra, S. 314), comp., 
adj., lower : ap. nijseran 121, 4. 

niwan (nywan, niwane, niwe, 
neowan, neon), adv., newly, re- 
cently : 63,27 ; nywan 141, 2. 

niwe (nywe, neowe), adj., neio, 
fresh: ns. 63, 13; 174, 13; as. 
nywne 137, 24 ; gp. niwena 24, 
12 ; ap. niwan 36, 20. 

no, see na. 

noht, see na-Tviht. 

no-hwaeffer, sec na-ll^vfce3'e^. 

nolde, noldon, see nyllan. 

norS", adv., north, northwards, in 
the north : 38, 4 • 38, 12. — 
Comp., norSor 40, 22. — SupL, 
norpmest 38, 2. 

nortS'an, Sidv., from the north : 38, 
17 ; 176, 12 ; be norSan, prep, 
w. dat., north of, 38, 9 ; 41, 9. 

NorlSerne, adj.. Northern : ns. 
NorSerna 146, 18. 

nor3'e-weard, adj., northicard : 
ns. 40, 24 ; ds. -weardum 41,1; 
as. -weard 40, 31. 

Nor9'-hyiiibre, pi. m., the North- 
umbrians, Northumbria : np. 18, 



336 



GLOSSARY, 



11 ; gp. -hymbra 22, 5 ; dp. 19, 

15 ; 21, 16 ; -hymbron 157, 30. 

Noriff-hymbrisc, adj., Northum- 
brian : ds, -iscum 100, 5. 

NorS'-mQnii, m., Norwegian : np, 
-m^n 41, 3 ; gp. -manna 40, 16. 

norS'-ryhte, adv., northward: 38, 8. 

Nor>-s£e, f ., North Sea : ds. 19, 18. 

Norlff-wealas, pi. m., the (JSforth) 
Welsh, {North') Wales (as op- 
posed to West Wales, i.e. Corn- 
wall) : dp 22, 3 ; as. 21, 29. 

Norff-weal-cynn, n., the {North) 
Welsh : gs. -cynnes 20, 30. 

norff-weard, adj., northward : 
gs. -weardes, adv., 19, 2 ; ds. 
-weardum 38, 3. 

NoriSweg, Norway : ns. 41, 17. 

nos-]>yrel, n., nostril: ap. nos- 
Jpirlu 112, 5. 

nvitu, f., office, employment: ds. 
note 28, 20. [neotan.] 

nouS'er, see na-hwaeffer. 

na, 1. adv., now : 9, 25 ; 27, 23. — 
2. conj., now that, since : 12, 16. 

nyllan (nillan, < ne willan ; S. 428, 
n. 2), not to will, he unwilling : 
1 sg. nylle 92, 5 ; nelle 157, 10 ; 
3 sg. nele 45, 2; 61, 13 ; 3 pi. 
nylla« 33, 21 ; 54, 23 ; nella« 
108, 17 ; pret. 3 sg. nolde 15, 4 ; 
149, 6 ; 1 pi. noldon 27, 24 ; 3 pi. 
(verb of motion omitted) 15, 15; 
27, 29; pret. opt. 3 pi. noldon 
46, 26. 

nytan (nitan < ne vfitan ; S. 420), 
not to know : 1 sg. nat 32, 25 ; 
3 sg. nat 3, 13 ; 31, 20 ; 2 pi. 
nyton 2, 10 ; 3 pi. 53, 27 ; opt. 
3 sg. nyte 32, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. 
nyste 5, 17 ; 39, 17.; nysse 38, 16 ; 
S9, 2. 



nyten, adj., ignorant : np. nytenan 

76, 30. [ne witan.l 
nyten (nieten, neten, cf. neat), 

n., neat, domestic animal, cattle, 

beast: ns. neten 11, 4; ds. ny- 

tene 111, 12 ; gp. nytena 99, 5; 

ap. nytenu 125, 25. 
nyteunis, f., ignorance : ds. -nysse 

79, 28. 
nytlic, adj., useful, xwofitable : ns. 

69, 5. [Ger. niitzlich.] 
nyttnes (nytnes), f., use, benefit: 

gs. -nesse 63, 18 ; nytnisse 64, 28. 
nyt-wyrSfe, adj., useful : Supl., np. 

-wyrlSoste 24, 8. 
nyiSfer (ni^er), adv., down: 136. 

14 ; 137, 16. 
nytSferlic (ni'Serlic), adj., loiuly 

ns. 135, 17. 
nywan, nywe, see niwan, niwe 



o (oo), see a. 

of, prep, (w, dat.), of, from (place 
and material), /;'o?yi, among, con- 
cerning : 17, 24 ; 18, 27 ; 21, 15 ; 
22, 3 ; 23, 4 ; 39, 16; 66, 18 ; 97, 2 ; 
154, 5;— prep, adv., 89, 8; 89, 
13 ; — adv. off, 36, 6 ; 70, 22. 

of-axian (W. II.), learn by asking . 
pret. 3 sg. ofaxode 95, 22. 

ofer, prep. (yf. ace), over, across, 
after, above, tipon, superior to, 
contrary to, against: 1. (place) 
1, 8 ; 3, 3 ; 4, 4 ; 23, 1 ; 41, 5 ; 
103, 11.— 2. (time) 12, 13; 17. 
9.-3. (metaph.) 18, 13; 179, 4 ; 
179, 12 ; 181, 25.— adv. 17, 26; 
41, 19 ; ofer bsec (cf. under bsec), 
backioards, 168, 9- 



/ 



GLOSS ABT. 



337 



ofer, m., shore, bank : ds. ofre 150, 

7. [Ger. Ufer.] 
ofer-cuman (4), overcome: pret. 

3 pi. -comon 148, 16. 
ofer-drifaa (1), overcome: ger. 

-dryfenne 135, 18. 
ofer-eaca, m., surplus : as. -eacan 

87, 25. 
ofer-feran (W. I.), traverse: inf. 

40, 27 ; 40, 29. 
ofer-freosan (2), freeze over: pp. 

oferfroren 44, 8. 
ofer-gietan (^5), forget, disregard : 

opt. 3 pi. -gieton 117, 17. 
ofer-gyldan (W. I.), cover with 

gold, gild : pp. np. ofergyldan 

37,1. 
ofer-hlifian (W.II.), over-tower: 

3 sg. -lilifa-S 169, 11. 
ofer-niaegen, n., over-mastering 

might: ds. -meegne 173, 22. 
ofer-metto, f., pride : dp. -mettum 

31, 5; 32, 8; 55, 20. 
ofer-niod, n., overweening cour- 
age, confidence : ds. -mode 152, 

6. 
ofer-ir>odigian (W. II.), he proud, 

arrogate : 2 pi. -mddie 61, 3 ; 

3 pi. -modiga^ 56, 25. 
ofer-stigan (1), rise above, sur- 
pass : pret. 3 sg. -stall 81, 20 ; 

87, 2. 
ofer-swiS'an (W. I.), overcome: 

inf. 56, 2 ; -swySan 137, 11 ; 

pret. opt. -swiMe 82, 28 ; pp. 

-swy«ed 134, 16; pi. -swTMe 

56,3. 
•ofer- win nan (3), overcome: pret. 

3 sg. -wann 99, 14. 
ofestlice (ofostlice, ofstlice), adv., 

hastily, quickly : 142, 5 ; ofstlice 

153, 30. 



ofestum (of stum), adv., hastily, 

quickly : 145, 9 ; 171, 21 ; ofstum 

144, 21. [*of-est.] 
ofett (ofet), n., fruit: ns. 167, 26. 

[Ger. Obst.] 
of-faran (6), overtake, intercept: 

inf. 21, 21 ; pret. 3 pi. -foron 

21, 1. 
offrian (W.II.), offer, sacrifice: 

inf. Ill, 4 ; pret. 3 sg. off rode 

111, 9; pp. geoffrod 111, 14. 

[Lat. offerre.] 
offrung, f., offering, sacrifice : ds. 

-mige 111, 12. 
of-gan (S. 430), demand, seek, 

implore: opt. 1 pi. ofgan 92, 

18. 
of-giefan (-gifan, -gyfan) (5), give 

up, quit, desert : inf. 179, 13 ; 

3 sg. -giefeS 180, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-geaf 143, 3 ; 3 pi. -geafon 162, 8. 
of-hreowan (2), pity (w. gen.) : 

pret. 3 sg. -hreow (S. 384, n. 2) 

79, 19 ; 105, 18. 
of-linnan (3), cease: pret. 3 sg. 

oflan 126, 16. 
of-lyst(-lysted),pp.,adi.,cZeszVows, 

pleased (w. gen. of object) : 6, 14. 
of-munan (PP.)* recollect: 3 sg. 

of man 60, 15. 
of-sceotan (2), shoot down : pret. 

3 sg. 151, 25. 
of-seon (5), see : pret. 3 sg. ofseah 

76,2. 
of-s^ttan (W. I.), beset, oppress, 

afflict : pp. -s^tt 88, 12 ; ap. -s^t- 

tan 78, 18. 
of-slean, -slog -slogon -slsegen (6), 

strike, slay : pret. 3 sg. 14, 3 ; 3 

pi. 15, 24 ; 21, 24 ; 22, 12 ; pret. 

opt. 3 sg. sloge 39, 27; pp. 15, 8 ; 

17,6; 21, 10; -sl^gen QQ, 16; 91, 13; 



338 



GLOSSARY. 



as. -slsegenne 14, 19 ; np. -slseg- 
ene 15, 22 ; gp. -slsegenra 16, 20. 

of-stingan (3), stah to death : 
pret. 3 sg. -stang 14, 6. 

oft, adv., often : 8, 9 ; 14, 7 ; 15, 
27.— Comp., oftor 18, 27.— 
Supl., oftost 27, 5 ; 101, 14. 

of->rysmian (W. II.), choke : 3 
pi. -brysmia^ 2, 23. [^rosm, 
'smoke, vapor.'] 

o-l^ccan (W. I.), subdue, flatter, 
soothe, please : inf. 6, 4 ; opt. 
3 sg. ol^cce 56, 21. [l^ccan, 
'moisten.'] 

Qmbiht, m., servant : dp. 143, 19. 
[Ger. Amt.] 

on, prep, (with dat., instr., ace), 
on, at, dunng, in, into, among, 
against (time, place, manner, 
circumstance, and condition) : 
1, 2; 1, 3; 1, 4 ; 1, 5 ; 1, 12 ; 
1,14; 2,6; 2, ]4; 2,17, etc.; — 
prep, adv., 43, 17 ; 44, 6 ; 46, 26 ; 
65, 16 ; 71, 5 ; on tu, into two 
parts, 18, 25 ; on dseg, on niht, 
17, 14 ; 18, 23 ; 41, 12 ; on riht, 
adv., rightly, 53, 3 ; 54, 19 ; on 
ger, adv., forrnerhj, 91, 8; on 
uppan, upon, 138, 23 ; 138, 26 ; 
on emnlange, along, 40, 20. 

on-Eelan (W. I.), kindle, set on 
fire, consume by fire : pp. ongeled 
64, 4 ; 129, 6 ; 145, 1 ; 172, 19 ; 
182, 18. 

on-baernan (W. I.), kindle, in- 
spire, incite : pp. -bserned 11, 25 ; 
pi. -bsernde 8, 10 ; -bsernede 32, 20. 

on-bidan (an-) -bad -bidon -biden 
(1), 1. abide, tarry : inf. 117, 6; 
imp. 2 sg. onbid 114, 18 ; 120, 24. 
— 2. await: (w. gen.) inf. 117, 
10 ; ptc. 121, 23. 



on-blotan, -bleot -bleoton -bloten 
(E.), sacrifice: pret. 3 sg. 145, 
12. 

on-bregdan (3), move, &oio(intr.): 
3 sg. -brygde^ 170, 4. 

on-bryrdan (W. I.), inspire, ex- 
alt : opt. 3 sg. onbryrde 35, 12 ; 
pp. onbryrd 35, 15 ; 74, 15 ; on- 
bryrded 169, 16 ; 184, 7. [brord, 
'prick, point.'] 

on-bryrdnis, f., iyispiration, ar- 
dor : ds. -nysse 101, 16. 

on-byrigan (-byrgan) (W. I.), 
taste (w. gen.) : pret. 1 pi. on- 
byrigdoii 138, 14. 

on-cna"wan, -cneow -cneowon 
-cnawen (R.), recognize, acknowl- 
edge, understand, know : inf. 53, 
28 ; 149, 9 ; 1 sg. oncnawe 134, 
23 ; imp. 2 sg. oncnaw 71, 24 ; 
136, 27 ; opt. 3 sg. oncnawe 83, 
22 ; 3 pi. oncnawon 76, 31 ; pret. 
3 sg. 62, 9 ; pp. 32, 29. 

on-cweffan (5), address, answer: 
pret. 3 sg. -cwae^' 144, 20 ; 157, 9. 

on-cyrran (W. I.), turn: opt. 3 
pi, oncyrron 68, 30. 

Qnd (and), conj., and. 

Qndettan, see andettan. 

Qnd-git, see and-giet. 

on-dr sedan, -dreord -dred -dredon 
-drseden (R.), fear (trans. ; and 
w. reflex, dat. of pers. and ace. 
of tbing) : ptc. pi. -drSdendan 
67, 13 ; 2 sg. -dreetst 132, 8 ; 
3 sg. -drSt 60, 20 ; 132, 3 ; 2 pi. 
-drSdalS 78, 19 ; 3 pi. 55, 23 ; imp. 
2 sg. -dr^d 96, 21 ; 114, 14 ; 2 pi. 
-drsedaS 118, 4 ; opt. 3 sg.-dr^de 
30, 9 ; pret. 2 sg. -drede 62, 14 ; 
1 pi. andredon 117, 23 ; 3 pi. 4, 
10; 118.8- 



GLOSSABT^ 



339 



on-drysne, adj., awful, exciting 
reverence : ns. 143, 1. 

Qnd-swarian (W, II.), answer: 
pret. 3 sg. -swarade 12, 23 ; -ode 
63, 3 ; -ede 9, 16 ; 3 pi. -odon 12, 
14 ; -edon 12, 20. 

<jnd-Treard, see and-weard. 

on-emn (on-efn), prep. (w. dat.), 
near, alongside of: 155, 9. 

onettan (W. I.) {incite), hasten, 
be active : 3 sg. onette-S 172, 20 ; 
180, 30 ; pret. 3 sg. onette 143, 
12. [*on-hatjan.] 

on-faegnian (W. II.), shoiv glad- 
ness : inf. 6, 7. 

on-feohtan (3), fght : ptc. on- 
feohtende 16, 20. 

on-lindan (3), find, find out, dis- 
cover, learn : pret. 3 sg. -funde 
(S. 386, n. 2) 149, 5 ; 3 pi. -fund- 
on 15, 1 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. -funden 
14, 13. 

on-fon, -feng -fengon -fangen (R.), 
receive (w. gen., dat., ace.) : 
inf. (w. dat.) 63, 5 ; 144, 28 ; (w. 
ace.) 171, 23 ; ger. onfonne 132, 
9 ; 1 sg. (w. gen., partake) onfo 
83, 3 ; 3 pi. onfoS 2, 17 ; 48, 4 ; 
imp. 2 sg. onfoh 84, 28 ; 116, 10 ; 
opt. 2 sg. onfo 62, 16 ; 1 pi. onfon 
63,28; pret. 3 sg.8, 16; 9,21; 3 
pi. 3, 29; (w. gen., stand sponsor) 
pp. 20, 7 ; as. onfgngne 10, 21. 

on-foran, prep. (w. ace), before 
(time) : 21, 16 ; 22, 13. 

on-gean (an-gean, on-gen, agen), 
prep. (w. dat., and ace), towards, 
against: 6, 6; 19, 3; 84, 29; 
92, 14 ; 131, 20 ; ongen 24, 3 ; 
24, 13; — prep, adv., 6, 21; 75, 
19; — adv., opposite, in the op- 
posite direction, l>ack^ 41, ^0; 



75, 18 ; 153, 24 ; agen 5, 29 ; eft 
ongean, back again, 96, 11 ; 150, 
28 ; 154, 12. 
Qngel-cynn, see Angel-cynn. 

Qngel-J»eod, f., the Anglian, Eng- 
lish people or nation : ds. -l^eode 
8, 11. 

on-ge-mQng (on-ge-mang, on- 
mang, a-mang), prep. (w. dat.), 
among : 5, 12 ; 28, 26 ; — on- 
mang J^am, adv., while, 138, 21 ; 
amang.)?am 133, 13. 

on-gietan (-gitan, -gytan) -geat 
-geaton -gieten (-giten, -gyten) 
(5), perceive, understand: inf. 
27, 17 ; 30, 16 ; 31, 26 ; 50, 3; 
62, 9 ; ongeotan 67, 17 ; ger. 
-gitanne 57, 19 ; 1 sg. ongite 45, 

8 ; 2 sg. ongitst 46, 8 ; 57, 24, 
3 sg. ongit 33, 1 ; 33, 2 ; 54, 14; 
3 pi. ongita« 54, 20 ; imp. 2 pi. 
ongita'5 118, 17 ; opt. 3 pi. ongiten 
56, 20 ; ongyten 2, 8 ; pret. 1 sg. 
64, 21 ; 3 sg. 14, 15 ; onget 22, 
30 ; 3 pi. 152, 1 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. 
ongeaten 46, 24. 

on-ginn (an-ginn),n., beginning : 
ns. 56, 14 ; 109, 17 ; ongyn 187, 

9 ; ds. onginne 31, 12 ; anginne 
60, 4 ; 88, 7 ; angynne 81, 29. 

on-ginnan, -gQnn (-gann) -gunnon 
-gunnen (3), begin, attempt : inf. 
6, 3 ; 3 sg. ongint5 60, 2 ; 109, 
12 ; onginne'5 171, 19 ; 3 pi. -at) 
114, 4 ; opt. 3 pi. onginnen 31, 
22 ; pret. 3 sg. ongan 1, 1 ; 
ongQn 5, 5 ; 6, 11 ; 3 pi. 6, 19 ; 8, 
12 ; pp. 22, 29 ; ap. -gunnenan 
93, 26. 

on-gyldan (3), repay, suffer the 
penalty for (w. gen.) : pret. 3 pL 
onguldoa 179, 11. 



340 



GLOSSARY. 



on-gytenes, f., knowledge : gs. on- 

gytenesse 65, 25. 
on-hgetan (W. 1.), Jieat : pp. ou- 

h^ted 172, 15. 
on-h^bban (6), raise up: pp. pi. 

onhafene 138, 20. 
on-blidan (1), uncover, open, re- 
veal : pp. onhliden 165, 12 ; 166, 

28. 
on-hon (R.), hang : pp. anhangen 

139, 11. 
on-hreodan (2), adorn .• pret. 3 

sg. onhread 145, 10. 
on-hyldan (W. I.), incline: pret. 

3 sg. onhylde 13, 4. 
on-leohtan (W. I.), light up, 

illuminate : pret. 3 sg. onleohte 

114, 9. 
on-lic (an-lic), adj., like, similar 

(w. dat.) : ns. anlic 46, 6 ; np. 

-lice 31, 7. — SupL, ns. -llcost 

175, 30. 
on-lice, Sidy., similarly : sumes on- 

lice, somewhat like, 173, 15. 
on-licnes (an-), f ., likeness, image : 

ns. (voc.) anlicnes 125, 18 ; ds. 

-nisse 110, 8 ; -nysse' 122, 4 ; 

-nesse 126, 13 ; as. -nesse 121, 22 ; 

dp. 82, 22. 
on-lutan, -leat -luton -loten (2), 

how, incline (intr.) : inf. 27, 25. 

[Mod. lout.] • 
on-Iyhtan (W. I.), enlighten, 

illuminate : 3 sg. onlyht 130, 1 ; 

pret. 2 sg. onlihtest 84, 22. 
on-mang, see on-ge-mQng. 
on-iniddan, prep. (w. dat.), amid, 

at the middle of: 50, 25. 
on-munan (PP.), consider worthy 

of or entitled to (w. ace. of pers. 

and gen. of worth) : pret. opt. 

3 pi. oninunden 15, 21. 



ono (one, eno), interj., lo ! heholdi 
ono hwaet, behold ! 62, 12 ; one 
124,26; eno 119, 13; 122, 10. 

on-ridan (1), ride (^on a raid) : 
pret. 3 pi. onridon 17, 19. 

on-sawan (R.), sow : pp. onsawen 
173,26. 

on-scunian (W. II.), shun, avoid, 
detest, fear : ptc. onscungend 70, 
19 ; pret. 3 sg. -scunede 5, 16 ; 
3 pi. -scunedon 5, 9 ; pret. opt. 3 
sg. -scunode 57, 13. 

on-s^cgan ( W. III.), offer ^ sacrifice 
(trans.): inf. 142, 8. 

on-s^ndan (W. I.), send: inf. 
29, 6; opt. 2 sg. -s^nde 115, 
14. 

on-sien (an-, -sin, -syn), f., ap- 
pearance, face, sight, presence : 
ns. ansyn 138, 25 ; ds. ansine 
127, 20 ; as. onsTene 124, 1 ; 124, 
5 ; onsyne 118, 27 ; 186, 2 ; an- 
92, 1. 

on-sTgan, -sah -sigon -sigen (1), 
descend : ptc. ds. onsigendum 91, 
5 ; 92, 14. 

on-sl^pan (R.),/«?Z asleep, sleep : 
pret. 3 sg. onslep 118, 7 ; onslepte 
(S. 395 n. 2) 9, 13 ; 13, 5. 

on-springan (3), spring forth : 3 
pi. -springa^ 167, 12. 

ou-stal, m., institution, supply: 
as. 27, 2. 

on-st^llan (W .1.) , place, establish, 
create : pret. 3 sg. onstealde 9, 
28. 

on-sund (an-sund), adj., sound, 
whole, healthy : ns. 165, 20 ; 
ansund 103, 6 ; gs. ansundan 74, 
5 ; np. ansunde 77, 1 ; 83, 25. 

on-sundnis (an-), f., soundness : 
ds, ansundnysse 76, 24. 



GLOSSABT, 



341 



on-syn, f., lack, deficiency: ns. 

167, 4 ; 178, 28. [seoii, ' sift.'] 
on-teon, -teali -tugon -togeii (2), 

assume, take upon oneself : 3 pi. 

onteo'5 31, 27. 
on-tynan (W. I.), open (trans, and 

intr.) : pret. 3 sg. ontynde 120, 

22; 179, 24; pp. pi. ontynedc 

120, 11. [tun.] 

on-afraece (an-), adj., dreadful: 

dp. anSr^cum 80, 10. 
on-w£ecnan (W. T., S. 392, n. 1), 

aiuake : 3 sg. onwsecne'S 161, 22 ; 

187, 19. 
on-Aveald (an-, -wald), m., poicei', 

anthority : ns. anwald 55, 7 ; on- 

wald 188, 5 ; gs. anwealdes 57, 

16 ; -waldes 61, 6 ; ds.-walde 25, 

14 ; as. -wald 26, 6. 
on-w^ndan (W. I.), turn, change, 

amend, pervert, overturn, end 

(trans.) : 3 sg. -w^nde« 163-, 23 ; 

imp. 2 sg. -w^nd 71, 26 ; pret. 3 sg. 

-w^nde 71,30; pp.-w^nded 113,13; 

113,18; 168,1; pl.-w^nde68, 29. 
on--wTeon (1), uncover, reveal: 

-p^. onwrigen 137, 27. 
on-\^^^igennis, f . , ( uncovering') 

revelation : as. -wrigenysse 75, 

12. [wreon.] 
on-wunigan (-wunian) ("W. II.), 

dicell, remain: inf. 51, 7. 
on-wunung, f., habitation, dwell- 
ing : ds. unge 133, 20. 
on-ywan (W. I.), show, manifest: 

opt. 2 sg. onywe 118, 26. 
open, adj., open : ns. 165, 11 ; as. 

121, 28; openan 182, 24. 
openlice, adv., openly: 3, 5; 35, 

17; 37, 17; 49,24; 64,23. 
or (cf . ord), n., beginning : as. 9, 28. 
ord, n., 1. point, spear-point, 

spear : ns. 151, 8 ; 154, 2 ; ds. 



orde 153, 11 ; 156, 21 ; as. 152, 

27 ; ap. 150, 26.-2. beginning, 

ns. (voc.) 136, 19 ; ns. 143, 16. 

— 3. front of an army, line of 

battle (cf. Lat. acies) : ns. 151, 

17 ; ds. 158, 6. 
ord-frunia, ni., beginning, author, 

chief: ns. (voc.) 136, 21. 
or-eald, adj., very old: 6, 11. 

[Ger. nralt.] 
orf, n., cattle: as. Ill, 9. [weorf, 

weoruf.] 
organa, f., organ : gs. organan 

]69, 26. [Lat. organnm.] 
or-sorglice, adv., without care or 

hindrance: Comp., orsorglicor 

50, 13. 
or-sorh, adj., free from care : ns. 

78, 27. — Comp., np. orsorgran 51, 

15. — Supl. np. orsorgoste 51, 22. 
or]>ian (oreHan)(\Y. II.), breathe, 

aspire : inf. 87, 19. [oro'S.] 
or-]?Qnc, m., skilful device orioork : 

dp. 175, 22. 
09", 1. prep. (w. ace), up to, as far 

as, until (time and place) : 9, 3 ; 

16, 21 ; 28, 20 ; 40, 31 ; — o« "Se. 
conj., until that, until, 7, 13 ; 19. 
22 ; o« -SjBt 15, 23 ; 22, 6 ; 30. 
12 ; o« «is 63. 18 ; cS nu 136, 5. 
— 2. conj., until, 6, 15 ; 14, 3; 
14, 16. 

oJ>-beran (4) , bear away : pret. 3 
sg. -bser 162, 28. 

baf-eawian (W. I.), appear, be- 
come visible, show oneself: 3 sg. 
-eawe-S 176, 10. 

offer (65or), other, the other (one 
of two) ; another ; the second; 
the next: ns. 71, 7; o^eru 19, 
11 ; gs. o'Sres 12, 27 ; ds. 55rum 
4,11; 16,12; o'5reli,24; oSerre 
28, 20 ; as. o5er 11, 18 ; o6re 29, 



342 



GLOSSABT, 



13 ; oSeme 35, 2 ; is. o'Sre 20, 

13 ; 53, 8 ; gp. oSerra 24, 19 ; 

49, 21; dp. 5, 13; 11, 11 ; — 

correl., the one . . . the other, 

ns. o5er . . . o5er 20, 6 ; 50, 22 ; 

ds. 5'5rum . . . o&um 16, 12 ; as. 

o«r3 . . . o«re 33, 26 ; o^ev . . . 

otSer 32, 12 ; is. o>re sil>e . . . 

o>resi>e 18, 28; 50, 21. 
o3'-faestan (W. I.), set to (a task): 

pp. pi. -fseste 28, 19. 
o9'-feallaii (R.), /aZZ off, decline: 

inf. 28, 2 ; pp. sg. o^'feallenu 26, 

16. 
o3'-fleogan (2), fly away : 3 sg. 

-fleoge^ 177, 6. 
oS'-rowan (R.), row away : pret. 

3 pi. -reowon 25, 2. 
oS'-scnfan (2), push away, move 

off, hasten (intr.): 3 sg. -scufe^ 

170, 29. 
oS'-stand.an (Q) , stand fixed : pret, 

3 sg. -stod 6, 24. 
off ffe, conj., or .• 3, 2 ; 3, 19 ; 5, 9 : 

18, 1 ; o«-Se . . . o««e, either . . . 

or, 18, 15 ; 18, 23. 
off-TTindan (3), escape : pret. 3 sg. 

-wand 24, 17. 
off-witan, -wat -witon -witen (1), 

reproach, lay to one's charge : 

pret. 3 sg. o-5wat 32, 14. [Mod. 

twit.] 
o-wiht (S. 344), pron., anything : 

as. 64, 13. 



paellen, adj., of purple : dp. psel- 
lenum 88, 3 ; ap. psellene 78, 5. 
[paell < Lat. pallium.] 

pallium, m., palUum : as. 96, 28. 
[Lat.] 

Panta, m., the Panta or Blackwater 



(Essex): as. Pantan 151, 16; 

152, 14. 
papa, m.,pop)e : ns. 86, 1 ; 88, 14 ; 

gs. papan 90, 11 ; ds. 89, 23 ; as. 

90, 9. [Lat.] 
papan-had, m., papal dignity : as. 

93, 12. 
papol-stan, m., pehhle-stone .- ap. 

-stanas 77, 25. [Lat. papula.] 
paralysis, f. (?), paralysis: as. 

paralysin 104, 8. [Gr. Lat] 
Paffmas, Patmos : ns. 75, 9. 
pea (pawa), va.., peacock : ds. pean 

175, 30. [Lat. pavo.] 
Pedride (Pedrede), f., the Parrel 

(Somerset): ds. Pedredan 20, 28. 
Peohtas, pi. m., the Picts : np. 

101, 6. 
pistol, m., epistle, letter: as. 90, 

17 ; 90, 23. [Lat. epistola.] 
plega, m., p)l ay, festivity, pleasure : 

n-s. 43, 8 ; ds. plegan 43, 12 ; 

79, 9. 
plegian (W. II.), 1. play: inl 

6, 8. — 2. contend, fight: pret. 

3 pi. plegodon 147, 29. 
pleoh, n., peril : ns. 112, 20. 
pleolic, adj., perilous, harmful: 

ns. 107, 9. [pleoh.] 
port, m., port, harbor : 41, 10 ; ds. 

porte 41, 24. [Lat. portus.] 
post, m., post: ns. 104, 24; ds. 

poste 104, 24 ; as. post 104, 18 

[Lat. postis.] 
prass, m. (?), tumult ( f),pomp (F). 

ds. prasse 151, 16. 
preost, m.., p)riest: np. preostas 

34, 9 ; 108, 24. [Lat. presbyter.] 
preost-had, m., priest-hood : gs. 

-hades 93, 3. 
prica, m., point, dot: ds. prican 

140, 13. 



GLOSSARY. 



342 



Pryfetes floda, m., Privefs flood, 
Privet (Hampshire) : ds. -flSdan 
14, 6. 

pytt, m., pit: as. 33, 8. [Lat. 
puteus.] 



R. 



racu, f., narrative, account, obser- 
vation : ns. 46, 5 ; as. race 45, 

1 ; dp. 74, 8. 
rad, f., ride, journey, raid: ds. 

rade 104, 9 ; ap. rade 17, 19. 
rsed, m., rede, counsel, advice : ds. 

r^de 71, 27; 101, 23; as. rsed 

86, 5. 
rsedan, 1. counsel, advise, decide 

(R., and W. I.) : pret. 3 sg. 

r^dde 149, 18 ; 3 pi. raddon 75, 

15. — 2. read, explain (TV. I.) : 

inf. 70, 5 ; ger. rgedenne 111, 25 ; 

3 sg. rget 107, 10 ; pret. 3 pi. 

rgeddon 140, 10 ; pp. gerSd 74, 

8 ; pi. gerSdde 140, 14. 
reed-bora, m.,councillor: as.-boran 

112, 8. 
reeding, f., reading : gs. -inge 36, 

30 ; as. 35, 24 ; 100, 11. 
radost, see hraSfe. 
raefnan « *ar-gefnan) (W. I.), 

perform, undergo : inf. 187, 14. 
rand, m., border, shield : ap. ran- 

das 149, 20. 
rap, m., rope : as. 122, 30 ; 123, 5. 
rseran (W. I.), raise: inf. 12, 29. 

[risan.] 
rarian (W. II.), cry, mourn: ptc. 

rarigende 79, 16. 
rtesan (W. I.), rush, hasten : ptc. 

rSsende 133, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. rasde 

14, 17. 
ra>e, see hraS'e. 



read, adj., red: ds. readum 77, 

23 ; as. read 77, 31. 
Readingas, pi. m., Reading : dp. 

16, 1 ; 16, 5. 
reaf, n., dress, armor : as. 154, 17. 
recan (reccan) (W. I.), reck, care 

(w. gen.) : 3 pi. reccaS 51, IG ; 

rohton 157, 24. 
reccan (r^ccean) (W. I.), narrate, 

tell, interpret : inf. 45, 1 ; 53, 18 ; 

r^ccean 70, 5 ; 2 sg. r^cst 46, 5 ; 

pret. 2 sg. reahtes 46, 6 ; 3 sg. 

r^hte 3, 27 ; 99, 6 ; 3 pi. rohton 

10, 18. 
r^ccere, m., ruler, teacher: ns. 

35, 4 ; 35, 6. 
rec(c)eleas, adj., reckless, <:are' 

less : np. -lease 28, 1. 
regoUic, adj., according to rules, 

regular : dp. regollecum 11, 23. 
regollice, adv., according to rules : 

87, 22. 
reliquias (Lat.), ap., relics: 96, 

27 ; dp. reliquium 105, 15. 
ren (regen), m., rain: ns. 165, 

14 ; gs. renes 173, 19. 
renian (TV. IT.), prepare : ger. 

renigenne 69, 9. 
ren-scur (regen-), m., shower of 

rain : np. -sciiras 78, 23. 
reocan, reac rucon rocen (2), 

reek, smoke : ptc. as. reocendne 

145, 11. 
reord, n., speech, voice : is. reorde 

169, 18 ; dp. 176, 26. 
reordian (TV. II.), speak: 3 pi. 

reordia'S 187, 3 ; pret. 3 sg. 

reordade 184, 7. 
r^st, f., rest : ds. r^ste 9, 13 ; 12, 

11. 
r^stan (TV. I.), rest: imp. 2 pL 

r^sta« 143, 20- 



344 



GLOSSARY. 



E^ste-daeg, m,, day of rest, sabbath : 
as. 141, 6 ; dp. 141, 7. 

le'Se, adj., fierce, cruel: ns. 129, 
7 ; as. re«an 93, 11 ; 98, 20. 

rice, adj., powerful, of high rank 
and authority, rich : ns. rica 
142, 1 ; ds, rican 78, 22 ; gp, 
ricra 99, 28 ; dp. 46, 12 ; 46, 16 ; 
ap. rIcan 46, 29 ; rice 78, 9. — 
Comp., as. ricran 60, 21. — 
SupL, ns. ricost 150, 15 ; np. 
licostan 42, 27. 

lice, n., kingdom, sovereignty, 
authority : ns. 3, 11 ; gs. rices 2, 
5; 11,17; 14,1; 62,18; ds. rice 
5, 2 ; 17, 12 ; 25, 16 ; 57, 23. 

ricene (ricone, rycene, recene), 
adv., quickly, hastily, instantly : 
152, 10 ; rycene 164, 1. 

riclice, adv., powerfully : 94, 16. 

ricsian (rixian) (W. II.), rule, 
reign : 3 sg. rixa-S 73, 4 ; 81, 30 ; 
106, 7 ; 3 pi. ricsia-S 32, 16 ; pret. 
3 sg. ricsode 17, 10 ; rixode 75, 
1 ; 3 pi. ricsedon 32, 14. 

ridan, rad ridon riden (1), ride : 
inf. 65, 18; pret. 3 sg. 22, 25; 
23, 3 ; 3 pi. 15, 9 ; 16, 2. 

ridda, m., rider: ns. 104, 6; 104, 14. 

rilit (ryht), adj., right, just, cor- 
rect : ns. 46, 5 ; 58, 2 ; as. rihte 
45, 1. — Comp., ns. rihtre 47, 3. 

riht (ryht), n., right: ns. 47, 2; 
as. on riht, aright, rightly, 53, 11 ; 
54, 19. 

rihte (ryhte), adv., rightly, justly: 
35, 6 ; 52, 21 ; 57, 21 ; «8er rihte, 
thereupon^ straightioay , 74, 15 ; 
82, 31 ; 83, 6 ; 93, 13. 

riht-fr^mmende (ryht-), (ptc.) 
adj., right-doing, righteous : np. 
187, 3. 



riht-ge-lyfed (-lefed), (pp.) adj., 
having the right faith, right- 
believing : ap. -lefedan 69, 27. 

rihtlic, adj., right: ns. 82, 12. 

rihtlice (ryht-), adv., rightly : 37, 
16 ; 68, 21. 

riht-norJ»an-Tvind (ryht-), in., di- 
rect north wind: gs.- windes 38, 19. 

rihtwis, adj., 7'ighteous : ns. -wise 
55, 3. 

rihtwisnes (ryht-), f., righteous- 
ness : ns. 54, 2 ; 61, 2 ; as. ryht- 
wysnysse 137, 27. 

riman ("W. I.), count, number: 
pret. 3 sg. rimde 17, 20. [Mod. 
rime.] 

rinan (S. 382, n. 2), rain: opt. 
3 sg. rine 64, 5. 

rinc, m., man, wai^rior : gs. rinces 
142, 1 ; dp. 149, 18. 

rip (ryp), n., reaping, harvest: ns. 3, 
17 ; gs. ripes 22, 24 ; rypes 173, 19. 

rixian, see ricsian. 

rod, f ., rood, cross : ns, 99, 3 ; gs. 
rode 76, 29 (cf. rode-tacn); ds. 
r5de98, 17 ; as. rode 98, 15 ; 132, 
15 ; 136, 25. 

rode-h^ngen, f ., crucifixion : ds 
-h^ngene 74, 20. 

rode-tacn (-tacen), n., sign of the 
cross (in many cases not a com- 
pound): ds. -tacne 13, 3 ; 83, 9 ; 
as. rodetacn 137, 20; rode tacn 
120, 11; 123, 31; 124, 4; 125, 
17; tacn ]?£ere rode 76, 20 ; anre 
rode tacn 138, 23 ; l^ysse rode 
tacen 139,7; 139, 10. 

rodor, m., sky, heavens : as. rodoi 
52, 10 ; dp. 144, 21 ; 165, 14. 

Roinana, gp. m., Romans, Rome : 
Komana rice 75, 2. 

Romana-burli, f., city of Home, ' 



GLOSSARY. 



345 



ns. 00, 13 ; ds. -byrig 87, 11 ; 87, 

21 ; 88, 20. 
Romanise, adj., Roman : np. -isce 

86, 14 ; -iscan 90, 5. 
Rome, ds., city of Rome : 101, 23. 
rQmm, m., ram : as. rgm 145, 5 ; 

gs. TQinmes 145, 11. 
rose, f., rose : ns. 78, 6. 
rotian (W.II.), rot: 3 sg. rota^S 

36, 14. 
rotlice, adv., cheerfully : 12, 16. 
rum, adj., roomy, spacious : np. 

rume 165, 14. 
rum-mod, adj., magnanimoas, 

bountiful, liberal : ns. 61, 11 ; 

np. -m5de68, 22. 
run, f. (rune), secret meditation: 

ds. rune 163, 27. 
rycene, see ricene. 
rymet, n., room, space : as. 18, 18. 



S. 



sse, m. f., sea : ns. 38, 15 ; gs. sees 

34, 20; 115, 20; s^we (S. 266, 

n. 3; 269, n. 3) 117, 5; 117, 18; 

seI 77, 24 ; ds. see 1, 1 ; 4, 7 ; as. 

sse 21, 27 ; 40, 18. 
sacerd, m., priest: ns. 93, 9; gp. 

sacerda 121, 30. [Lat. sacerdos.] 
sacu, f., strife, war, battle: ns. 

167, 3; ds. ssecce 146, 4; 147, 

19. [sacan.] 
seed, n., seed : ns. 3, 13 ; as. 1, 6 ; 

3, 12 ; gp. sseda 3, 21. 
ssed, adj., sad, sated with, weary of 

(w. gen.) : ns. 146, 20. [Ger. satt.] 
ssedere, m., soioer : ns. 1, 6. 
S^fern, f., the Severn : gs. SSf- 

erne 21, 2 ; ds. Seeferne 20, 24 ; 

Sgefem 20. 29 ; 23, 2. 



ssegan (W. I.), cause to sink; set- 
tle : pp. speged 170, 3. [sigan.] 

sagol, m. , club, staff, pole : np. 
saglas 36, 11 ; 36, 18 ; dp. 36, 19 ; 
36, 25. 

sse-grund, m., sea-bottom : as. 34, 
23. 

ssel, m. f., 1. prosperity, happiness, 
joy : dp. 170, 1. — 2. time, occa- 
sion : ds. S£ele 77, 10 ; 82, 3 ; 88, 
18 ; as. s^l 100, 21. [Cf. ge- 
s^lig.] 

sselan (W.I.), bind: inf. 160, 21. 
[sal ; Ger. Sell.] 

s^-lida, m., sea-farer, pirate : ns. 
150, 24 ; as. -Man 158, 19. 

saloTvig-pad (saluwig-, salu-), 
adj., having a dark, dusky coat 
(of a raven): as. -padan 148, 5. 

s^lS", f., happiness, blessing : gp. 
s^lSa 145, 13. 

sam, conj., sam . . . sam, ivhether 
...or : 44, 8. 

same, adv., similarly : swse same, 
in like manner, 28, 8. 

samod, see sQmod. 

s£e-mQnn, m., sea-man : np. -m^n 
150, 8 ; dp. -mannum 150, 17. 

sam-worht (pp.), adj., half- 
wrought, unfinished: ns. 18, 6. 
[cf. Lat. semi-.] 

sanct, m., saint: ns. 103, 13; as. 
103, 10. [Lat. sanctus.] 

sand, f., 1. mission: as. sande 86, 
5. — 2. service (of food), course, 
repast: ds. ^nde 100, 28. 
[s^ndan.] 

sar, adj., sore, grievous : np. sare 
161, 27. 

sar, m., soreness, disease, pain : 
ds. sare 131, 3. 

sarig, adj., sorry, sad : ns. 5, 12. 



34^ 



GLOSSARY. 



s.!5-riina, m., sea-shore, coast: ds. 
-riman 24, 11. 

serine, m., sea-man, pirate : ns. 
153, 21. 

sarlic, adj., sorrowful, sad : ns. 
179, 7 ; ds. -Here 105, 7. 

sarnis, f ., affliction, distress, suffer- 
ing : ns. sarnys 91,10; ds. -nysse 
85,8. 

sar-Avracu, f., sorrowful perse- 
cution or tribulation : ns. 167, 
3 ; ds. -wraece 178, 12. 

sse-strand, m., sea-strand : ds. 
-strande 81, 2. 

Satanas (Satan), m., Satan : ns. 2, 
13 ; ds. Satanase 131, 23 ; Satane 
133, 19. [Lat. Satanas, Satan.] 

sawan (sjewan), seow seowon 
sawen (R.), sow: ger. sawenne 
1, 6 ; 3 sg. S£ew« 2, 11 ; pret. 3 sg. 
I5 7 ; pp. gesawen 2, 12 ; pi. ge- 
sawene 2, 24. 

sawol (sawl), f., soul: ns. sawel 
183, 9 ; sawl 70, 23 ; 131, 17; gs. 
sawle 54, 3 ; 105, 3 ; ds. saule 70, 
30 ; as. saule 5, 11 ; sawle 79, 
25 ; np. saula 60, 3 ; sawla 96, 
19 ; gp. sawla 54, 1 ; ap. 49, 21. 

scafan, sc5f sc5fon scafen (6), 
shave, scrape : pret. 3 sg. 105, 19. 

scanca, m., shank, leg: np. scancan 
175, 28. 

scand (sceand, scQnd, sce^nd) , f . , 
shame: ns. 37,6. [Ger. Schande.] 

sceadu (scead, n., S. 271), f., 
shadow, shade': ds. sceade 55, 8 ; 
173, 7 ; scade 170, 29 ; ap. sceadu 
172, 13. 

sceaft, m., shaft: ns. 153, 23. 

scealc, nl., servant, man, rogue : 
np. scealcas 155, 6. [Ger. Schalk ; 
cf. Mod. marshal.] 



sceamiaii(scQmianXW.II.), shame 

(impers. w. ace. of pers. and 

gen. of thing) : 3 sg. scQUia'S 31, 

22 ; 31, 25. 
sceamu (scamu, scQmu, sce^mu), 

f ., shame, dishonor : ds. sceame 

98, 10 ; scQHie 9, 8 ; 182, 17. 
sceap, n., sheep : gp. sceapa 33, 29 ; 

40, 6 ; ap. sceap 120, 20. 
sceard, adj., {broken), bereft of 

(w. gen.) : ns. 147, 17. [Mod. 

shard.] 
scearplice, adv., sharply^ quickly : 

170, 29. 
scearpnis, f ., sharpness : as. -nysse 

75, 10. 
sceat, m., corner, lap ; district or 

quarter (of the earth) : ns. 165, 

3; gp. sceata 178, 26. [Ger. 

Schooss.] 
sceatt, m., money, treasure, pay- 
ment, tribute : dp. 150, 19 ; 151, 

4. [cf. Mod. scot-free.] 
sceaaf (jiG^^),i., sheath: ds. scea'Se 

154, 18. 
sceaSJa, m., enemy ^ fiend, crimi- 
nal: ns. 92, 10; 138, 28; gs. 

scea-San 138, 25; ap. 83, 16. 

[sc^'5'San.] 
sceawian (W. II.), see, behold, 

examine (trans.): inf. 71, 14; 

85, 6; ger. sceawigenne 71, 17; 

ptc. sceawigende 88, 21 ; 3 pi. 

sceawia'S 176, 15; imp. 2 sg. 

sceawa 71, 19; opt. 3 sg. sceaw- 

ige 67, 5. 
sceawung, f., seeing, surveying: 

ds. -unge 39, 20. 
Sceo-burh, 1, Shoebury (Essex): 

'Is. -byrig 20, 20. 
sceoeoa (scucca), m., evil spirit, 

demon, devil : gp. scuccena 49. 



GLOSSAEY. 



347 



22 ; ap. sceoccan 80, 4. [sceoh ; 
cf. ]\[od. shy.] 

sceorian (W. I.), refuse: pret. 
3 sg. sceorede 82, 25. 

sceotan, sceat scuton scoten (2), 
1. shoot (trans, and intr.) : 
pret. 3 sg. 153, 30; 158, 3; 
pp. 146, 19. — 2. pusJi, thrust 
(trans.) : imp. 2 pi. sceota'S 133, 
26. 

sc^ppend, see scieppend. 

sc^i3'9'an, scod (sceod) scodon 
(sceodon) sca'Sen (6 ; S. 392, 
n. 4), scathe, injure (w, dat.) : 
inf. 171, 11; 180, 24; 3 sg. 
sc^-Set; 106, 18 ; 168, 7. 

scieppan (scippan, scyppan, sc^p- 
pan), scop (sceop) scopon 
(sceopon) scepen (sceapen) 
(6), create: pret. 3 sg. sceop 
10, 1. 

scieppeud (scippend, scyppend, 
sc^ppend), m.., creator : ns. scip- 
pend 57, 20 ; scyppend 10, 2 ; 
gs. scjrppendes 9, 22 ; ds. sc^p- 
pende 48, 19 ; as. scyppend 67, 13. 

scildan (W. I.), shield, protect: 
pret. 3 sg. scilde 55, 8. 

scinan, scan scinon scinen (1), 
shine : inf. 78, 10 ; ptc. scTnende 

77, 13; 3 sg. scTne'5 64, 24; 
scyne-S 129, 9 ; opt. 2 pi. scinon 

78, 5; 3 pi. scinen 36,25. 

scip (scyp), n., ship: ns. 42, 4; 
gs. scipes 117, 3 ; ds. scipe 4, 1 ; 
scype 150, 19 ; as. scip 1, 2 ; 4, 
3 ; np. scipu 4, 1 ; gp. scipa 17, 
27 ; 18, 7 ; dp. 20, 18 ; ap. scipu 
18, 3 ; scypu 41, 5 ; scypa 41, 6. 

scipen (scypen, scepen), n., stall, 
shed for cattle : ds. scipene 9, 11. 
[cf. Mod. shop ; Ger. Schuppen.] 



j scip-flota, m., sailor, sea-man: 

np. -flotan 146, 11. 
I scip-h^re, m., fleet, squadron: 
1 as. (of the Danes) 21, 5. 
scippend, see scieppend. 
scip-rap, m., ship-rope, cable : dp. 

39, 23 ; 40, 10 ; ap. -rapas 40, 14. 
scir, adj., sheer, bright, clear : ns 

173, 7 ; 175, 26 ; as. 152, 15. 
scir, f., shire, district, division: 

ns. 41, 8 ; gs. scire 89, 13 ; ds. 

scire {military division) 19, 10 ; 

as. scire 103, 15. 
Seiringes-heal, m., Sciringesheal 

(Norway) : ds. -heale 41, 17 ; 

as. -heal 41, 11 ; 41, 18. 
seir-mQnn, m., shire-man : np. 

-m^n 89, 14. 
scofettan (W". I.), shove, push 

(trans. ) : 3 sg. scof ett 35, 19. 
scolu, f ., shoal, multitude : ns. 184, 

17. 
scQmian, see sceamian. 
scQmu, see sceamu. 
Scon-eg, f., /Sifeaane (southernmost 

district of the Scandinavian pe- 
ninsula) : ns. 42, 7. 
scop-ge-reord (sceop-), n., lan- 
guage of poetry : ds. -reorde 8, 6. 
scortlice (sceortlice),adv., shortly, 

briefly : 86, 10. 
Scottas (Sceottas), m. pi., the 
Scots: np. 101, 7; gp. Scotta 146, 

11 ; 147, 9. 
serin, n., shrine, chest : ds. serine 
103, 4 ; 103, 20. [Lat. scrinium.] 
scrud, n., shroud ; garment, cloth- 
ing : ap. 78, 28. 
scncca, see seeocca. 
scufan, sceaf scufon scof en (2), 

shove, push (intr.) : pret. 3 sg. 

.153, 23. 



348 



GLOSSARY. 



sculan (sceolan) (PP.)' shall, 
ought, he yiecessary : 1 sg. sceal 
9, 20 ; 2 sg. scealt 59, 14 ; 82, 
30; 142,7 ; 3 sg. sceall 40, 12; 
1 pi. sculon 9, 25 ; 2 pi. sceole 
ge 151, 7 ; 3 pi. sculon (without 
inf.) 31, 24 ; opt. 3 sg. scyle 37, 
7 ; 46, 30 ; 47, 5 ; pret. 3 sg. 
sceolde 38, 19 ; {according to re- 
port ; cf . Ger. sollte) 5, 10 ; 6, 
5; 7, 1 ; — 3 pi. sceoldon 12, 4; 
scoldon 20, 13 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
sceolde 7, 10 ; 1 pi. sceoldon 26, 
15 ; 3 pi. sceolden 9, 6 ; 12, 28 ; 
28, 1 ; 37, 2 ; scolden 18, 27. 

scur, m., shower : ns. 173, 19. 

scyld (scield, scild), m., shield, pro- 
tection : ns. (portion of a bird's 
plumage) 175, 26 ; 181, 8 ; ds. 
scylde 153, 23; as. scyld 146, 
19 ; ap. scyldas 152, 15. 

scyld, 1, guilty offense^ sin: gs. 
scylde 34, 15 ; ds. 6, 24 ; gp. scylda 
52, 24; dp. 171, 11 ; ap. scylda 46, 
25. [sculan ; Ger. Schuld.] 

scyld-borh, f., shield- defense ; pha- 
lanx : ns. 157, 6. 

scyldig, adj., g^dlty : ds. scyldgan 
46, 21 ; as. 46, 20; np. 46, 23. 

scyld-wyrcende (ptc), adj., evil- 
doing, sinful: ns. 182, 17. 

scyll (scell), f., shell, scale: ds. 
scylle 173, 7 ; dp. 175, 28. 

seyndan (W. I.), hasten (intr.) : 
ptc. scyndende 72, 28. 

scyne (scTene), adj., sheen, bright, 
beautiful : ns. 175, 26 ; np. 175, 
18 ; 185, 19. [Ger. schon.] 

scyppend, see scieppend. 

scyttel (scyttels), m., shot, missile ; 
bolt, bar : ap. scyttelas 134, 5 ; 
scyttelsas 133, 26. [sceotan.] 



Scyttisc, adj., Scottish: ns. 146, 
19 ; as. Scyttysc 100, 4. 

se, seo, J»8et (S. 337), dem. pron., 
def. art., this, that, the {he, she, 
it) : Masc, ns. se 1, 6 ; 6, 6 ; gs. 
>8es 5, 3 ; 5, 10 ; 46, 3 ; ds. «£em 
6, 1 ; ]?am 5, 5 ; as, >one 1, 7 ; — 
Fern., ns. seo 1, 3 ; sio 5, 2 ; gs. 
J?8ere 6, 5 ; ds. >£ere 1, 1 ; as. >a 
1, 4 ; — Neut., ns. J?eet 3, 1 ; gs. 
Jjses 7, 15 ; ds. ]pam 2, 19 ; as. 
Jjget 1, 13 ; is. (masc. and neut.) 
«y («i, «ig, «e, 'Son) 7, 3 ; 10, 
22 ; 22, 13 ; «on 13, 1 ; —Plural 
(all genders), np. ha 2, 12 ; gp. 
hara (l^ara) 10, 29 ; 11, 14 ; dp. 
'Sgem ("Sam) 5, 13 ; ap. ^a 9, 22. 
— All forms are frequent as an- 
tecedents to the relative particle 
9'e, thus forming the usual rela- 
tive pron. (S. 340) ; the particle 
is sometimes omitted. — gs. 'Sees, 
adv., from that point of time, 
afterwards, 16, 2 ; 16, 4 ; 17, 9 ; 
23, 11 ; ^ses 'Se, from the time 
that, 14, 8 ; 18, 10 ; "Sses -Se, with 
what, 43, 30 ; 'Sees ^e, according 
to what, as far as, as, 148, 12 ; 
179, 25 ; 'S8es,/or this cause, 137, 
28 ; to 'Sses, to that extent or de- 
gree, 70, 13 ; 70, 18 ; is. (w. 
comp.) )?y sweotolor, the more 
clearly, 50, 3 ; l>y . . . }>y 28, 3 ; 
56, 18; Y-e 154, 2; 159, 15; >e 
l£es, lest, 2, 8 ; t'on ma K any 
more than, 15, 21 ; 51, 8 ; to ^^on, 
to that degree, 55, 10; — be )?y, 
hereby, 51, 19. See further, be, 
for, Iges, mid, to. 

sealm, m., psalm : ap. sealmas 
100, 12. [Lat. psalmus.] 

sealm-scop, m.,psalmist: ns, 33, 9^ 



GLOSSABT. 



349 



sealt, adj., salt: as. 125, 23; ap. 
169, 10. 

Seal-wudu, m., Selwood Forest 
( Wessex) : ds. -wuda 20, 28. 

sea,rolice,Sidv. , artistically : 175,15. 

searu (searo), n., art, trick, snare : 
ap. (or as.) searo 69, 9 ; 179, 20 ; 
dp. searwum, adv., skilfulhj, 174, 
15. 

Seaxe, m. pi., Saxons, Saxony : 
dp. 41, 25. 

secan (W. I.), seek, strive after: 
inf. 18, 20; 147, 32; ger. se- 
ceanne 36, 14 ; ptc. secende 37, 
7 ; 3 sg. sees 60, 16 ; 3 pi. secaS 
32, 4 ; 32, 7 ; to him seca'S, seek 
to them for, 37, 5 ; pret. 1 sg. 
sohte 64, 23 ; 3 sg. 26, 14 ; 40, 1 ; 
(w. dat.) 18, 23. 

s^cg, m., ma7i, warrior: ns. 146, 
17 ; 154, 15 ; gp. s^cga 146, 13 ; 
161, 30; ap. s^cgas 159, 1. 

slogan (s^cgeaii) (W. 111.), say, ut- 
ter, tell, discuss : inf. 5, 5 ; 10, 
14 ; 50, 3 ; s^cggan 68, 4 ; s^cg- 
gean 70, 5 ; 1 sg. s^cge 46, 20 ; 
130, 30 ; 2 sg. saegst 45, 10 ; 3 sg. 
s^g^ (impers.) 113, 1 ; s^ge^ 150, 
24 ; 3 pi. s^cga^ 6, 16 ; 77, 30 ; 
imp. 2 sg. saga 116, 23 ; s^ge 
139, 10; 150, 29; pret. 1 sg. 
ssegde 68, 13 ; sade 20, 16 ; 3 sg. 
ssegde 10, 10 ; 10, 12 ; sfede 2, 4 ; 
7, 9 ; 38, 1 ; 3 pi. saegdon 10, 18 ; 
S£edon5, 10; 39, 15. 

sefa, m., mind, mood, sjjirit : as. 
sefan 162, 4. 

sefte, adj., soft, pleasant: as. 
seftne 53,21. — Comp., as. seft- 
ran 55, 5. 

segel, m. n., sail : ds. segle 42, 5. 

segen (segn), m. n,, sign, ensign. 



mark, token : ns. 175, 6. [Lat. 
slgnum.] 

seglian ( W. II.), sail : inf. 41, 14 ; 
pret. 3 sg. seglode 41, 23. 

segnian (senian) (W. II.), make 
the sign of the cross, cross one- 
self : ptc. segniende 13, 12. 

seldan (seldon) , adv., seldom : sel- 
don 100, 14. 

seld-caiy, adj., seldom known, un- 
usual, rare : gs. -cti'San 6, 14. 

s^Ie, m., hall: as. 161, 2. [Ger. 
Saal.] 

s^le-dream, m., joy of the hall, 
revelry, festivity : np. -dreamas 
163, 9. 

s^le-s^cg, m., hero of the hall, re- 
tainer : ap. -s^cgas 161, 11. 

self (seolf, sielf, silf, sylf), pron. 
adj. (S. 339), self, selfsame : ns. 
selfa 32, 4 ; self 33, 6 ; 61, 3 ; 
silf 108, 24 ; gs. seolfes 13, 14 ; 
ds. selfum 24, 7 ; 27, 30 ; self re 
31, 11 ; seolf um 62, 4 ; sylf urn 
10, 17 ; as. seolfne 13, 12 ; np. 
selfe 34, 15; selfan 117, 22; 
seolfan 11, 6. 

selflice, n-., pride, vanity (= adj., 
selfish, vain, puffed up) : as. 31, 
6. 

self-willes (sylf-) (gen.), adv., 
voluntarily : sylf- 3, 14 ; 95, 24 ; 
105, 24. 

sella, comp. adj., better: ns. sella 
179, 18 ; ds. selran 67, 7. — Supl., 
ns. selest 62, 5; np. selestan 50, 
15 ; 51, 13 ; gp. selestena 23, 18. 

s^Uan (syllan) (W. I.), sell, give, 
yield : inf. 37, 7 ; syllan 64, 25 ; 
150, 17 ; 150, 25 ; ptc. syllende 
138, 2 ; 3 sg. s^le^S 55, 16 ; siltJ 
110, 2; sylS 110, 5; imp. 2 sg. 



350 



GLOSSARY. 



s^le 114, 8 ; syle 105, 15; 2 pi. 

s^lla^^ 116, 16 ; opt. 3 sg. s^lle 53, 

21. ; pret. 3 sg. sealde 1, 14 ; 20, 

9; 27, 6; 63, 30 ; 83, 5 ; 3 pi. 

sealdon 77, 7 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 

sealde 65, 15 ; pp. geseald 2, 5 ; 

3, 9 ; 18, 13 ; 20, 8 ; 110, 18. 
sellic « seld-lic), adj., seldom, 

choice, ivonderful : ns. 186, 8. 
sellic, adj., better, superior: as. 

sellTcran 176, il. 
s^.ncan, should be sc^ncan ; see 

Note 144, 16. 
s^ndan (^W . I.) , send : inf. 150, 9; 

3 sg. s^nt 3, 16 ; imp. 2 sg. s^nd 

125,20; pret. 3 pi. s^ndon 150,8; 

pp. sanded 117, 7 ; s^nd 126, 27. 
senep, m. n., mustard : gs. senepes 

3, 20. [Lat. sinapi; Ger. Senl] 
seo, see se. 
seoc (sioc), adj., sick: ns. sioca 

46, 14 ; as. sTocne 47, 6. 
seofon (syfen), num., seven: 83, 

29 ; 87, 23 ; 114, 18 ; syfan 39, 

24 ; 42, 4 ; np. seofone 147, 7. 
seofon-feald, adj., seven-fold: dp. 

93, 6 ; ap. -fealde 93, 1. 
seofoSCa, num., seventh : as. seof- 

oSe 87, 21. 
seolfor, n., silver : ds. seolfre 103, 

4; as. seolfor 111, 1. 
seolh (siolh), m., seal: gs. seoles 

(S. 242) 40, 11 ; sToles 40, 15. 
seomian (W. II.), tarry, abide, con- 
tinue (intr.) : 3 sg. seoma^ 165, 19. 
seon, seah sawon (ssegon) sewen 

(sawen) (5), see, look: ger. 

seonne 71, 21. 
seonaS', m., synod, assembly: as. 

182, 8. [Lat. synodus.] 
set, n., seat, entrenchment : dp. 18, 

28 ; 19, 1. 



setl, n., seat, throne : gs. setles 89, 

24; 97, 9; ds. setle 61, 6; 96, 28; 

146, 17; as. setl 32, 7; 88, 15. 
s^ttan (W. I.), 1. set,x>lace: inf. 

75, 27 ; pret. 2 sg. s^ttest 84, 23 ; 

3 sg. s^tte 62, 7. — 2. compose, 

write : pret. 3 pi. s^tton 82, 2. 

[sittan.] 
si, sie, slg, see beon. 
slbb, f., relationship, friendship, 

peace : ns. 144, 31 ; sib 114, 22 ; 

gs. sibbe 72, 24 ; ds. 74, 5 ; as. 

sibbe 26, 8; 68, 24; gp. sibba 

72, 16. [Ger. Sippe.] 
sib-ge-dryht, i., peaceful host : ns. 

186, 20. 
siblTc, adj., peaceable: ap. sible- 

can 69, 20. 
sibling, m., relative : dp. 108, 4. 
siccetung, f., sighing, sigh : as. 

-unge 89, 5. 
Sicilia-Iand, n., Sicily: ds. -lande 

87,21. 
sicol, m., sickle: as. 3, 17. 
Sid, adj., imle, extensive : as. sTdne 

168, 22 ; side 170, 17 ; sidan 182, 

13. [cf. Mod. side.] 
side, adv., widely : 181, 12. 
side, 1, side : ds. sidan 36, 4. 
sido, see siodu. 

sid-weg, m., wide way : dp. 176, 25. 
siendon, see beon. 
sigan, sag (sah) sigon sigen (1), 

sink, settle down, approach : 3 pi. 

sTga^S 176, 25 ; pret. 3 sg. sah 

146,17. [seon, 'sift.'] 
sige, m., victory : as. 16, 4 ; 17, 4 ; 

21, 9 ; 98, 23. 
Sigen, f ., the Seine : ds. Sigene 

23, 14. 
sige-wQng, m., plain of victory : 

ns. 166. 12. 



GLOSSABY. 



351 



siglan (W. I.), sail: inf. 39, 5; 

pret. 3 sg. siglde (S. 405, n.) 

38, 17 ; 39, 2. 
sigor, n. m., victory : gp. sigora 

181, 9. 
sigor- faest, adj., victorious: ns. 

174, 28. 
sigor-lean, m., reward of victory : 

dp. 144, 28. 
Sill^nde, Zealand: ns. 41, 21; 

41, 30. 
simle, see symble. 
sin, reflex, poss. pron. (S. 335), 

his : dp. 144, 16. 
sin, sind, sindon, see beon. 
sine, n., treasure : gs. sinces 161, 2; 

as. sine. 151, 7. 
sin-caldu, f ., perpetual cold : ns. 

165, 17. [symble ; cf. Ger. Sin- 

griin.] 
sinc-gyfa, m., giver of treasure, 

lord: as. 158, 11. 
sinc-J>^gu, f., receiving of treas- 
ure : as. ->^ge 161, 11. [Megan.] 
sin-dream, m. , everlasting joy: 

dp. 178, 15. 
sin-gal, adj., constant, continual : 

ds. -galan 57, 9 ; dp. 101, 11. 
sin-gallice, adv., continually: 35, 

11; 37,9; 88, 11. 
singan, s^ng sungon sungen (3), 

sing, compose poetry : inf. 9, 2 ; 

12, 29 ; pte. singende 114, 23 ; 

imp. 2 sg. sing 9, 15 ; 9, 20 ; pret. 

3 sg. 10, 7 ; 11, 7 ; pret. 3 pi. 93. 9. 
sioc, see seoc. 
siodu (siodo, sido), m., custom, 

morals : ns. sido 53, 14 ; as. (or 

ap.) siodo 26, 8. [Ger. Sitte.] 
siolh, see seolh. 
sittan, sset sseton seten (5), sit, 

take one's position, remain : inf. 



21, 29 ; pte. slttende 116, 3 ; 3 sg. 

sit 61, 6 ; imp. 2 pi. sittaS 121, 5 ; 

opt. 2 sg. sitte 64, 3 ; pret. 3 sg. 

5,13; 62,4; 129,19; 3 pi. 18,5; 

19, 12 ; 21, 3 ; 100, 21. 
si9", eomp. adv. (S. 323), later: 

si^' and ^r 145, 13. [Ger. seit.] 
sW, m., 1. journey, going, r^iotion : 

gs. siSes 172, 11 ; ds. si5e 172, 

23 ; as. sl« 17, 26 ; 115, 19 ; 169, 

4 ; is. si'Se 142, 15. — 2. time, 

occasion : ds. 20, 13 ; o5re sitSe 

. . . oSre si^e, 07i one occasion 

. . . on another, 18, 28. [s^ndan.] 
silje-mest, supl. adj. (S. 314), latest, 

last : ns. -mes'Sa (dial.) 34, 23. 
siff-faet, m.., journey : ns. 115, 17. 
siS'ian (W. II.), travel, go (intr.) : 

inf. 143, 8; 155, 2; opt. 1 sg. 

si^ie 157, 15 ; pret. 3 sg. sT^ode 

100, 14; 102, 5; 3 pi. -edon 98, 

6. 
siafffan (sy'5'San, seo^S^an ; < sI'S- 

•Son), adv. (eonj.), since, after 

that, afterwards, lohen .* 7, 9 ; 18, 

20 ; 39, 7 ; 48, 15; sy>>an 2, 18 ; 

3, 15 ; 74, 16 ; seo««an.70, 22. 
sleep, m., sleep : ns. 161, 16 ; ds. 

slffipe 10, 6 ; 75, 30 ; on slSpe 99, 

10 ; 104, 11. 
sl^pan (slapan), slep slepon sl^pen 

(R.), sleep : pte. slsepende 10, 6 ; 

117, 21 ; 118, 16 ; slapende 4, 4 ; 

3 sg. sl^p-5 60, 25 ; opt. 3 sg. 

slape 3, 12. 
slean, sloh (slog) slogon slagen 

(slsegen, slagen) (6), 1. strike, 

smite, slay : imp. 2 sg. sleah 144, 

23; pret. 3 sg. 98, 9 ; 158, 18; 

pret. opt. 3 sg. sloge 153, 4 ; pp. 

geslsegen 16, 7 ; geslegen 21, 12 ; 

sg. geslagena {smite luith an 



352 



GLOSSARY. 



affliction) 91,16. — 2. construct: 

pret. 3 sg. 103, 11. 
sl^ge, 111., stroke, blow, slaughter, 

death: ns. 91, 25 ; 130, 11 ; 133, 

14; ds. sl^ge 98, 14; 102, 16. 

[slean.] 
sliht (slieht), m., slaughter, de- 
struction : ds. slilite 91, 14. 

[slean.] 
slitan, slat sliton sliten (1), slit, 

tear (trans.) : pret. 3 sg. 7, 2. 
sli>eii (slil^e), adj., perilous, grim : 

ns. 161, 7. 
smael, adj., small, narrow : ns. 40, 

17. — Comp., ns. smselre 40, 22. 

— Supl., ns. smalost 40, 25. 
smeagan (smean) (W. II.), thinks 

reflect upon, consider (trans, and 

intr. ) : 3 sg. smeaS 35, 8 ; 50, 19 ; 

60, 17 ; 3 pi. smeaga^ 37, 10 ; 

opt. 3 sg. smeage 68, 21 ; pret. 

3 sg. smeade 62, 4. 
smeaung (smeagung), f., coiitem- 

plation, reflection : ns. 35, 26 ; 

52, 5 ; 76, 10 ; ds. -unga 35, 4. 
smia", m., smith : gp. smi^a 175, 22. 
smiiSffe, f., smithy: ds. smi'S'San 

77, 28. 
smolt, adj., mild, peaceable : as. 

12, 19. 

smylte, adj., mild, tranquil, peace- 
able : ns. 166, 12 ; ds. smyltre 

13, 7 ; is. smylte 13, 8. [smolt.] 
smyltnes, f., smoothness, quiet, 

calm : ns. 4, 8 ; 72, 15 ; 118, 2. 

[smolt.] 
sinj-rian (smerian, smyrwan) (W. 

I.), anoint: inf. 131, 3. [smeoru.] 
snaw, m., snow : ns. 165, 14 ; 173, 

21; as. 161, 25. 
snell, adj., quick, active, keen, bold : 

ns. 169, 13 ; snel 170, 24 ; 176, 



5 ; np. snelle 150, 8. [Ger. 

schnell. ] 
sniS'an, sna'S snidon sniden (1), 

cut : inf. 46, 17. [Ger. schneiden.] 
sniwan (W. 1.), snow: opt. 3 sg. 

sniwe 64, 5. 
snotor (snottor), adj., discerning, 

wise : ns. snottor 163, 27 ; up. 

snottre 67, 4. [sclileunig.] 

snade, adv., quickly : 182, 3. [Ger. 
snytro (snyttru), f., discernment, 

wisdom: as. 65, 12. [snotor.] 
snyttru-craeft, m., discerning skill 

or might : ns. 186, 24. 
so{te,Sid\., softly, easily, pleasantly: 

151, 7. — Comp., softor 55, 13. 
solor (solere), m., solei', upper 

floor or chamber : ds. solore 30, 

13 ; solere 172, 7. [Lat. solar- 
ium ; Ger. Seller.] 
SQmnian (W. II.), 1. collect, 

gather together (trans.) : 3 sg. 

SQmnalS 171, 24; 174, 15; 181, 

12. — 2. assemble (intr.) 3 sg. 

(for 3 pi. ?) SQmna-5 176, 12. 

[Ger. sammeln.] 
SQmnunga (s^mninga), suddenly ^ 

forthivith : 122, 2. 
SQmod (samod), adv., together: 

SQmod setgsedere 161, 16 ; samod 

42, 19; 77,3; 94,9. 
son, m., sound: gs. sones 6, 1 ; 6, 

14. [Lat. sonus.] 
sona, adv., soon .• 1, 9 ; 7, 16 ; 9, 

22; 21, 28. 
sQng (sang), m. n., so7ig, poem: 

gs. SQiiges 10, 8; is. SQnge 176, 

25 ; np. SQng 11, 5. 
SQng-craeft, m., ai^t of song and 

poetry : as. 8, 16 ; dp. 169, 22. 
sorg (sorh), f., sorrow : ns. 161, 7; 

sorb 141, 25; ds. sorge 186, 13. 



GLOSSABT. 



353 



sorg-full, adv., sorrowful . Comp., 

ap. -fulran 179, 18. 
soij, adj., sooth, true : ns. 76, 23 ; 

gs. so-5an 7, 18 ; ds. 65, 12 ; np. 

s65e 140, 15 ; — ds. to soSe, adv., 

in truth, truly, 160, 11 ; dp. to 

sotSon 132, 1 ; to so'Son 139, 25. 
soff, n., tinith : ns. 64, 24 ; gs. so'Ses 

39, 17 ; as. so-S 64, 23; 138, 27. 
soff-cyning, m., true King, God: 

ns. 144, 4; 176, 17. 
soaf-faest, adj., true, faithful: ns. 

183, 9. 
so>-f£estnis, 1, truth: gs. -nysse 

84, 23 ; as. 141, 22. 
sofflice, adv., verily, truly, indeed : 

2, 11 ; 3,3; 33, 12; 117, 15. 
spaec, see sprecan. 
spaca, m., spoke : ns. 50, 23 ; gs. 

spacan 50, 17 ; ds. 50, 25 ; np. 

spacan 50, 17 ; 51, 10 ; dp. 51, 2. 
spgetan (W. I.), spit: pret. 3 pi. 

spgetton 119, 22. 
spearca, m., spark: as. spearcan 

46, 23; np. 104, 21. 
spearwa, m., sparrow: ns. 64, 6. 
sped, f., spjeed, success, riches, 

power : ns. 187, 11 ; as. sped 178, 

24 ; np. speda 39, 30 ; ap. 28, 18 ; 

43, 5 ; 43, 29 ; 76, 13 ; 78, 4. 
spedan (W. I.), accede (w. dat.): 

2 pi. speda« 150, 13. [sped.] 
spedig, adj., prosperous, rich, 

poicerful : ns. 39, 29 ; 165, 10. 
spel-boda, m., messenger : ns. 184, 

28. [beodan.] 
spell, n., saying, story, narrative, 

message : gs. spelles 11, 2 ; as. 

spell 10, 19; 150, 29; np. spell 7, 

16 ; gp. spella 39, 15 ; dp. 11, 11. 
spere, n., spear: ns. 153, 24 ; ds. 132, 

13; as. 65,20; ap. speru 152, 25. 



spillan (W. I.), spill, destroy : inf. 
150, 13. 

splott, n., splotch, blot, spot: dp. 
175, 14. 

spor, n., track, footprint: ds. 
spore, 27, 24. [Ger. Spur.] 

spowan, speov^ speowon spow^en 
(R.), succeed (impers. w. dat.): 
pret. 3 sg. 26, 10. [cf .Ger.sputen.] 

spr^c, f., speech, language, saying, 
discourse : ns. 30, 10 ; gs. spruce 
31, 12 ; 111, 21 ; 144, 20 ; ds. 63, 
30 ; as. sprsece 48, 2 ; 100, 5 ; ap. 
sprgeca 111, 5. 

sprecan (specan), sprsec sprfficon 
sprecen (5) , speak : inf. 6, 22 ; 
48, 1 ; ptc. sprecende 9, 19 ; 12, 
12 ; 3 sg. spric'5 109, 11 ; sprice^S 
162, 17; spree 5 86, 9 ; pret. 3 sg. 
3, 25 ; spsec 3, 26 ; 1 pi. 17, 24 ; 
3 pi. 39, 18 ; sprecan 64, 16. 

spr^ngan (W. I.), fly into pieces, 
burst, break (intr.): pret. 3 sg. 
spr^ngde 153, 24. [springan.] 

springan, sprang sprungon 
sprungen (3), spring (intr.) : 
pret. 3 sg. sprang 153, 24. 

spj^rian (spyrigean)(W. I., 11.; S. 
400, n. 2), follow, search, in- 
quire (intr.): inf. 57, 23 ; 59, 1 ; 
spyrigean 27, 22 ; 3 pi. spyria'S 
53, 1 ; 53, 3. [spor.] 

staca, m., stake : ds. stacan 102, 30. 

staede-faest, -see st^de-faest. 

staef, m., staff, rod ; letter, writing : 
ds. stafe i40, 13 ; dp. 8, 5. [cf. 
Ger. Buchstabe.] 

stael-h^re, m., predatory, maraud- 
ing army or band: dp. -h^rgum 
24, 1. 

stael-hran, m., decoy-reindeer : np. 
-hranas 40, 2. 



354 



GLOSSARY. 



stael-Avyrlgre, adj., stalwart, service- 
able : np. 23, 6. 

Stan, m., stone, rock: ds. stane 175, 
20 ; np. stanas 6, 6 ; ap. 81, 2. 

stan-clif, n., stony cliff ; np. -clifu 
166, 1. 

standan, see stQndan. 

st^nen, adj., of stone : ns, stsenene 
125, 22; ds. stsenenan 126, 13; 
as. stsenenne QQ, 13 ; 125, 15 ; 
ap. stSnene 74, 11. [stan.] 

stan-lileo> (-lili», n., stony de- 
clivity, cliff: ap. -hleo)ju 163, 17, 

stan-scylig, adj., stone-shelly^ 
stony : ap. -scyligean 1, 8 ; 2, 15, 
[scyll.] 

stsep-mlelum, (dp.) adv., step by 
step : 30, 11. 

steer, n,, story, history, narrative : 
gs. stseres 11, 2 ; as. stSr 11, 8. 
[Lat. historia.] 

stseS', n., shore : ds. stsB^Se 150, 4 ; 
stabe 21, 2. [standan ; Ger. 
Gestade.] 

stad'elian (W .11^ , establish : inf. 
69, 21 ; 72, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. sta- 
«elode 169, 20. [sta^ol, 'foun- 
dation.'] 

steap, adj., steep, lofty, precipi- 
tous: as. steape 142, 9; np. 166, 1. 

stearc, adj., stark; strong: ns. 
175, 20. 

steda, m., steed, stallion: as. 
stedan 65, 20. 

st^de, m., stead, place : as. 104, 27; 
149, 19. 

st^de-faest (stsede-), adj., stead- 
fast: np. -faeste 157, 13 ; stsede- 
153, 14. 

stefn (stemn), f., 1. voice, sound : 
ds. stefne 144, 19 ; stemne 82, 
17 ; 83, 28 ; 105, 7 ; is. stefne 



182, 12. — 2. m., summons, term 

of military service : as. stemn 

19, 8. [Ger. Stimme.] 
stefn (stsefn), m., stem, prow of a 

ship : ds. stefne 147, 11. 
stemn, see stefn. 
steinnettan (W. I.), stem, resist, 

stand firm (intr.) ; pret. 3 pi. 

stemnetton 153, 9. 
st^nc, m., stench, odor, fragrance : 

ns. 167, 30 ; as. st^nc 188, 1 ; dp. 

80, 10 ; 165, 8. 
st^ng, m., stang, pole, rod, bar: 

ap. st^ngas 36, 2 ; 37, 18. 

[stingan.] 
steor-bord, n., starboard, right 

side of a ship : as. 38, 11 ; 39, 9 ; 

41, 14; 42, 6. 
steor-re}>ra, m., steersman: ns. 

116,6; 118,20; ds.-re>ran 117, 2. 
steort, m., tail: ds. steorte 6, 8. 

[cf. Mod. start.] 
st^ppan (stseppan), stop stopon 

stapen (6), sfep, advance^ go: 

pret. 3 sg. 75, 22; 149, 8; 151, 

26; 153, 18, 
stician (W. II.), 1. stick, stab 

(trans,): pp. gesticod 132, 13. — 

2. stick, remain (intr.) : inf. 36, 

5 ; 36, 26 ; 37, 2 ; 3 pi. sticia« 36, 

12 ; 37, 8 ; 50, 22. 
stigan, stag(stah) stigonstigen(l), 

ascend, rise, spring up: 3 sg. stlgetS 

183, 6 ; opt. 3 sg. stigge 30, 10 ; 
pret. 3 pi. 1, 12. [cf. Mod. sty.] 

stihtan (W. I.), incite : pret. 3 sg. 

stihte 153, 14. [Ger, stiften.] . 
stille, adj., still, fixed : ns. 50, 10 ; 

ds. stillan 48, 4 ; np. stille 5, 8 ; 

171, 16 ; stillu 48, 4. 
stilnes, f . , stillness, quiet : ds.. 

-nesse 13, 5 ; as. 28, 16. 



GLOSSAR r. 



355 



stiacende (ptc.) adj., stinking^ 

of ojfeJisire smell : Supl, ns. 

stincendiste 13-1, 28, [stincan.] 
stingan, stQng stungon stungen 

(3), sting, stab, j^iish through 

(trans.): imp. 2 sg. sting 36, 4 ; 

pret. 3 sg. stang 153, 25. 
stiaf, adj., stiff, lirm, stern, resolute, 

brave: ns. 30, 19; 159, 4; as. 

stiSan 111, 8 ; dp. 142, 4. 
stiff-hycgende (ptc) Sid^.,iirm of 

pu7'2)ose, resolute, brave : np. 153, 

9. 
stiff-hydig « -hygdig), a.dj., Jirm 

of purpose, resolute: ns. 144, 6. 
stiS'lice, adv., stoutly, boldly, se- 
verely ■■ 150, 4. — Comp., stiSlicoT 

88, 12. 
stocc,m.., stock, stake : ds. stocce 

105, 16. 
stod-hors. n., stallion : as. 65, 15. 
stQndan (standan), stod stodon 

standen (6), stand, occupy a 

place, arise (intr.): inf. 5, 8; 

standan 92, 13 ; 149, 19 ; 3 sg. 

st^nt 41, 24 : 50. 10; stynt 109, 

22; 150, 30: st^ndeS 162. 21; 

3 pi. stgnda^ 162, 23 ; pret. 3 sg. 

9, 13 ; 78, 17 ; 99, 4 ; 105, 17^: 
pret. 3 pi. 5, 15 ; 24, 14 ; 27, 14 ; 
151, 11. 

storm, m., stonn : is. storme 64, 9 ; 

np. stormas 163, 17 ; gp. storma 

171, 16. 
stow, f ., place : ns. 65, 28 ; 99, 12 ; 

ds. st5we 29, 12 ; as. stowe 12. 

7 ; dp. 38, 5 ; 40, 19 ; ap. stowa 

27. 19 ; 49, 7. [Mod. sto^.] 
strwl, m. f., arroic, dart: ns. 122, 

10. [Ger. Strahl.] 

strand . m. , strand : ds. strande 

77, 24; 103,6. 
Strang, see strgng-. 



Istraugian (W. II.), strengthen: 
j ptc. strangende 128,6. [string.] 

stranglic, adj., strong : ds. -iicre 
137, 23. 

stranglice, adv., strongly : 133, 26. 
jstr^t. f.. street, road : ds. strat 76, 
! 1; 88,21; as. 100,26. [Lat. strata.] 

stream, m., stream : as. 151, 16 ; 
ap. streamas 169, 10. 

strec (straec), adj., stern, severe: 
ns.streca93, 1; gs.strecan91. 18. 
[str^ccan.] [ns. 186. 27. 

str^ng9'u (str^ng^). f.. strength: 

string (stranii), adj.. strong : 168. 
5 ; 168, 18 ; Strang 69. 7 , 131. 25 ; 
as. strangne 53, 22 ; np. strpnge 
36, 15; strange 78. 17. — Comp.. 
ap. strangran 63. 27. 

stund. f.. brief period of time: as. 
158. 4. [Ger. Stiinde.] 

Stur-m^re. m.. estuary of the Stour 
(Essex): as. 157, 13. 

stycee-mselum, (dp.) adv., piece- 
meal : here and there: 38, 5. 

styman (W. I.), steam (intr.): 
3 sg. styme^ 172, 16. [steam.] 

styrman (W. I.), storm (intr.): 
opt. 3 sg. styrme 64, 6. [storm.] 

styrlan (W.'l. S. 400, n. 1), stir, 

' move (trans, and intr.): pret. 3 

j pi. styredon (vr. refl. ace.) 5, 6. 

sua, see swa. 

sub-diacon (-deacon), m., sub- 
deacon : dp. 69, 3. 

suelc, see s^vilc. 

su9'-st0e3', n., south coast : ds. 
-staeSe 23, 28. 

sum, pron. adj. (S. 343), some, 
certain, some one, certain one: 
ns. 1,7; 8, 1 ; 9, 13 ; 23, 20 ; 
(vr. gen.) 154. 5 ; 154, 20 ; sum 



. . siin^, a p'(rt . . .the rest, 
J, 12 ; 175, 14 ; gs. sumes, adv., 



356 



GLOSSARY. 



somewhat, 173, 15 ; ds. sumum 
82, 3 ; sumum . . . sumum 53, 23 ; 
sumre 9, 9; as. sumne 28, 11; 
is. sume daege, one day, 22, 25 ; 
62, 6 ; np. sume 22, 21 ; 49, 27 i 
sumu 49, 26; ap. sume 21, 22; 
39, 22 ; suma 28, 13 ; sumu 12, 
11 ; 22, 12 ;— (with numerals), 
ns. sum hund, about a hundred, 
19, 16 ; syxa sum, one of six 
(with five others), 39, 27- 

sumor (sumer), m., summer : ns. 
44, 8 ; gs. (adv.) sumeres 166, 16 ; 
ds. sumera 22, 19 ; 23, 11 ; 38, 6 ; 
is. 25, 9. 

sumor-lida, m., summer-army {ono, 
that does not winter in the coun- 
try; Sweet): ns. 17,8. [llSan.] 

sun-bearo, m., sunny grove .; ns. 
166, 12. 

sun-beorht, adj., sun-bright: ap. 
174, 24 ; 180, 11. 

sundor, adv., apart: 163, 27. 

sund-plega, m., sporting in the 
waves, bathing : ds. -plegan 169, 1. 

sunnan-daeg, m., Sunday: as. 84, 7. 

sunnan-uhta, m. (S. 280, 1), Sun- 
day morning : ds. -uhtan 84, 10. 

sunn-beam, m., sunbeam: ns. 
103, 14. 

sunne, f., sun : ns. 1, 10 ; 146, 13 ; 
sunna (?), m. 129, 6 ; gs. sunnan 
78,21; 101,15; 165,17; 175,6. 

sunu, m., son: ns. 25, 16; gs. 
suna 74, 22 ; 79, 14 ; as. sunu 
79, 17 ; 147, 19 ; suna 69, 24 ; 
ap. suna 20, 4. 

snpan, seap supon sopen (2), sup, 
drink : ger. siipenne 105, 20. 

sasl, n., torment: ap. sdslo 136, 28. 

sSS". adv., south, southwards.' 19, 
16 i 19,18. ) 



suS'an, adv., from the south: 42, 
20; 171, 17; 176, 12; be suban, 
prep. (w. dat.), south of 17, 17 ; 

27, 1; wi^ su)>an (w. ace.) 41, 18. 
su>erne, adj., southern: as. 153, 21. 
suiSre-weard, adj., southward: ds. 

40, 30 ; 41, 10. 
suac-rima, m., south coast : ds. 

-riman 25, 10. 
sals'- rodor, ra., southern sky: as. 

170, 2. 
su>-ryhte, adv., southwards: 39, 

i : 39, 2. 
suaf-sae, m. f., south-sea (the sea 

south of England) : as. 94, 17. 
Sfi3'-seaxe, pi. m.. South Saxons ; 

Sussex: gp. 25, 3; dp. 22, 10. 
suS'-staeS', n., south shore: ds.23,28. 
suwian, see swigian. 
swa (swge), adv. (dem. and rel.), 

so, as (manner, degree) : 12, 25; 

13, 10 ; sua 32, 8 ; sw^ 26, 16 ; 

29, 4 ; swa forS, so forth, 81, 27 ; 

sw^ same, in like manner, 28, 

8 ; swa "Seah, however, 90, 13 ; 

eac swa, also, 20, 9 ; swa swa, 

so as, just as, 11, 3 ; swee swse 

28, 30 ; 29, 3 ; 30, 11 ; swa . . . 
swa, as . . . as, 38, 12 ; sw£e . . . 
sw^ swse, so . . . (just) as, 29, 
10 ; swa swa, so that, 22, 5 ; 
swa . . . swa (w. comp.), the . . . 
the, 40, 22 ; swa oft swa, when- 
ever, 18, 14 ; swa hwser sw^a, 
wherever, 101, 16 ; swa hwider 
swa, whithersoever, 100, 13 ; 105, 
22; swa hwa swa, whosoever, 7, 
20 ; swa hwset swa, whatsoever, 
8, 4 ; bi swa hwaberre efes sw^a, 
071 whichever side, 18, 21. 

swaecc, m., odor, fragrance : dp. 
172, 17. 



GLOSSABY. 



357 



swalice, adv., so, thus : 126, 7. 

swan, m., swan: gs. swanes 169, 27. 

swau, m., sicain, peasant, young 
man : lis. 14, 5. ' 

swar (swser), adj., heavy, griev- 
ous : ns. 167. 5 ; 176, 3. [Ger. 
scliwer.] 

swses, adj., beloved, own: ns. 178, 
5 ; as. swffisne 161, 27. 

swiesendu, pi. n., dainties, ban- 
quet : dp. 64, 3. 

s^vat, m., siveat, blood : is. swate 
146, 13. 

swaeiSf, n., swath, track, footprint : 
as. 27, 22. [swa«u.] 

sweart, adj. , swart, black, tawny : 
ds. sweartan 89, 7 ; as. 148, 5 ; 
is. 142, 13. 

swefn (swefen) n., sleep, dream : 
as. 9, 14 ; 10, 14. [sw^bban.] 

sweg, m., sound, harmony : ns. 
169, 21 ; 169, 26 ; is. swege 5, 
7 ; gp. swega 186, 20. 

swegan (W. I.), sound,' have 
sound or import (intr.) : 3 sg. 
swegS 87, 5. [cf. Mod. swoon.] 

s^vegel (swegl), n., sky, heavens: 
gs. swegies 143, 18 ; 168, 22 ; 
169, 4 ; ds. swegle 169, 14 ; 171, 
17 ; 181, 12 ; as. swegel 172, 15. 

swegel-CQndel, f ., candle or lumi- 
nary of heaven : gs. -CQndelle 
168, 27. 

svp^elc, swelce, see swilc, swilce. 

swelgan, swealg swulgon swolgen 
(3), swallow (trans.): 3 sg. swel- 
ge« 182, 22. 

sweltan, swealt swulton swolten 
(3), die : inf. 95, 11 ; 158, 26 ; 3 
sg. swelt 125, 9 ; opt. 3 sg.swelte 
123, 2 ; pret. 3 sg. 102, 23. 

sw^ncan (W. I.), trouble, molest, 



afflict, torment : inf. 47, 6 ; 3 sg. 

sw^nce^ 121, 11 ; opt. 3 sg. 

svv^nce 55, 4 ; pp. pi. gescw^ncte 

62, 2 ; 55, 1 ; gesw^ncede 117, 5. 

[swincan.] 
sw^ng, m., stroke, blow: gs. 

swinges 153, 5. [swingan.] 
Sweo-land, n., Sweden: ns. 40, 31. 
Sweom, dp. m., the Swedes : 42, 12. 
sweora (swura, swTra, swyra), m., 

neck : ds. sniran 34, 20 ; as. 

sweoran 123, 5 ; 175, 23 ; swuran 

126, 3 ; swyran 122, 30. 
sweord (swurd, swyrd), n., sword : 

ds. swurde 91, 12 ; 92, 14 ; as. 

sweord 65, 19 ; swurd 149, 15 ; 

is. sweorde 143, 5 ; gp. sweorda 

146, 4. 
sweotol (swiotol, swutol), adj., 

clear^ manifest, distinct : ns. 56, 

4 ; 36, 9. [cf. Goth. swikun)?s.] 
sweotole, adv., clearly : 45, 7 ; 

62, 10. — Comp., sweotolor 50, 

3 ; 53, 19. 
s-\veotollan (W. II.), make mani- 
fest : 3 sg. sweotolalS 59, 8. 
sweotolice (swutelice), adv., 

clearly : swutelice 86, 9. 
swer, m.., pillar, column : ds. swere 

121, 22 ; as. swer 121, 21 ; 125, 15, 
swete, adj., sweet : as. swetne 53, 

22. — Comp., ns. swetra 169, 22. 

— Supl., as. sweteste 11, 4 ; ap, 

swetestan 171, 24. 
swetnis, f., sweetness: gs. -nysse 

95, 15 ; ds. -nesse 11, 16 ; as. 

-nisse 8, 7. 
sweffrian (W. II.), diminish, sub- 
side (intr.) : 3 sg. swe'Sra'S 173, 

2 ; 186, 10. 
swic-dom, m., deception: ds. 2, 22. 
swift, adj., swift: ns. 176, 5. — 



353 



GLOSSABY. 



Comp., np. swiftran 24, 5. — 
Supl., ap. swyftoste 43, 18. 

swigian (swugian, sugian, suwian ; 
S. 416, n. 5) (W. III.), be silent : 
3 sg. swia^ 170, 3 ; imp. 2 sg. 
suwa 4, 7 ; pp. geswiged 170, 6. 
[Ger. schweigen.] 

swilc (swylc, swelc), pron. adj., 
such : ns. 52, 4 ; ds. swylcere 
139, 22 ; as. swylc swylce, such 
as, 59, 7 ; swylce 139, 21 : suelc 

32, 14 ; dp. swylcum 3, 24 ; 
swilcum 89, 11 ; suelcum 32, 12 ; 

33, 28. 

swilce (swylce, swelce), adv. conj., 

I. (w.indic.) iii such manner,thus, 
likewise: 52, 7; swylce 52, 5; eac 
swylce 13, 8 ; eac swelce 8, 11 ; 

II, 18; 13, 11. — 2. (w. opt.), as 
if, as though : 5, 8 ; 50, 20 ; 75, 
30 ; swylce 3, 11 ; suelce 32, 22 ; 
37, 17. 

swimman, sw^mni swummon 

swummen (3), swim : 3 pi. 

swimma'S 161, 30. 
swin (swyn), n., swine, hog: gp. 

swyna 40, 6. 
swincan, swgnc swuncon swuncen 

(3), swink, labor, toil, strive 

(intr.): inf. 130, 30; 94, 10; 3 sg. 

swinc'S 57, 13 ; 2 pi. swincaS 94, 

3; pret. 3 sg. 101, 11. [swingan.] 
swingan, swgng swungon swungen 

(S),ivhip, swinge, scourge, strike, 

beat: inf. 141, 11; imp. 2 pi. 

swinga« 123, 19 ; pret. 3 pi. 

119, 22. 
swingel, f . , whip, scourge : as. 

swingle 91, 8. [swingan.] 
swinsian (W. II.), soimd, make 

melody, sing : 3 sg. swinsatS 169, 

14; 170, 1; 186,20. 



swinsung, i., melody, harmony • 

ds. -unge 10, 20. 
swira, see sweora. 

swiS" (swy^'),.adj., strong, active^ 
^ right'' : Comp., ns. swi'Sre hand 
101, 3 ; swy Sre 101, 2 ; ds. swyS- 
ran 137, 21 ; as. swi^ran 62, 7. 
[Ger. geschwind.] 

swiije (swy'Se), adv., very, exceed- 
ingly, severely : 5, 3 ; 21, 11 : 
30, 1 ; swy«e 39, 29 ; for swi^e 
very severely, 23, 16. — Comp. 
swibor 23, 16; sui^^or 34, 10 
swyjsor 71, 7 ; suitor ))onne, 
rather than, 32, 20. — Supl. 
swl^ost 57, 14 ; 61, 14 ; espe 
dally, 39, 19; almost, 43, 28 
ealles swi)70st, most of all, 23, 18 
eallra swij^ust 24, 1. 

swiiaflic, adj., intense, excessive 
ds. -licre 100, 31 ; 101, 15. 

swol, n., heat, burning : gs. swoles 
174, 15; ds. swole 172, 17. 
[swelan, ' sweal.'] 

swQngor, adj., heavy, inert: ns. 
176, 3. [Ger. schwanger.] 

swura, see sweora. 

swurd, see sweord. 

swuster (sweostor), f., sister: gs. 
swyster 74, 22 ; as. swuster 108, 1. 

swutelice, see sweotolice. 

swylc, swylce, see swilc, swilce. 

swylt-cTvalu, f ., agony of death : 
as. -cwale 177, 28. 

swylt-hwil, f ., hour of death : ds. 
-hwile 177, 9. 

sw^yn, see sw^in. 

swyra, see sweora. 

sylen, f., gift: as. sylene 62, 14. 
[s^llan.] 

sylf, see self. 

sylfren, adj., of silver: ds. syl- 



GLOSSARY. 



359 



frenan 100, 23 ; as. 100, 27. 

[seolfor.j 
syll, f ., sill, base, support : ds. sylle 

82, 17. 
symbel, n., feast, banquet: ns. 

1/9, 7; ds. symble 9, 8; gp. 

symbla 163, 9. 
sj^inble (symle, simle), adv., ever, 

always : symle 48, 9 ; simle 16, 5 ; 

IS.zb; 33, 10. [siii + m^l.] 
symle, see symble. 
syn-b^nd, m. f. n., fetter of sin or 

of hell : ap. -b^ndas 135, 4. 
syn-byr>eu, f., burden of sin : ap. 

-byr}5enna 69, 11. 
synd, see beon. 
synderlice, adv., specially .• 74, 4. 

[sundor.] 
syndrig, adj., separate, private: 

dp. 88, 10; 101, 15. 
syndriglice, adv., separately, spe- 
cially .• 8, 1 ; 63, 12. 
syn-fuU, adj., sinful : gs. -fiillan 

92, 6. 
synlic, adj., sinful : ap. -lieu 68, 10. 
synn, f., sin : ris. 110, 5 ; np. synna 

2, 9 ; 34, 14 ; gp. synna 11, 20 ; 

78, 23 ; dp. 33, 3 ; ap. 79, 11. 
synnig, adj., sinful : ns. 183, 9. 
syrwan (sierwan)(W. I.), 1. plot, 

machinate. — 2. put on armor: 

pp. gesyrwed 154, 15. [searu.] 
Syr-ware (S. 263, n. 7), pi. m., 

Syrians: gp. -wara 170, 27. 
sy9'afan, see si3'3'an. 
syx (siex, six, sex), num., six: 25, 

12; 40, 1; 66, 19; six 74, 11; 97, 

10 ; sex 24, 9 ; gp. syxa 39, 27. 
syxtig, num., sixty: 39, 27; 40, 14. 
syxtig-feald, adj., sixty fold. : as. 

-fealdne 2, 1 ; 2, 26. 



T. 



tsecan (tacean) (W. L), teach, di- 
rect : 3 sg. t^c5 111, 22 ; opt. 
3 pi. t^cean 68, 26 ; pret. 2 sg. 
t^htest 80, 28 ; 3 sg. tShte 109, 
2; 149, 18; 3 pi. -on 95, 9; 
112, 2. 

tacen, n., token., symbol., sign, mir- 
acle : ns. 56, 9 ; 74, 13 ; 108, 15 ; 
as. tacen 62, 9 ; is. tacne 180, 25 ; 
np. tacno 68, 13 ; tacna 85, 15 ; 
dp. 95, 18. 

tacniaii (W. II.), symbolize, sig- 
nify, represent : inf. 36, 7. 

taegel, m., tail: ns. Ill, 11; 111, 
14. 

teelan (W. I.), reprove, blame : inf. 
57, 12 ; pret. 2 sg. tSldes^ (dial.) 
30, 2 ; pp. pi. getSlde 31, 12. 

tam, adj., tame: np. tamu 5, 8, 
gp. tamra 40, 1. 

tan, m. (ta, f.), twig: dp. 180, 5, 
[cf. mistel-tan 'mistletoe.'] 

tapur (tapor), m., taper : ns. 169, 4, 

tgesan (W. I.), lacerate, pierce 
pret. 3 sg. tgesde 158, 3. [Mod 
tease.] 

teala, see teola. 

tear, m., tear: dp. 92, 26; ap^ 
tearas 79, 28 ; 131, 1. 

tear-geotende (ptc), adj., tear- 
shedding, tearful : ds. -geotendre 
137, 17. 

telga, ra., branch: np. telgan 167, 
25; dp. 171, 19. 

T^mes, f ., the Thames : ds. T^mese 
20, 22 ; 27, 1 ; as. 19, 2. 

tempel, n., temple: ds. tempi 82, 
17 ; as. tempi 64, 26. [Lat. 
Templum.] 

teohhian (tiohhian) (W. II.), ar- 



36o 



GLOSSARY, 



range, appoint, direct, destine : 
3 sg. tiohha'5 49, 14 ; 1 pi. tioh- 
hia"5 54, 14 ; pret. 3 sg. teohhode 
48, 2 ; pp. tiohhod 56, 15 ; ge- 
tiohhod 50, 8 ; 57, 18. [teoh ; 
Ger. Zeche.] 

teola (teala, tela), adv., properhj, 
WPll : 65, 22 ; teala 13, 2. [til.] 

teolian, teolung, see tilian, til- 
ling. 

teon (tion), teab tugon togen (2), 
draw ; betake oneself, go :- 3 sg. 
tleh-S 35, 13 ; opt. 3 sg. tio 36, 6 ; 
pret. 3 sg. 5, 13 ; 72, 18; 89, 6 ; 
91, 3 ; 3 pi. 18, 3 ; 22, 14 ; 123, 5 ; 
180, 15 ; pp. 123, 6. 

teon (teogan ; S. 408, n. 10), ar- 
range, create : pret. 3 sg. teode 
10, 4. [cf. teolihian.] 

teonlice, adj., grievously : 179, 8. 
[teon, 'accuse' ; Mod. teen.] 

Ter-finna, gp. the Terfins : 39, 13. 

tiber, n., offering, sacrifice: ns. 
143, 30; ds. tibre 142, 8. [cf. 
Ger. Ungeziefer.] 

tid, f ., tide, time, hour : ns. 60, 26 ; 
ds. tide 9, 9 ; 11, 27 ; 117, 19 ; 
as. 12, 1 ; 85, 4 ; is. tide 9, 12 ; 
np. tida 26, 5 ; ap. 49, 7 ; 83, 12 ; 
170, 7. 

tigan (W. I.), tie : pp. getiged 34, 
20. 

tihtan, see tyhtan. 

til, adj., good: ns. 164, 1. [Ger. 
Ziel.] 

tilian (teolian) (W.IL), 1. endea- 
vor, strive after : inf. teolian 70, 
7 ; 3 sg. tiolaS 57, 14 ; 3 pi. tilia^ 
55, 9. — 2. provide, treat, gaiii 
(w. gen.): 3 pi. tilgat; 181, 17; 
opt. 3 sg. tilige 46, 15; 47, 7, 
[Mod. till.] 



tilung (teolung), f., tillage, kus' 
handry : gs. teolunge 79, 8. 

tima, m., time : ns. 84, 4 ; ds. 
timan 76, 7. 

timbran (W. I.), build, construct :■ 
inf. 24, 3; 66, 13; 171, 19; pret. 
3 pi. timbredon (S. 405, 5) 24, 2. 

tin-treg, n., torment: np. tintrega 
124, 16 ; dp. tinttregum 62, 20 ; 
ap. -trega 119, 14 ; tyntrega 136, 
28 ; -trego 114, 5 ; -tregu 121, 8. 

tin-treglic, adj., full of torment: 
gs. -lican 11, 16. 

tiohhian, see teohhian. 

tir, m., fame, glory, honor: ns. 
152, 21 ; as. 146, 3. [Ger. Zier.]), 

tir-eadlg, adj., glorious: ns. 168,25. 

tir-faest, adj., /amorts, glorious: as. 
-fseste 167, 18 ; as. -fsest 185, 2. 

tir-meahtig, adj., of glorious 
might : ns. 171, 6. 

ti3'ian (W. II.), grant (w. dat. of 
pers. and gen. of thing) : ger. 
ti-Sienne 107, 5. 

to, prep. 1. (w. dat., instr.), to, at, 
for (place, time, indirect relation, 
condition) : 3, 25 ; 5, 13 ; 16, 1 ; 
17, 11 ; 99, 32 ; 149, 12 ; conduc- 
ing to, for, as, 10, 2 ; 39, 22; 76, 5 ; 
101,6; 178, 16;— sign of gerund, 
1, 6 ; 2, 5 ; w. verbs to inquire, 
seek, learn, 37, 5 ; 37, 8 ; — prep. 
adv., 1, 2; 1, 5; 6, 23; 15, 12; 
20, 22 ; 43,51 ;— 15 «^m, adv., to 
such an extent or degree, so, 25, 
3 ; 27, 5 ; to ^am 93, 6 ; to 'Son 55, 
10; 70, 17; to >on, to that (time), 
13, 1 ; to so'Son, truly, 139, 5 ; t5 
d?eg, to-day, 139, 6 ; to d?ege 65, 
30 ; to 'Searfe, according to what 
is needed, 156, 27 (cf . for benefit, 
99, 32V. — 15 5«r, to where, 102, 



GLOSSABY. 



361 



29; belonging {hereto, 108, 11; 
"SSr t5 eacan, in addition thereto, 
•76, 21; 79, 4; 88, 11. — 2. (w. 
gen.) 143, 25 ; to -Sees, adv. (= to 
•5^m), 70, 13; 70, 18; (hwon) 
moreover, however, 93, 14. 

to, adv., too : 30, 19 ; 56, 10 ; 69, 
6 ; 154, 6. 

to-aet-ycan (W.I.), add: pret. 3 
sg. -ffityhte 64, 17. [eac] 

to-berstan (3), burst, break asun- 
der : pret. 3 sg. -bserst 99, 7 ; 
153, 23 ; 153, 31. 

to-brsedan (W. I.), spread out : 
pp. -brffidd 36, 10. 

to-brecan (4), break in pieces, 
destroy, break through : inf. 134, 
5 ; opt. 3 sg. -brece 91, 11 ; pret. 
3 sg. -brsec 135, 4 ; 3 pi. -brScon 
20, 2 ; 23, 5 ; 76, 9 ; pp. -brocen 
157, 6 ; sg. -brocenan 76, 28. 

to-ceorfan, -cearf -curfon -corf en 
(3), carve, cut: inf. 100, 28. 

to-clcofan (2), cleave asunder: 3 
sg. -cleofeS 69, 15. 

to-cnawan (R.)' know, acknow- 
ledge : opt. 3 sg. -cnawe 82, 20. 

to-cuman (4), come, arrive: pp. 
-cumen 130, 1. 

to-cwysan (W. I.), crush : inf. 76, 
4; 1 sg. -cwyse 82, 11; pp. pi, 
-cwysede 76, 22. [Mod. squeeze.] 

to-cwysednis, f., crushed condi- 
tion : gs. -nysse 77, 2. 

to-cyme, m., arrival, advent: ds. 
_108, 5. fns. 107, 20. 

to-dal, n., separation, difference: 

to-d^lan ( W. I.) , divide, separate : 
1 sg. -d«]e 30, 14 ; 3 pi. -dSla-5 
43, 10 ; pp. -daeled 51, 19. 

to-emnes, prep. (w. dat.), along- 
side : 40, 30 ; 41, 1. 



to-faran (6), separate, disperse 

(intr.) : pret. 3 sg. -for 23, 11. 
to-foran, prep. (w. dat.), before 

(time and place): 130,14; 137,26. 
to-gaedere, adv., together: 151, 

15 ; 172, 28. 
to-geanes, prep. (w. dat.), iotoard, 

before: lb, 23 ; 165, 11 ; 169, 14. 
to-ge-9'eodan (W. I.), join.- pret. 

3 sg. -beodde 10, 8. 
to -hopa, m., hope : as. -hopan 37, 

17. 
to-Iesan, see to-lysan. 
to-lesnes, f., dissolution, violation, 

breach: ns. 72, 24. 
to-licgan (5), lie between, sepa* 

rate : 3 sg. -US 42, 14. 
to-lysan (-lesan) (W. I.), loosen, 

relax, unhinge : pp. tolesed 113^ 

12; 113, 17. 
to-middes, prep. (w. dat.), amidst, 

among : 104, 20. 
to-niman (4), take apart, separate, 

open, lift up : imp. 2 pi. -nyma'^ 

133, 17; 134, 18; pp. -numen 

18, 25. 
torht, adj., bright, glorious: ns. 

168, 15 ; torhte 166, 7 ; as. 143, 

30 ; ap. 172, 3. 
torn, n., anger, indignation : ns. 

164, 1. [Ger. Zorn.] 
to-scead, n., distinction, differ-' 

ence : ns. 60, 5. 
to-slnpan (2), slip away : inf. 49, 5. 
to-smeagean (-smeagan) (W. III.), 

think over in detail, inquire into, 

consider : inf. -smeagian 60, 6. 
to-st^ncan (W. I.), scatter, drag 

along: 3 pi. -st^nca}? 119, 15. 

[stincan.] 
to-teran (4), tear in pieces : pret. 

3 sg. -tser 90, 24. 



362 



GLOSSARY, 



to -twaeman ( W. I.) , separate : pp. 
.twsemed 157, 5. [twegen.] 

to9', m., tooth : np. to'Sas (S. 281, 
n. 1), 179, 8 ; dp. to^um 39, 21 ; 

. ap. te« 39, 21. 

to-weard, adj., toward, approach- 
ing, imminent, future : gs. 
-weardan 11, 15; 61, 23; as. 
75, 12 ; -wearde 91, 8 ; gp. 
-weardra 108, 12. 

to-weard, prep. (w. dat.), toward: 
43, 20. 

to-wearde, adv., in advance, he- 
forehand : 108, 14. 

to-wegan (f)), disperse: pp.-wegen 
171, 15. 

to-weorpan (-wurpan) , -wearp 
-wurpon -worpen (3), overthrow, 

.' destroy : inf. 35, 11 ; 65, 9; 
-wurpan 82, 10 ; 1 sg. -wurpe 

82, 10; pret. 3 sg. 66, 2; 3 pi. 

83, 31 ; pp. 55, 16. 
to-wurpan, see to-weorpan. 
traht-boc, f., treatise : ap. -bee 

97, 6. [trahtian ; Ger. tracliten.] 
treo (treow), n., tree, wood: gs. 

tieowes 137, 9 ; ds. trepwe 36, 2 ; 
: 105, 19 ; 171, 6 ; treo 66, 9 ; as. 

treow 137, 10 ; tryw 136, 24. 
treow, t, faith, pledge, agreement: 

as. treowe 164, 1 ; ap. treowa 

18, 14. 
treowen, adj., of a tree, wooden: 

ds. treowenre 141, 13 ; as. treow- 

ene 132, 15. 
TrF-^o, an ancient city on the Drau- 

sensea : ns. 42, 18 ; as. 42, 4. 
truwa, m., confidence : as. truwan 

92, 4. 
frymm (tremm), n., short dis- 
tance, step: as. trym 157, 11. 
fcrymman ( W. I. ; trymian, S. 400, 



n. 2), confirm, exhort : inf. trym- 
ian 149, 17 ; pret. 3 pi. trymedon 
159, 8 ; pp. getrymmed 150. 1. 
[Mod. trim.] 

tu, see twegen. 

tncian (W. II.), ill-treat, torment, 
punish : inf. 46, 30 ; pret. 3 sg, 
tucode 98, 10. 

tudor (tuddor), n., offspring, issue: 
gs. tuddres 72, 16 ; as. tudor 52, 14. 

tan, m., {enclosure) , tovm, village, 
homestead : ds. tUne 4S, 14 ; 43, 
24. [Ger. Zaun.] 

tunece, f ., tunic, coat : as. tunecan 
83, 19 ; 83, 24. [Lat. tunica.] 

tunge, 1, tongue: ns. 13, 9; 32, 
11; as. tungan 9, 1. 

tun-ge-refa, m., town-7'eeve,bailiff ; 
steward of a manor : ds. -gerefan 
10, 9. 

tungol, n. (m.), luminary, star : ns. 
146, 14 ; np. 168, 15 ; tungla 135, 
21; gp. tungla 78, 22; 168,12; ap. 
tunglu 52, 10. [15 ; 177, 8 

turf, f., turf: ds. tyrf (S. 284) 167. 

tuw^a (ttiwwa, twuwa, twiwa ; S. 
331) , adv., twice : 134, 21 ; tuwwa 
18, 28. 

twa, see tw^egen. 

twegen (S. 324, 2) , num. m., twain, 
two : nom. 48, 17 ; 151, 28 ; ace. 
20,4; 21,22; 36,2; 83,5; 112,5; 
143,7. — Neut.tu (twa): nom. twa 
48, 17 ; ace. tu 22, 28 ; 25, 4 ; 187, 
23 ; twa 112, 4 ; on tii, in two, 18, 
25 ; — adv., tu swa lange, ticice as 
long, 24, 4:. — Fern. twa: ace. 21^ 
4 ; 22, 28 ; 107, 19 ; 112, 5 ;— gen. 
(of all genders) twega 14.3, 22 ; 
156,2; dat.tw^m 16,12 ; twam 18, 
17 ; 39, 27 ; 40, 27 ; 79, 30 ; 98, 9. 

tw^lf, num., twelve: 18, 10; 21, 



QLOSSABT. 



363 



26 ; 82, 23 ; 108, 21 ; nom. tw^lfe 
(S. 325) 2, 4 ; dat. tw^lfum 166, 7. 

twentig, num., twenty : 40, 5 ; 114, 
18. 

tweonian (twynian) (W. 11. ), 
doubt (impers.) : 3 sg. tweona'S 
83, 16 ; twyna« 132, 8. 

tweonung (twynung), f., doubt: 
ds. twynunge 83, 18. 

twi-feald, adj., two-fold: as. 116, 
22. 

tydernis (tyddernis), f.,iueakness: 
as. tyddernysse 124, 20. [tudor.] 

tydran (W.I.), beget, bring forth : 
3 sg. tydreS 62, 14. [tudor.] 

tyht (tiht), m., 1. training, in- 
struction. — 2. motion, progress: 
ds. tyhte 183, 11. [teon.] 

tyhtan (tihtau) (W. L), instigate, 
urge, persuade, exhort : pret. 3 
sg. tilite 82, 16; 91, 6; 93, 23. 
[teon.] 

tyhting (tihting), f., instruc- 
tion., advice: dp. tiliting-um 93, 
18. 

tyman (TV. I.), beget, engender: 
pret. 3 sg. tymde 108, 2. [team.] 

tyn (tien), num., ten: 40, 13 ; 97, 
10. 

» (». 

J>a, adv. conj. (dem. and rel.), 
then, when : 1, 6 ;. 1, 10 ; 2, 3 ; — 
>a >a, then lohen, 27, 1 ; 75, 7; 93, 
3 ; >a he )?a . . . j^a, when he then 
. . . then, 9, 12 ; 22, 3. [Ger. da.] 

>a, see se. 

>afian (W. II.), consent to, per- 
mit; endure, suffer: 3 sg. )>afa^ 
46, 2 ; opt. 3 sg. J?afige 53, 6 ; 
pret. 3 sg. >afode 10, 28. 



]?£ein (]?am), see se. 

9'anc (•ggnc), m., grace, mercy, 
thanks : ns. %qi\c, 27, 2 ; 29, 11 ; 
31, 29; gs. Godes )?onces, through 
the mercy of God, 23, 15 ; mines 
■SQUces, by my favor, 32, i5 ; as. 
>anc 145, 12 ; 153, 7 ; 154, 3 ; 
ap. Sancas 73, 1 ; 125, 13. 

Sjancian (W. II.), thank (w. dat. 
of pers, and gen. of thing) : 1 sg. 
}>aucige 84, 17 ; 1 pi. panda's 84, 
33 ; pret. 3 sg. «ancode 90, 26 ; 
96, 9. 

id'anon, see iS'Qiian. 

iSser (^'ar), adv. (dem. and rel.), 
there, lohere : 5, 7 ; 9, 5 ; 104, 3 ; 
)?ar 1,8; 2, 12 ; — J?^r J?^r, there 
tohere, 18, 17 ; 27, 6 ; 99, 13 ; 
135, 5 ; — to \)seT, to where, 102, 
29 ; ^^£er inne 15, 23 ; -SSr on 30, 
15; 36, 5; 39, 12; 75, 5; 132, 
15 ; "Seer t5 108, 11 ; "S^r to eacan 
88, 11 ; 136, 6 ; «^r utan 19, 7 ; 
-S^r wi«31, 24; 54, 1. 

>£ere, )>8era (j?ara), see se. 

fSsis, see safes. 

>aes, see se. 

]>aeslice (cf. l^yslic), adv., suitably: 
87, 16. 

Jjset (tsette, < ]>set J^e), conj., that, 
so that .• 2, 6 ; 3, 1 ; 4, 11 ; t^sette 
5, 1 ; 11,6; 26, 20 ; — swa >8et, 
so that, 1, 2. 

fSe, rel. particle (S. 340): 2, 14 ; 6, 
12; 39,16; 32,1; 42, 18; se\>e,he 
that, that, 2, 2 ; )?am j^e 2, 5 (see 
se); for ^^m "Se, etc. (see for); 
o'S -Se (see o'S), etc. — conj., be- 
cause, 32, 3 ; or, "Se . . . '5e, 
whether . . . or, 45, 14 ; hwseSer 
. . . j?e 89, 3 ; — w. com^)., thaii, 
15, 21 ; 25, 15 (cf. 25, 9). 



364 



GLOSSABT. 



J>e, see tSa. and se. 

afeah (^eh), conj. adv., though, 
however, nevertheless : 5, 8 ; 15, 
26; 21, 22; 31, 8; 32, 14; 40, 
18 ; 48, 2 ; «eah «e 31, 7; 31, 26 ; 
92, 16 ; -Seh 18, 13 ; 23, 26 ; 25, 
1 ; 116, 15. 

ffearf, f., need, behoof, require- 
ment, benefit : ns. 12, 15 ; 35, 
20; 37, 13; 46, 11; 61, 13; 156, 
28 ; ds. ^earfe 99, 32 ; 155, 26 ; 
156, 27 ; as. })earfe 46, 9 ; 105, 
3 ; 154, 31. [burfan.] 

ffearfa, m., poor man : ns. 88, 6 ; 
np. Searfan 75, 25 ; 100, 25 ; dp. 
76, 19 ; 88, 1 ; ap. 67, 4. 

Jyearfende (ptc), adj., being in 
want : dp. 68, 23. 

aCearle, adv., severely : 99, 7 ; 146, 
23 ; 154, 14. 

]>earlic, adj., severe, cruel : as. 187, 
15. 

}>eaw, m., habit, custom, practice, 
behavior : ns. 12, 3 ; 43, 2 ; 160, 
12 ; dp. 33, 24 ; 87, 3 ; 110, 26 ; 
ap. «eawas 27, 11; 56, 23. 
[Mod. thews.] 

)>^ccan (W.I.), cover .• 3 sg, J?^ce'S 

172, 19 ; 177, 24 ; 3 pi. b^cca^ 

173, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. beahte 166, 21. 
[cf. Mod. thatch ; Ger. decken.] 

>egen (begn, \>en), m., servant, 
thane, officer, retainer, warrior : 
ns. begn 12, 8; 15, 10; 21, 10; 
144, 17 ; as. begen 154, 7 ; begn 
12, 5 ; np. begnas 15, 1 ; 20, 26 ; 
begenas 155, 30 ; benas 133, 2 ; 
gp. begna 100, 24 ; bena 23, 18 ; 
dp. 133, 24. [Ger. Degen.] 

STegeiilice, adv., in a manner he- 
coming a * tSegen,' faithfully : 
158. 27. 



ffegnian ('Senian) (W. II.), 1. 
serve (w. dat.): inf. 12, 5 ; pret. 3 
sg. Senode 88, 5. — 2. perform 
(a service) ; supply another with 
anything : inf. 'Senian 32, 10 ; 
95, 1. 

9" eh, see 3'eah. 

J>en, see }»egen. 

iaP^ncaii (W. I.), think, consider, 
resolve, intend : 1 sg. "S^nce 159, 
22 ; 2 sg. «^ncest 144, 1 ; 3 sg. 
«^nc« 49, 11 ; 53, 17 ; S^nceS 7, 
23 ; 157, 22 ; 159, 19 ; pret. 3 
sg. 'Sohte 6, 2 ; 62, 4. 

J>enden, conj. adv., while, as long 
as : 168, 8 ; 171, 12. 

d'euian, see laTegnian. 

ffenig-rnQDn, serving -man : ap. 
-m^n74, 11. 

J>enung (bening), f., service, minis- 
tration, office : ds. J?enunga 30, 
19 ; 36, 28 ; as. benunge 117, 7 ; 
np. benunga, attendants, 135, 7 ; 
dp. 74, 22 ; ap. Senunga 32, 10 ; 
service of a meal, 100, 23 ; 'Sen- 
inga, book of service, 26, 18. 

J>eod (biod), i., people, nation : gs. 
^Seode m, 5 ; 86, 1 ; ds. «eode 
152, 7 ; ^lode 5, 1 ; as. -Seode 68, 
2 ; np. «eoda 176, 29 ; «Toda 28, 
11 ; gp. -Seoda 87, 8 ; 154, 29 ; 
dp. 146, 22. [Ger. deutsch.] 

J>eoden, m., chief, lord, prince, 
king : ns. 153, 7 ; ds. tSeodne 
158, 27 ; as. )?eoden 154, 14. 

}>eod-land, n., inhabited country : 
as. 68, 1. 

>eod-scipe, m., service, discipline : 
as. -scipe 68, 26 ; dp. 11, 23. 

safeof, m., thief: ap. tSeofas, 83, 5. 

Ueon, -Sah «igon «igen (S. 383, 
n. 3) (1), thrive, prosper, sue- 



GLOssAnr. 



365 



ceed : ptc. t^eonde 88, 16 ; 97, 4 ; 
pret. 3 sg. t?eah 87, 10. [Mod. 
obs. thee ; Ger. gedeihen.] 
afeos, see tfes. 

ffeoster-fuU, adj., full of dark- 
ness : ap. -fuUe 80, 8, 
ffeostro ("STostro, 'Systro), f. n., 
darkness: gs. "Siostro 7, 14; as. 
(or ap.) "Siostro 7, 17 ; 'Systro 
135, 3 ; gp. -Seostra 84, 30 ; 129, 
4 ; dp. jjiostfum 52, 24 ; 'Systrum 
129, 19. 
Iffeow ('Slow), m., servant: ds. 
}>eowe 114, 3 ; gp. "Seowa 11, 1 ; 
'Siowa 27, 16. [cf. >egen.] 
aCeowa, m., servant: ns. 126, 28 ; 

np. 'Seowan 77, 16 ; ap. 77, 12. 
ffeow-dom, m., service : ns. 95, 23. 
S'eow(i)an (W. II., I.), serve (w, 
dat.): ptc. 'Seowigende 95, 6; 
3 sg. peowaS 79, 4 ; 3 pi. \>eo- 
wiaS 83, 22 ; pret. 1 sg. ^eodde 
63, 25 ; 3 sg. )?eode 13, 7. 
Sfes (^Sejs,^is),dem.pron. (S.338), 
this: Masc, ns. '5es4, 11 ; 162, 9; 
ds. )>eossum 9, 17 ; as. 'Sisne 85, 
14; ]?ysne 150, 31. — Eem., ns. 
-^eos 30, 10 ; 101, 2 ; hios 49, 12 ; 
gs. "Sisse 31, 11 ; "Seosse 8, 1 ; ds. 
«isse 6, 2 ; 30, 5 ,- as. >as 9, 21 ; 
162, 5. — Neut., ns. «is 9, 24; 
41, 16 ; ds. ^issum 41, 16 ; bysum 
17, 23 ; ^r tlissum 28, 24 ; as. 
bis 2, 10; 35,6; o« -Sis 101, 4; 
is. (masc. and neut.) ^ys 18, 10 ; 
21, 28 ; 35, 26 ; 58, 2 ; 59, 16 ; 
116, 5; 148, 10; 159, 19. — PL 
(all genders), nom. '(5as 7, 16 ; gen, 
^issa 34, 18 ; 'Sissera 77, 28 ; dat. 
^iosum 35, 22 ; beossum 64, 15. 
]>iccnes, f., thickness: as. -nesse 

1,10. 
gricgan (S. 391, 3) (5), receive, 



take, consume, eat : ger. bicgenne 
103, 29; 3 sg. Hge^ 172, 22; 
174, 5; 182, 20; pret. 3 pi. 
begun 179, 3 ; 179, 11. 
iSfider ('Syder, Sidres), thither: 6, 
5 ; 15, 2; 35, 2 ; 115, 17 ; t^yder 
41, 11 ; «idres 35, 19. [41, 26. 
]>ider-weard, adv., thither-ward : 
J>ider-weardes, adv., thither- 
wards : 19, 10 ; 48, 2. 

>in, poss. pron., thine: ns. bin 
117, 16; ds. binre 12, 15; ds. 
binum 123, 14 ; as. binne 114, 19 ; 
gp. binra 62, 13 ; dp. 115, 21 ; 
ap. bine 114, 16. 

Jjinen, f., handmaid : ap. binena 
107, 19. [begen.] 

aCing, n., thing: ns. 3, 4; gs. 
binges 6, 2 ; 49, 25 ; 99, 27 ; ds. 
binge 58, 1 ; as. "Sincg 105, 14 ; 
np. t>ing 2, 6 ; 48, 18 ; 49, 26 ; 
59, 16 ; dp. for "Siosum "Singum, 
for this 7'eason, 35, 22 ; ap. 12, 11. 

(Sing-ere, m., one that pleads a 
cause, advocate : as. 46, 29 ; np. 
bingeras 46, 8. 

iffingian (W. II.), plead a cause, 
intercede for another (w. dat.) : 
3 pi. bingia^ 46, 9; opt. 3 sg. 
bingie 105, 12; pret. opt. 3 sg. 
bingode 46, 12. 

afingung, f., advocacy, interces- 
sion, mediation : as. -unge 85, 17. 

}?iod, see J>eod. 

Sfiostro, see afeostro. 

afiow^ see ffeow. 

aCiowot-dom ("Seowot-), m., ser- 
vice : ap. -domas 26, 13. 

ffis, see aCes. 

]?oliau (W. II.), 1. suffer, endure, 
undergo : ger. bolianne 55, 5 ; 
t5oUgeiiiie %, 11 ; pret. 3 sg. 



366 



GLOSSABT. 



J>olade 45, 15. — 2. endure, hold 

out (intr.) : inf. 155, 26 ; 159, 10. 

[Ger. dulden.] 
J»on, see se. 
3'(jnan CS^non, "Sanon), adv., 

thence : 6, 13 ; 38, 4 ; 39, 2 ; 48, 

10 ; '5Qnon96, 23 ; «anon 115, 8 ; 
145, 6. 

afQnan-weard, adj., on the way 

thence : ns. 7, 9. 
]?one, see se. 
]>onne (Jjsenne), adv. (dem. and 

TGl.),then, when: 2, 13; 7, 22 ; 

9, 5; 31, 6'; l^SBnne 2, 16; — 

>onne ]>onne, ^^ew vjhen, 52, 16 ; 
- jjonne >onne . . . >onne 37, 4 ; 

>onne . . . )?onne 9, 7 ; — w. 

comp., than, 15, 17 ; 25, 9 ; 31, 

20 ; 32, 21. 
Jjorn, m., thojm : np. J^omas 1, 13 ; 

dp. 2, 20 ; ap. 1, 12. 
Jjoterung, f ., lamentation : ns. 80, 

11. 
J>rag (t-rah), f., ^me; ns. 163, 

11 ; as. >rage, adv., /or a time, 
170, 21 ; dp. at times, sometimes, 
167, 17. 

iSTreagean (^reagan, 'Srean) (W. 

III.), rebuke, reprove, oppress: 

inf. 34, 13 ; J?reagan 55, 21 ; ger. 

•Sreagenne 80, 2; pret. 3 sg. 

«reade 32, 26 ; 71, 12. 
J>reat, m., crov:d, troop, flock : dp. 

176,29; 182, 16. 
ffri (Srie, tSry, ^reow, 'Sriow), 

num., three: nom. 110, 12; >ry 
•81, 11 ; 115, 3 ; >reo 24, 14 ; 69, 

16 ; gen. t>reora 24, 16; 40, 25 ; 

81, 17 ; 92,9; dat. >rim 23, 17 ; 

38, 14 ; 60, 5 ; 110, 13 ; ace. 

>rTe 38, 11 ; ISry 41, 28 ; >rio ,6, 7. 
}>ridda, num. adj., third: ns. 30, 



15; 143, 8 ; J^ridde 60, 3; gs. 

jjriddan 143, 15 ; ds. J^ryddan 

141, 16; as. )>ridde 62, 15 ; -an 

43, 15. 
]?ringan, >rQng }?rungon >rungeii 

(3), throng, press or crowd to- 
gether : 3 pi. >ringa^ 170, 24 

176, 24 ; 182, 16. [Ger. dringen.] 
J?rianis, f., trinity : ns. 110, 

110, 9 ; ds. Kynnysse 128, 13. 
}>rist (hriste), adj., hold, confident, 

resolute, rash, presumptuous . 

ns. 30, 19 ; 170, 5 ; np. f?riste 

31, 17. [Ger. dreist.] 
afri-tene (^reo-, -tyne), num., 

thirteen : 'Sreottyne 97, 9. 
9'ritig (Srittig), num., thirty: 40, 

24 ; 80, 21 ; >rlttig 102, 14 ; gs. 

^rltiges (S. 326) 18, 1 ; gen. «ritig- 

ra 80, 24 ; dat. 79, 15. 
J>ritig-feald, adj., thirty-fold : as. 

-fealdne 1, 15; 2, 26. 
grriwa, adv., thrice : 79, 22; 170, 5. 
>rotu (S. 279), f., throat: ds. 

>rotan 87, 16. 
afrowlan (W. II.), suffer: inf. 

79, 12 ; ger. ^rowianne 55, 11 ; 

ptc. hrowiende 119, 21; J^rowig- 

ende 136, 29 ; 3 sg. 'Srowa'S 35, 

1 ; pret. 2 sg. Kowodest 124, 17 ; 

3 sg. -ade 88, 11. 
lafrowung, f., suffering : ds. -unge 

11, 13 ; 94, 2l'. 
)?ryccan (W. I.), oppress, afflict: 

pp. Kycced 11, 29. [Ger. 

driicken.] 
)?ryinliee, adv.. gloriously: 167, 

17 ; 182, 29. 
J»rymm, m., multitude, host, 

strength, force, renown, glory: 

ns. >rym 163, 11 ; 166, 20 ; 186, 

30 ; gp. Kymma 186, 30. 



GLOSSARY. 



367 



]>rym-sittende (ptc.) adj., sitting 

in glory : ds. -sittendum 186, 25. 
J^ryO" (JjryS'o), f., might, majesty, 

copiousness: n^). \>vy]pe 163, 15; 

171, 15 ; dp. multitude, 176, 14. 
ffu, second pers. pron. (S. 332), 

thou : ns. 3, 1 ; 12, 16 ; gs. '5m 

117, 6; ds. -Se 4, 5; 12, 15; as. 

«ec 63, 1 ; «e 114, 15. — Dual, 

nom. git (gj^t) ; gyt btitu 137, 2 ; 

gen. incer ; dat. inc ; ace. incit 

(inc) ; incit 143, 20. — Plural, 

nom. ge 2, 10 ; 32, 25 ; gen. 

eower 80, 3; dat. eow 2, 4; 3, 8; 

low 28, 12 ; ace. eowic (eow) ; 

eow 61, 4 ; iow 37, 16. 
Jjunor, m., thunder: gs. >>unres 

130, 11 ; 133, 14. 
J>urfan (VV.), need, he required, 

have occasion : 2 sg. >earft 130, 

30 • 3 sg. i>earf 69, 9 ; 112, 9 ; 1 

pi. |>urfe we 150, 13 ; opt. 2 sg. 

>urfe 131, 1 ; 3 pi. ]>yrfen 55, 23 ; 

pret. 3 sg. «orfte 147, 16 ; 3 pi. 

■Sorfton 95, 12 ; 147, 24. [Ger. 

dtirfen.] 
afurh, prep. (w. ace), through, 1. 

(time, place) 9, 14 ; 62, 3 ; 153, 

28. — 2. (condition, agency): 8, 

5; 9, 6; 28, 9; 31, 6; 32, 13; 

49, 20; 62, 19; 166, 25; -Surh 

>8et >e 136, 26. 
^urh-fleon (2), fly (S. 384, n. 2), 

fly through : opt. 3 sg. -fleo 64, 7. 
J>urli-seeotan (2), shoot through, 

pierce : 3 sg. -sceotetS 69, 15 ; pp. 

pi. -scotene 77, 14. 
J»urh-slean (6), smite through: 

3 sg. -slyhb 69, 14. 
>urh-teoii (2) {draw through), 

fulfil, accomplish : inf. 78, 8. 
l>urh-wadan, -wod -wodon waden 



(6), go through, penetrate : pret. 

3 sg. 158, 29. 
aPurh-wunian ( W. II.), continue, 

he steadfast: ptc.'-wuniende 36, 

15 ; 114, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. -wunode 

74, 7; 3 pi. -odon97, 4. 
jjurst, m., thirst: ns. 186, 15. 
15'urstig, adj., thirsty: ds. "Surstigum 

87, 14. 
a-us, adv., thus : 12, 16 ; 32, 4 ; 79, 

22. 
iSfisend (S. 327), n., thousand: 

gp. >usenda 16, 20 ; ap. >iisende 

170, 12 ; — uninflected, 78, 29; 

82, 23 ; 131, 4. 
J>\\'ean, 'Swoh 'Swogon ^wsegen 

S. 392, 2) (6), loash: pret. 3 sg. 

«w51i 103, 19. 
Jj-wyrnis (>weorhnis), f., perver- 
sity : ds. -nysse 82, 26 ; dp. 

-nyssum 92, 12. [tSweorli.] 
ty (y^)i see se. 
>ydan {W.l.), suhmit : opt. 1 pi. 

>ydon 72, 30. ['Seod.] 
9'yncan (W. I.), seem, appear,: 3 

sg. 'Synee'5 31, 9; opt. 3 pi. ^yneen 

30, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. Kihte 68, 5 ; 

pret. opt. 3 sg. h-uhte 63, 13 ; pp. 

get?uht 82, 12 ; 87, 11 ; — impers. 

3 sg. me ^yncS, methinJcs, 28, 12 ; 

-SyneeS 63, 26 ; "SincS 46, 1 ; 46-, 

7 ; opt. 3 sg. «ince 49, 15 ; 52, 

22 ; 58, 1 ; pret. 3 sg. l^iihte 6, 1 ; 

12, 8 ; 24, 7 ; 39, 18 ; 151, 14. 
ffyrstan (W. I.), thirst after (w. 

gen.) : opt. 3 sg. ^yrste 34, 6. 

[Surst.] 
Jjyslic (J>uslic, >8eslTc) (S. 349), 

pron. adj., such: ns. 64, 1; np. 

>yslIco 68, 13. 
larystro, see lareostro. 



368 



GLOSS ABT, 



U. 



ufan, adv., /row above, above : 144, 
18; 144,21; 175,26. 

ufe-weard, adj., upioard, upper, 
higher up : ns. 175, 17 ; ds. 
-weardum 24, 14 ; 33, 15. 

ufor, adv., further away : 82, 16. 

fihta (S. 280, n. 2), m., dawn : gp. 
uhtna 160, 8. 

uht-SQDg, m., morning song ; ma- 
tins : ds. -sgnge 101, 14 ; as. -sgng 
12, 29. 

un-a-berendlic, adj., intolerable : 
as. -lice 54, 26. 

un-a-s^cgendlic, adj., unspeak- 
able : ds. -licum 49, 9 ; dp. 80, 
9. 

un-a-ffroten (pp.), adj., unwearied, 
indefatigable : np. -^rotene 36, 
15. [tSreotan.] 

un-a-w^ndendlic, adj., unchange- 
able : ns. 49, 25. 

un-be-boht, adj. (ptc), unsold: 
gp.unbebohtra40, 1. [bebycgan.] 

un-be-fohten (pp.), adj., unop- 
posed : np. -fohtene 151, 5. 

un-bryce, adj., imperishable : ns. 
187, 13. [brecan.] 

uncer, see ic. 

uu-co>u, f., disease: as. unco'Se 
78, 14. 

un-cuS", adj., unknown, uncertain : 
ns. 29, 9 ; 64, 2. 

un-cyst, f., vice, wickedness : ds. 
-cyste 78, 30 ; ap. -cyste 183, 12. 

under, prep. (w. dat. and ace), 
1. under (w. dat.) : 3, 2 ; 3, 24. 
— 2. (w. ace.) under bsec (cf . 
ofer bsec), adv., backwards: 7, 
8 ; 7, 10 ; 7, 15. 

under-be-ginnan, -gQnn -gunnon 



-gunnen (3), undertake : ger. 

-ginnene 10?, 9. 
under-f^ng, m., undertaking : is. 

30, 17 ; 30, 19. 
under-fon, -feng -fengon -fangen 

(U.), undertake, receive, assume : 

inf. 31, 15 ; ger. -fonne 30, 6 ; 

ptc. -fonde 95, 9 ; 3 pi. -fo« 34, 

11 ; opt. 3 pi. -fon 31, 18 ; 33, 

22 ; pret. 3 sg 93, 12 ; 3 pi. 81, 

4 ; pret. opt. 3 sg -fenge 30, 9. 
under-gietan (-gitan -gytan) (5), 

perceive : pret. 3 sg. -geat 77, 

16. 
undern, m., mid-morning^ morn- 
ing : as. 84, 11. 
under-sceotan, -sceat -scuton 

-scoten (2), support: pp. pi. 

-scotene 32, 17. 
under-stQndan (6), understand: 

inf. 26, 18: -standan 52, 27; 

107, 17 ; 3 sg. -st^nt 52, 25. 
under-9'eodaii,see under-Siedan. 
under-9'iedan (-tSydan, -'Seodan, 

-tJiodan) (W. I.), subject to (w. 

reflex, ace. and dat) : pret. opt. 

3 pi. -"Siodden 59, 10 ; pret. 3 sg. 

--Seodde 63, 20 ; pp. -«ied 49, 27 ; 

50, 1 ; --Seod 132, 18 ; 136, 5 ; 

-«eoded 11, 23 ; pi. -«eodde 69, 

1 ; 89, 7. 
under-9'iodaii, see under-iSTiedan. 
un-drefed (pp.), adj., untroubled, 

undisturbed, undefiled (of 

water) : as. 34, 1. 
un-earg (-earh), adj., not cow- 
ardly, brave: np. -earge 156, 1. 
un-eaiSe, adv., not easily, with 

difficulty : 7, 11. 
un-eaafelice (-y'Selice, e'Selice), 

adv., with difficulty : -e'Selice 24, 

19. 



GLOSSARY. 



369 



un-fseger, adj., not fair, unsightly, 
foul : lis. 70, 21. 

iin-feor, adv., not far, near : 145, G. 

un-for-baerncd (pp.), adj., uu- 
hurned: ns. 4:o, 3; 44, 2. 

un-for-cuiffv-adj., reputable, excel- 
lent, brave : ns. 150, 30. 

un-forht, adj., /earless, undaunted: 
ns. 136, G ; np. -forhte 151, 27. 

un-forht-mod, adj., fearless : ns. 
83, 3. 

uii-fri>, m., hostility : ds. unfri)?e 
39, 6. 

un-gearo, adj., unprepared, un- 
ready : ns. 37, 19; gs. -gearowes 
37,3. 

un-ge-cyndelic, adj., unnatural, 
terrible : ap. -cyndellce G8, 1 ; 
-cyndelico 67, 20. 

un-ge-^ndod (pp.), adj., endless : 
as. -^ndode 85, 1 ; ap. -^ndodan 
136, 28. 

un-ge-foge, adv., excessively : 43, 26. 

un-ge-fr£eglice, adv. '(to an un- 
heard of degree), unquestionably, 
incredibly : 5, 3. 

un-ge-fullod (pp.), adj., unbap- 
tized: 102, 18. 

iin-ge-hirsum, adj., disobedient : 
ns. 112, 15. 

un-ge-laered (pp.), adj., un- 
learned, ignorant : np. -l^redan 

31, 18 ; 108, 8. 
un-ge-lserednes, f., v'ant of learn- 
ing, ignorance : ds. -nesse 31, 7; 

32, 27. 

un-ge-lealfull, adj., unbelieving: 
np. -fulle 82, 4 ; ap. -fullan 36, 21. 

un-ge-leaf nines, f., unbelief : ds. 
-nesse 119, 20 ; 123, 16. 

un-ge-lic, adj., unlike (yf. dat.) : 
ns. 30, 18 ; 57, 14. 



un-ge-limplic, adj., unfitting, 

shameful : ap. -iico 68, 2. 
un-ge-metlice, adv., immoder- 
\ ately : 6, 26 ; 56, 10 ; 56, 26. 
I im-ge-rad, adj., at variance, dis- 
I cordant : np. -gerade 57, 5. 
[ un-ge-redelice (-r^delice -ryde- 

lice), adv., insecwely : — Supl. 

-licost 51, 12. 
un-ge-seelig, adj., unhappy: ns. 

-SEeliga 78, 25 ; np. -s^lige 45. 11. 
un-ge-stelifir, f., misfortune: gp. 

-ScBl«a 52, 18. 
un-ge-sceadwis,adj.,z(?ic?isce7'wi«5', 

unintelligent, irrational: ns.59,8; 

ds. -wisum 52, 21 ; np. -wise 53, 20. 
un-ge-sewenlic, adj., invisible : 

ns. 49, 4 ; np. -Ilea 48, 4. 
un-ge-trum, adj., weak, infirm. 

np. -trume 54, 21. 
un-ge->w£ere, adj., at variance, 

discordant : ns. 57, 6 ; np. 57, 4. 
un-ge->yldig, adj., impatient: np. 

-Jjyldige 54, 24. 
un-ge-w^mmed (pp.), adj., wide- 
filed, pure : dp. 74, 7. 
un-ge-wuna, m., evil habit: gs. 

-wunan 35, 14. 
un-ge-wyrded (pp.), adj., unin- 
jured: ns. 171, 12. 
un-gleawnes, f., want of discern- 
ment : ns. 54, 18. [urn 53, 23. 
un-hal, adj., not hale, ill : dp. -hal- 
un-heanlice, adv., not ignomini- 

ously, nobly: 14, 16. [Ger. Hohn.] 
un-leered (pp.), adj., unlearned, 

ignorant : np. -l^rde 31, 15. 
un-lybba, va., poisonous drug : as. 

uulybban83,5; 83,10. [186,27. 
un-meete, adj., immeasurable: ns. 
un-mihtig, tdj., without might, 

weak : ns. -myhtig 134, 15. 



370 



GLOSSARY. 



iin-rayltsiendlic, adj., unpardon- 
able: ns. 110, 5. 

unnan (PP.)j grant, favor (w. dat. 
of pers. and gen. of thing) : 3 sg. 
an 144, 25; pret. 3 sg. u«e 98, 
23 ; pret. opt. 3 pi. u>on 15, 14. 

un-nedig, adj., icithout compulsion 
or restraint; of one'' s own voli- 
tion : np. -nedige 64, 23. [nead.] 

un-nytt (-nett), useless: ns. -nyt 
48, 8; -net 61, 8. [neotan.] 

un-ofer-s'wiiaredlic, adj., uncon- 
querable: np. -lice 56, 1. 

un-orne, adj., old: ns. 157, 20. 

un-rsed, m., evil counsel, folly .• 
dp. (adv.) -rSdum 179, 4. 

un-riht, adj., wrong, wicked, un- 
just : ns. 46, 3 ; np. -rihte 121, 
23 ; -riMan 114, 24 ; dp. -ryhtum 
14, 2. 

un-riht, n., wrong, si7i, injustice : 
ns. 53, 5 ; dp. 68, 29. 

un-rihtlice, adv., wroiigfully : 30,9. 

un-rihtnes, f., wrong, unright- 
eousness: ds. -nesse 122, 11. 

un-riht-"wisnes, f. , unrighteous- 
ness, injustice : ns. 54, 17 ; gs. 
-ryhtwysnysse 134, 6. 

un-riht-wyrhta, m. , evildoer : np. 
(voc.) -wyrhtan 32, 25. 

un-rim, n., countless number : ns. 
147, 8. 

un-rot, adj., sad, disconsolate : ns. 
131, 18. 

un-rot-mod, adj., sadhearted : ns. 
71,9. 

un-rotnes, f. , sadness, contrition: 
ns. 31, 2. 

un-sc8e9'l5'ig, adj., innocent : gs. 
-an 95, 15. 

un-sceaiaffulnes, t., innocence : as. 
-nesse 54, 27. 



un-scyldig, adj., guiltless, inno 

cent: ns. 45, 17; gs. -scyldgan 

46, 18 ; as. -scyldigan 45, 9 ; ap 

-scyldge 46, 11. 
un-sme>e, adj., not smooth, un 

even, rough: gs. -smebes 166, 5. 
un-spedig, adj., poor: np. un 

spedigan 42, 27. 
un-staS'ol-faest, adj., unstable, un 

enduring : np. -fseste 2, 18. 
un-stille, adj., moving : ns. 6, 23 

50, 5 ; np. unstillu 48, 4. 
un-stilnes, f., disturbance : as, 

-nesse 15, 1. 
un-tela, adv., improperly, wrongly 

bl,7. 
un-treowsian (W. II.), deceive 

pp. pi. geuntreowsode 2, 20. 
un-trum, adj., loeak, infirm, ill: ns 

130, 24 ; 134, 15 ; as. -truman 76 

15 ; gp. -trumra 12, 2 ; ap. -trmnc 

85, 16 ; -truman 12, 3 ; 78, 13. 
un-trum^es (-try-), f., iceahiess, 

illness: ns. 54,2; ds. -nesse 11 

29 ; np. -nyssa 79, .5 ; dp. -nys 

sum 88, 12 ; ap. -nj^ssa 88, 11. 
un-igranc-wuriare, adj., ungrateful 

unacceptable: ns. 92, 16. 
un-afea-w, m., evil practice, vice 

np. -"Seawas 54, 2 ; gp. --Seawa 

30, 21 ; dp. 34, 4 ; ap. -'Seawas 

30, 16 ; 46, 17 ; 56, 23 ; 76, 16. 
un-Tvaclice, adv., unwaveringly : 

159, 11. 
un-waer, adj., unwary : np. -waran 

31, 12.— Comp., ns. -wserre 33, 27. 
un-wserlice, adv. , unimrily, 

rashly : 30, 8. 
un-waerscipe, m., carelessness, 

folly : as. 80, 7. 
un-wealt, adj., not ' icalty,' steady: 

Comp., np. unwealtran 24, 5. 



GLOSSARY. 



371 



Mn-weaxen (pp.)> ^^]> '>^ot grown, 
young : ns. 154, 8; as. 143, 11. 

un-w^mine, adj., nndefiled, pure : 
ns. 166, 25. 

un-wierSfe (-w^'rSe), adj., 2in- 
xoortliy of (w. gen.) : np. 34, 16. 

un'-windan, -WQnd -wundon 
-wunden (3), univind, uncover: 
inf. 79, 23. 

un-wis, adj., unwise : ns. 33, 6 ; 
np. -wise 33, 2 ; dp. 33, 5 ; ap. 
-wise 67, 4. 

un-wis-dom, m., unwisdom, igno- 
rance : ds. -d5me 33, 3. 

un-Avit-Tveorc, n., foolish loorJc : 
dp. -weorcum 69, 19. 

un-wi9'-metenlice, adv., incom- 
parably : 78, 10. 

un-wlitigian (^Y. II.), change the 
appearance or beauty of any- 
thing : 3 sg. -wlitega'S 52, 13. 

un-wrecen (pp.), adj., unpun- 
ished: ns. 46, 22. [wrecan.] 

un-writere, m., incorrect writer: 
ns. 112, 21. 

up (upp), adv., up, upicards : 1, 9; 
16, 2 ; 55, 20 ; upp 146, 13 ; wit) 
upp, above, upvjards, 40, 20. 

up-a-hafenes, f ., exaltation : ds. 
-nesse 32, 8. 

up-a-h^bban (6) , exalt, lift up : 
3 sg. -li^fe-S 32, 22 ; pp. dp. 
-hafenum 79, 21, 

np-a-rsered (pp.), adj., exalted: 
ns. upp- 35, 9. 

up-a-stignes, f., ascension: ds. 
-nesse 11, 13. 

up-a-w^nd, pp., directed upward : 
dp. -w^ndum 101, 17. 

np-gang, m., 1. rising (of the sun): 
ds. -gauge 101, 15. — 2. way up, 
approach : as. -gang 152, 4. 



up-laedend (ptc.) adj., towering: 

gp. -Itedendra 171, 9. 
up-lic, adj., upper^ heavenly : gs. 

upplican 87, 19 ; upllcan 178, 22. 
uppe, adv., up, above : uppe on 

lande, up into the land, 24, 15. 
uppon, prep. (w. dat.), upon: 83, 

24 ; on uppan 138, 23 ; 138, 26. 
iipp-stigan (1), me, spring up: 

ptc. as. -stigendne 1, 14. 
up-stigo, m., ascension : ds. up- 

stige 75, 1. 
nre, poss. pron., our: gs. tires 

111, 14; ds. urum 68, 11; 117, 

19; as. time 69, 23; 111, 3; 

tire 111, 3; np. tire 63, 24; gp, 

tira 63, 20. 
urnon, see yrnan. 
fis, see ic. 
user, poss. pron., our: np. usse 

180, 13 ; ap. 179, 15. 
usic, see ic. 
ut, adv., out : 1,6; 9, 10 ; 21, 7 ; 

without, 26, 9. 
utan, adv., from tcithout, outside : 

14, 13; 19, 7; 21,2; 25,14; 36, 

3 ; 39, 16 ; 66, 4. 
atan-bordes (gen.), adv., abroad : 

26, 14. 
ute, adv., out, outside, loithout : 

2, 5 ; 18, 26 ; 64, 6. 
uter-m^re, m., outer, open sea : 

as. 24, 13. 
utera (uterra, ytra, yttra), comp. 

adj., outer: ns. titerre 35, 18; 

ap. yttran 96, 20, — Supl., utter- 
most, extreme, last : ap. ytmsestan 

13, 11. 
ute-Tveard, adj., outward, outside: 

ds. -weardum 18, 4 ; 24, 16. 
ut-gQDg, m., departure, exodus: 

ds. -gQnge 11, 9. 



372 



GLOSSABY. 



uton, see "wuton. 

uigf-wita, m., wise man, philoso- 
pher : ns. 76, 2 ; 76, 22 ; as. -witan 
76, 11; np. 148, 13; -wiotan52, 17. 



W, 

wa (cf. wea), m., 1. woe: ns. 132, 

6.-2. interj. : 126, 4 ; 126, 25 ; 

walawa, alas, 89, 6 ; wei la wei 

7, 12. 
wac, adj., weak, pliant, insignifi- 
cant, mean : ns. 162, 14 ; ds. 

wacum 88, 6 ; as. wacne 150, 22. 
wsecce, f., watch, loaking : dp. 95, 

6 ; ap. wseccan 88, 10. 
wacian (W. II.), become vjeak, 

waver : inf. 149, 10. 
waclic, adj., weak; mean: ds. 

-Ileum 77, 15. 
waciiis, f., weakness; insignifi- 
cance : ds. -nysse 80, 24. 
wacol, adj., awake, vigilant: 87, 

6. — Comp., ns. wacolre 87, 6. 
wacoUice, adv., vigilantly : 87, 7. 
wadan, wod wodon waden (6), 

wade ; advance, go, travel : inf. 

143,26; 153,27; 160,5; pret. 3 

sg. 153, 1Y;157, 17; 3 pi. 152, 13. 
wsedl (w^Sl, weSel), t, poverty, 

loant : ns. weSel 186, 14; gs. 

W£edlel67, 4. 
waedla, m., poor ma7i : dp. 77, 8 ; 

99, 29. 
-waedlian (W. II.), be poor, beg : 

ptc. w^dligende 77, 15 ; opt. 2 

pi. wMlion 78, 7. 
wsefels, m. n., cohering, dress : ds. 

w^felse 77, 15 ; 88, 6. 
wsefer-syn, f ., spectacle, display : 

ds. -syne 76, 5. 



wafian (W. II.), be agitated or 
astonished : 3 pi. walla's 177, 1. 

Avseg (weg), m., wave : gp. wsega 
166, 24; ap. w^gas 161, 23. 
[wegan ; Ger. Woge.] 

wagian (W. II.), wag, move 
(intr.) : pret. 3 sg. wagode 5, 6. 

wael, n., 1. body of the slain; slaugh- 
ter, carnage : ns. 16, 7 ; 21, 12 ; 
148, 9; 153, 13. — 2. battle-field: 
158,12; 159,3. [wol ' pestilence ' ; 
cf . Mod. Valhalla.] 

wsel-feld, m., field of slaughter : 
ds. -felda 147, 28. 

wael-gifre, adj., greedy for slaugh- 
ter : ns. 182, 1 ; np. -gifru 163, 16. 

wael-hreow, adj., slaughterous, 
murderous, cruel : ns. 75, 2 ; 
-hreowa 75, 13 ; ds. -hreowan 
133,a0 ; as. 99, 14. 

wael-reaf, n., spoil of the slain, 
of the destroyed: as. 174, 19. 

wael-r^st (-rsest), f., bed of slaugh- 
ter : as. -rseste 152, 30. 

wsel-sleaht (-sliht), m., slaugh- 
ter: ns. -sliht 17, 4 ; gp. -sleahta 
160, 7 ; 163, 7. 

wael-spere, n., deadly spear: as. 
159, 25. 

wfel-stow, f., place of slaughter, 
battle-field: gs. -stowe 17, 5; 
17, 14*; 152, 12 ; ds. -stowe 147, 
20. [cf. Ger. Wahlstatt.] 

wsel-wulf, m., slaughter-wolf, 
ivarrior : np. -wulfas 152, 13. 

wainb, see AVQinb. 

w£en (wsegn), m., wain, ivagon : 
ns. 51, 20 ; gs. weenes 50, 9 ; 52, 
' 9 ; as. w^n 50, 10. 

wandian ( W. II.), waver, hesitate : 
inf. 157, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. wandode 
158, 1. [windan.] 



GLOSSARY. 



373 



wandrlan (W. II.), wander, vary, 
change : ptc. wandriende 49, IS ; 
opt. 8 sg. waiidrige 51, 16. 

wan-hal (wanii-), -a.^]., unhealthy, 
weak, ill : dp. 103, 29 ; wann- 
105, 80. 

•wan-hydig, adj., heedless, rash : 
us. 162, 14. 

■wanian (W. 11.), wane, diminish, 
fade, perish (iiitr.) : 3 sg. wana'5 
60, 15 ; 60, 22 ; 3 pi. wania'5 167, 
21. 

wan-spedig, adj., destitute, poor : 
ap. -spedigan 79, 8. 

wsepen, n., weapon : ds. wgepne 
156, 23 ; as. w^pen 65, 15 ; np. 
w^pen 163, 16 ; gp. w^pna 151, 
31 ; dp. 43, 28 ; 149, 10. 

w«pen-ge-wrixl, n., conflict (ex- 
change) of loeapons : gs. -wrixles 
147, 28. 

wser, f., security, covenant, trust : 
ap. w^ra 69, 20. 

w^gere, wseron, see beon. 

AvSr-faest, adj., covenant-keeping, 
faithful : ns. 144, 10. 

ovarian (W. II.), guard, protect, 
attend : 3 sg. wara^ 161, 9. 

Tvarnian (wearnian) (W. II.), 
take vmrning, take heed : imp. 2 
pi. warnia'S 3, 6. 

waroa" (waru'S, wearo'5), m., 
shore : ds. waro'Se 115, 20 ; 115, 
22. [Ger. Werder.] 

waru,f., defence : ds. ware 102, 13. 

Tvaru, f., ivare, article of merchan- 
dise : dp. 88, 22 ; as. ware 88, 20. 

"waes, see beon. 

waistm, m. {w.), growth, fruit, pro- 
duct, result, benefit : ns. 3, 16 ; 
ds. wEestme 2, 23 ; as. wEestm 1, 
13 ; 94, 8 ; np. wsestmas 166, 13 ; 



ap. wsestma 176, 20 ; dp. 64, 27 ; 
71, 15. [weaxan.] 

Avaestm-bsere, adj., finut-bearing, 
fruitful : ns. 93, 19. 

waestmian (W. II.), groiv, in- 
crease : inf. 68, 9. 

w£et, n., drink : gs. w^tes 79, 6. 

waeter, n., water: ns.24, 23; gs. wse- 
teres 44, 7; ds. wretere 74, 12 ; 151, 

12 ; as. wseter 38, 29 ; 84, 27 ; np. 
waeter 167, 14; ap.wseteru 109,24. 

wEeter-faesten, n., water-fastness, 

pilace jjrotected by water: ds. 

-f^stenne 18, 18. 
walS", f., ^notion, going, flight : dp. 

168, 18 ; 170, 22. 
wai^um, m., wave: gp.wa'Sema 161, 

1 ; 162, 4 ; dp. wat^eman 168, 16. 
we, see ic. 
weald, m., weald, forest : ds. 

wealda 18, 3 ; 18, 20 ; 148, 9 ; 

as. weald 18, 4 ; np. wealdas 165, 

13 ; ap. 143, 26. 

wealdan, weold weoldon wealden 
(R.), wield, control, direct, gov- 
ern (w. gen.) : inf. 151, 31 ; 152, 
12 ; 3 sg. welt 48, 12 ; 49, 25 ; 50, 
7; 52, 9 ; 57, 20 ; opt. 3 sg. wealde 
52, 18 ; 3 pi. wealden 6, 18. 

wealdend (waldend), m., ruler, 
lord: ns. 78, 8 ; 121, 7 ; waldend 
57, 20 ; np. waldend (S. 286) 162, 
25. 

Wealh-ge-fera (or -ge-refa), m., 
commander of the troops on the 
Welsh border (or, reeve of the 
King's Welsh serfs) : ns. 25, 11. 

wealh-stod, m., interpreter, trans- 
lator : ns. 100, 4 ; gp. -st5da 94, 
19 ; ap. -st5das 28, 9 ; 94, 18. 

weall, m., ivall, rampart : ns. weal 
163, 14 ; gs. wealles 66, 15 ; ds. 



374 



GLOSSARY. 



wealle 162, 27 ; as. weall 99, 13 ; 

np. weallas 162, 23. 
"iveallan, weoll weollon weallen 

(R.), 6e agitated, well, boil : ptc. 

weallende 181, 22 ; ds. -endum 

75, 4. 
weal-steall, m., wall-place, foun- 
dation : as. -steal 163, 4. 
wealwian (W. II.), wallow, roll : 

ptc. wealwigende 104, 1 ; opt. 3 

pi. wealowigen 51, 3 ; pret. 3 sg. 

wealwode 104, 2. 
weard, m , ward, guard, keeper: ns. 

10, 3 ; gs. weardes 143, 5 ; as. 9, 25. 
weardian (W. II.), guard, keep, 

occupy : 3 sg. weard a S 168, 4 ; 

170, 22 ; 3 pi. weardia-5 180, 23. 
wearm, adj., imrm : ns. 165, 18 ; 

171, 18. 

wearmian (W. II.), become ivarm: 
3 pi. wearmia^ 172, 16. 

wea-tacen, n., token of woe: ns. 
166, 30. 

weaxan (wexan), w5x (weox) 
woxon (weoxon^ weaxen (6 and 
R. ; S. 392), wax, grow, increase : 
ptc. as. wexendne 1, 15 ; 3 sg. 
wex« 60, 14 ; weaxe« 173, 5 ; 3 
pi. weaxa'S 79, 5 ; opt. 3 sg. wexe 
3, 13 ; pret. 3 sg. weox 126, 2. 

w^bbian (W. II.), weave; con- 
trive : ger. w^bgenne 69, 9. 

w^ccan (W. I.), wake, arouse 
(trans.) : inf. 144, 11 ; 3 sg. 
w^cce^ 174, 1. 

■w<jcg, m., wedge : ds, w^cge 76, 9. 

wedan (W. I.), be mad, rage : 
pret. 3 sg. wedde 65, 23. [wod.] 

Tveder, n., weather : ns. 165, 18; 
171, 13. 

'weder-cQndel, f., (weather can- 
dle), sun: ns. 171, 18. 



weg, m., imy : as. weg 1, 7 ; 2, 12 •, 
68, 27 ; dp. 43, 30 ; ap. wegas 
33, 27 ; 143, 14 ; — adverbial, gs. 
his weges, his way, 43, 24 ; as, 
on weg, away, 24, 18 ; 161, 30 ; 
aweg « on weg) 21, 12 ; 104, 
23 ; ealne weg, always, see call. 

weg, see "wig. 

wegan, wseg w^gon wegen (5), 
carry : inf. 65, 18 ; pret. 3 pi. 152, 
15. 

weg-farende (ptc.) adj., wayfar- 
ing : ns, 103, 31. 

weg-nest, n. m., provisions for a 
journey ; viaticum : is. -neste 12, 
26. 

wel, adv., well .• 8, 8 ; 10, 28 ; 28, 
20 ; 34, 30 ; 46, 8 ; eac wel, 
likewise abundantly, 20, 9; wel 
hwger, almost everywhere, 24, 10 ; 
29, 11. 

wela, m., iveal, prosperity, riches : 
ns. 56, 21 ; 60, 14 ; 162, 21 ; gs. 
welan 55, 18 ; 167, 4 ; 170, 10 ; 
ds. 56, 12 ; as. 27, 21. 

wel-dsed, f ., good deed : dp. 183, 29. 

weler, m., lip : ap. weleras 112, 5. 

welig, adj., wealthy, prosperous, 
rich : np. welige, 78, 7 ; dp. wel- 
egum 71, 1 ; ap. welegan 67, 4. 

wel-Tvillende (ptc.) adj., ivell- 
willing, benevolent: ds. -willen- 
dum 99, 29. 

wen, 1, hope, expectation, supposi- 
tion: ns. 115, 14; 119, 4; 121, 
8 ; 124, 8 ; 126, 8 ; 136, 8. [Ger. 
Wahn.] 

wenan (W. I.), ween, hope, expect, 
suppose, imagine, think : inf. 69, 
10; ger. wenanne 61, 1; 1 sg. 
wene 26, 20 ; 45, 12 ; 2 sg. wenst 
4, 11 ; 3 sg. wen« 57, 7 ; 1 pi. 



GLOSSARY. 



375 



wena« 54, 10 ; 3 pi. 52, 22 ; opt. 
2 sg. wene 45, 11 ; 53, 10 ; 3 sg. 
53, 12 ; pret. 3 pi. wendon 28, 1 ; 
65, 22. 

w^ndan (W, I.), 1. ivend one's 
way, turn, go, change (intr.) : 3 
sg. w^nt 61, 9 ; opt. 3 sg. w^nde 
157, 16 ; pret 3 sg. w^nde 22, 9 ; 
(refl. ace.) 19, 20 ; 3 pi. wendon 
22, 3. — 2. turn, change, translate 
(trans.) : inf. 27, 29 ; 171, 22 ; 3 sg. 
w^nt 7, 21 ; opt. 3 sg. w^nde 56, 
22 ; 1 pi. w^nden 28, 14 ; 3 pi. 
51, 6 ; pret. 3 pi. wendon 28, 6. 
[windan.] 

w^nnau (W. I., w^nian, W. II.), 
accustom, entertain (trans.) : 
inf. w^nian mid wynnum, enter- 
tain joyfully , 161, 6 ; pret. 3 sg. 
w^nede to wiste, /eas^, 161, 13. 

weofod, see wig-bed. 

Weonod-land (Weono^-), n., 
Wendland: ns, 42, 12 ; WeonoiS 
42, 5 ; ds. -lande 42, 16. 

weorc, n., ivork, action, deed : ns. 
49, 2 ; as. 9, 27 ; 31, 1 ; gp. 
weorca 34, 27 ; dp. 31, 2 ; 34, 29 ; 
ap. weorc 31, 6 ; 68, 11. 

weorold, see woruld. 

weorpan (wurpan), wearp wurpon 
worpen (3), throw, cast: opt. 3 
sg. wurpe 3, 11 ; pret. 3 sg. 25, 5. 

weor)> (wnr)?), n., luorth, value: 
ns. wurj? 76, 24 ; as. wur> 76, 19. 

weoriSre (weor'S, wyrSe), tcorthy 
(w. gen. or dat.) : ns. 64, 14 ; 
wyr«e 45, 7; 53, 15; 105, 11; 
gs. wyrSes (w. dat.) 10, 8. — 
Comp., as. wyrtSran 45, 14. — 
Supl., np. weorSoste 32, 1. 

weoriS'an (wurSan), wear 5 wurd- 
on worden (3), become (pass. 



aux.), happen (intr.) : inf. 5, 12 ; 
28, 1 ; 2 sg. wur^est 105, 17 ; 3 
sg. wyrS 36, 3 ; 60, 27 ; 3 pi. 
weorSa'S 51, 7 ; 55, 19 ; opt. 3 
sg. weorSe 35, 15 ; 48, 15 ; 55, 
16 ; 3 pi. weor^en 55, 20 ; pret. 
3sg. 3, 28; 15, 2; 16,8; 21,9; 
3 pi. 17, 16 ; 21, 12 ; pret. opt. 3 
sg. wurde 90, 22. [Ger. werden.] 

weorS'ian (wurSian) (W. II.), 
honor, worship : 3 sg. wurSatS 
83, 15 ; 102, 9 ; 3 pi. weorSiaS 
177, 2 ; opt. 3 sg. weorSige 32, 5 ; 
pret. 3 sg. wur'Sode 101, 9. 

weorS'lic, adj., worthy, honorable .• 
as. -licne 55, 25. 

■weoraflice (wurSlTce), adv., wor- 
thily, honorably : wurS- 158, 12. 

weorS'-inynd (wur^-mynt), f. m., 
honor, j-everence, glory : ns. 187, 
7 ; wur^mynt 85, 18 ; 130, 8 ; 
gs. wurSmyntes 90, 20 ; ds. 
wurSmynte 75, 18 ; 83, 33 ; as. 
wnr^mynt 105, 31. 

weor9'-scipe, m., honor, dignity: 
ns. 31, 28 ; ds. 31, 29; as. 55, 
12. 

wepan, weop weopon (E.), 

weep : inf. 6, 19 ; 80, 4 ; ptc. dp. 
wependum 81, 1. 

■wer, m., man : ns. 62, 6 ; gs. 
weres 177, 16 ; ds. were 86, 10 ; 
as. wer 103, 30 ; np. weras 55, 3 ; 
gp. wera 94, 12 ; 120, 30 ; ap. 67, 
3; 116, 3. [Goth, wair ; cog. 
Lat. vir ; cf. Mod. Werwolf.] 

w^rian (W. I.), 1. defend (w. 
refl. ace.) : pret. 3 sg. w^rede 14, 
16 ; 3 pi. w^redon 151, 30 ; 158, 
16. — 2. clothe: pp. pi. w^rede 
185,24. [Mod. wear.] 

werig, adj., weary, dejected: ns. 



376 



GLOSSARY. 



146, 20 ; 160, 15 ; as. werigne 
162, 4 ; np. werige 159, 6. 

■werig-mod, adj., spirit-weary : ns. 

180, 3. 
■werod (wered, weorod), n., hand 

of men, army, host: ns. 151, 12 ; 

ds. werode 150, 30 ; is. werode 

14, 11 ; werede 17, 13 ; weorode 

147, 11; gp. weoruda 181, 10; 
dp. weorodum 171, 18. [wer.] 

wesan, see beon. 

west, adv., loest ; west, westwards : 
19, 20 ; 20, 15 ; 42, 22. 

westan, adv., from the west : 19, 
24 ; 176, 13. 

westan-wind, m., west-wind : gs. 
-windes 38, 16. 

weste, adj., vmste, desolate : ns. 38, 
5 ; 39, 8 ; 162, 21 ; as. 38, 10. 

westen, n., ivaste, desert : ds. v^est- 
enne 38, 9 ; 172, 4 ; westene 
(S. 246) 85, 12; 110, 23; as. 
westen i70, 22. 

Tvest-d^l, m., west quarter or re- 
gion : ap. -d^las 168, 16. 

■west-Iang, adj., extending west: 
ns. 18, 1. 

West-sse, m. f., West-sea (the sea 
west of Norway in opposition to 
the East-sea i.e. the Baltic Sea) : 
as. 38, 3. 

West-seaxe, pi. m., the West- 
Saxons; Wessex: gp. 14, 2; 23, 
28; 101, 20; dp. 101, 26. 

West-weard, adj. lyesi ward; 17, 24. 

weiafel, see weedl. 

wic, m. f . n. , wick, dwelling-place, 
camp : as. 180, 23 ; dp. 143, 21. 

wiog, n., horse: ds. wicge 157, 4. 

wic-ge-fera (or better, -gerefa), 
m., bailiff, or reeve, of a wick or 
viV. : ns. 23, 24. 



wician (W. II.), dioell, lodge, en- 

camp : 3 pi. wiciaS 38, 5 ; pret. 

3 sg. wicode 22, 22 ; 41, 12 ; 3 pL 

-odon 21, 8. 
wicing, m., viking, pirate : as. 

153, 26 ; gp. wicinga 150, 5 ; 151, 

21 ; dp. 153, 3 ; ap. wicingas 159, 

25. 
Avic-stoAv, f., chmUing -place • ds, 

-st5we 181, 13. 
wide, adv., widely: 104,29; side 

and wide,/ar and wide, 181, 12. 
wid-gill, adj., broad, extensive : 

as. -gillan 104, 3. 
wid-see, f., open sea : ns. 39, 11 ; 

41, 28 ; as. 38, 11. 
wif, n. wife ; vjoman : ns. 5, 10 ; 

7, 14 ; gs. wifes 7, 15 ; 14, 19 ; 

ds. wife 108, 1 ; as. wif 6, 5 ; 7, 

6 ; gp. wifa 108, 3 ; dp. 20, 1 ; 

ap. wif 21, 17 ; 67, 3. 
wif-cyj»>, f., (home or) company 

of a woman : ds. -cyl?]?e 14, 12. 
wif-had, m., woman-hood: gs- 

-hades 177, 16. 
wiflan (W. II.), marry (intr.) : 

inf. 74, 8 ; 108, 4 ; pp. gewifod 

79, 14. 
wig, m. n., war, battle: ns. 162, 

27 ; gs. wiges 146, 20 ; 151, 21 ; 

153, 17 ; ds. wige 26, 10 ; 149, 10 ; 

153, 15. 
wig (wlh, weg) , m., altar . as. weg 

145, 11. [cf. Ger. weihen.] 
wiga, m., warrior : ns. 156, 5 ; as. 

wigan 151, 23 ; np. 153, 13 ; gp. 

wigena 153, 22. 
wig-bed (wih-bed, weobed, weo- 

fod), n., altar: as. weofod 84, 

14; ap. wigbed 65, 7; 66, 2 ; 

wigbedo 64, 27. [-bed < beod 

Hable.'] 



GLOSSARY. 



377 



wigend, m., warrior : np. 159, 5. 

[Ger. Weigand.] 
wig-haga (wih-), m. (loar-hedge), 

line of battle., phalanx : as. wi- 

hagan 152, 19. 
wig-heard, adj., resolute in battle : 

as. -heardne 151, 23. 
wig-plega, in. {war-play) , battle : 

ds. -plegan 158, 1 ; is. 159, 19. 
wig-smiS', m. (ivar-smith) ., war- 
rior : np. -smiSas 148, 16. 
wiht (wuht), f. n., wight, person., 

creature; whit, thing, anything : 

ns. 48, 8 ; 166, 5 ; wuht 37, 3 ; 

59, 18; gs. wuhte 60, 19; ds. 

wuhte 33, 16 ; as. wihte 165, 19 ; 

wuht 31, 26; 60, 17 ; n^nig wuht, 

adv., not at all, 119, 6. 
Wiht, f., Isle of Wight: ds. 24, 9. 
Wilde, adj., wild: ns. wilda 172, 4; 

np. wilde 40, 19 ; wildu 5, 7 ; ap. 

wildan 40, 4. 
wildor, n., ivild beast or animal: 

dp., reindeer, 39, 30. 
wil-ge-dryht, f., williiig retinue: 

ns. 177, 1. 
wil-giefa, m., gracious giver, lord : 

ns. 181, 10. 
willa, m., will., determination., pur- 
pose, desire, pleasure : ds. willan 

35, 20 ; 46, 30 ; 52, 23 ; 56, 15 ; 

94, 3 ; is. 7, 21 ; np. 70, 28. 
Willan (S. 428), will, be willing, 

wish, be about to : 1 sg. wille 

29, 6 ; 92, 6 ; 157, 11 ; 2 sg. wilt 

57, 24 ; 59, 14 ; wylt 83, 2 ; 1 pi. 

willa« 150, 14 ; 3 pi. wyllaS 43, 

10 ; opt. 2 sg. wille 27, 4 ; 3 sg. 

28, 22 ; 29, 13 ; wile 49, 10 ; pret. 

1 sg. wolde 29, 11 ; 45, 1 ; 2 sg. 

woldes 45, 14 ; 3 sg. wolde 14, 9 ; 

3 pi. woldon 5, 7 ; pret. opt. 3 sg. 



wolde 6, 3 ; 3 pi. wolden 18, 20 ; 
woldon 34, 15 ; 34, 17 ; woldan 
63, 8 ; — w. neg. see nyllan (= ne- 
willan) . 

will-s^le, m., delightful dwelling : 
ns. 172, 16. 

will-wQng, m. , plain of delight : 
ds. -WQUge 168, 8. 

wilnian (W. II.), desire, wish (w. 
gen. or ace): ptc. wilnigende 99, 
27 ; 1 sg. wilnige 80, 10 ; 3 sg. 
wilna^ 7, 17 ; 32, 3 ; 3 pi. wilnia^ 
31, 8 ; 46, 22 ; 55, 10 ; opt. 3 sg. 
wilnie 30, 7 ; pret. 2 sg. wilnad- 
est 62, 15 ; 3 sg. wilnode 33, 11. 

wilnung, f., ivish, desire : ds. -unga 
28, 2. 

wil-sum, adj., desirable, delight- 
ful : dp. -suman 168, 28. 

wil-sumnes, f., willingness: ds. 
-nesse 13, 7. 

Wil-tan, m., Wilton (Wiltshire): 
ds -tune 17, 13. 

w^il-w^ndlic, see hwil-'w^ndlic. 

win, n., wine : ns. 74, 10 ; ds. wine 
74, 13. 

Win-burne, f., Wimborne (Dor- 
setshire): ds. -burnan 17, 10. 

wind, m., wind : gs. windes 4, 2 ; 
ds. winde 4, 6 ; as. wind 41, 13 ; 
np. windas 4, 12. 

windan, WQud wundon wunden 
(3), 1. icind, twist, brandish 
(trans.) : pret. 3 sg. wand 150, 
22; pp. 161, 9.-2. turn, go, 
fly (intr.) : inf. 159, 25 ; pret. 3 
pi. 104, 21 ; 152, 23. 

windig, adj., windy : ns. 167 10. 

wine, m., friend, lord : ns. 157, 14 ; 
ap. winas 156, 23. [wynn.] 

Winedas, pi. m.. Wends; country 
of the Wends: dp. 41, 25. 



?,7^ 



GLOSSARY. 



wine-dryhten (-driliten), m., 
friendly lord : gs. -dryhtnes 161, 
14; as. -drihten 157, 12; 157, 
27. 

wine-leas, adj., friendless: ns. 

161, 22. 

wine-maeg, m., friendhj kinsman : 

gp. -m^ga 160, 7 ; ap. -magas 

159, 9. 
winnan, w^nn wunnon wunnen 

(3), fght, strive (intr.) : 1 pi. 

winna^ 98, 19 ; 3 pi. 33, 24 ;'imp. 

2 sg. wyii 133, 22 ; pret. 3 sg. 

wann 102, 15. 
win-sael, n., wine-hall : np. -salo 

162, 25. 
Wintan-ceaster (Wmte-),f., Win- 
chester: ds.-ceastre 102, 7 ; Win- 
teceastre 23, 24 ; 25, 5. 

winter, ni. (S. 273, n. 3), winter: 
in reckoning time, the equivalent 
of Mod. year : ns. 44, 8 ; gs. 
wintres 64, 9 ; adv. 166, 16 ; ds. 
wintra 38, 6 ; 64, 10 ; as. winter 
21, 16 ; 22, 13 ; 23, 8 ; gp. wintra 
14, 8 ; 25, 15 ; dp. 156, 5. 

w^inter-cearig, adj., full of the 
care of years: ns. 161, 1. 

winter-ge-w£ede, n., weed, gar- 
ment or covering of winter : dp. 
173, 23. 

winter-ge-weorp, n,, winter storm: 
167, 6. 

winter-scur, m., winter shower: 
ns. 165, 18. 

winter-tid, f., vnnter-tide : ds. -tide 
64, 4. 

wiota, see w^ita. 

wiotan, see witan. 

Wir-heal, m., Wirral (Cheshire) : 
ds. Wirheale 21, 29; dp. 21, 19. 

wis, adj., wise: ns. 47, 1; ds. 



wisan 56, 9 ; is. wise 163, 4 ; np. 

wise 33, 24 ; .ap. 28, 9. 
wis-doin, m., loisdom, learning : 

ns. 61, 2 ; gs. -domes 46, 24 ; ds. 

-dome 26, 11 ; 33, 4 ; as. -dom 

26, 14. 
wise, 1, wise, manner^ condition, 

idiom : as. wIsan, matter, 10, 21 ; 

11, 24; .33, 26; 54, 13; 111, 21; 

np. 177, 18. 
wisian (W. II.), direct, guide : 

pret. 3 sg. wTsode 153, 28. 
Wisle, f., the Vistula : ns. 42, 14 • 

42, 21. 
Wisle-muicra, m., the mouth of the 

Vistula : ns. 42, 22 ; as. -mii^an 

42, 13. 
wislic, adj., wise : ns. 63, 26. 
wis-iTiQnn, m., wise man: ns. 

-mgn 55, 6. 
wisnian (W. II.), wither, waste 

away : pret. 3 sg. wisnode 72, 21. 

[weornian.] 
wissian (W. II.), direct, guide 

(w. dat.) : inf. 109, 3. 
wist, f., food, provision, feast : ds. 

wiste 161, 13 ; np. wista 70, 24 ; 

dp. 80, 6 ; 84, 18 ; ap. wiste 173, 

18. [wesan.] 
wist-f uUian ( W. II.), feast (intr.) • 

opt. 2 sg. -fullige 84, 5. 
wit (wyt), see ic. 
wita (wiota), m., loise man, coun- 
cilor: ns.63,29; 162,12; np. witan 

86, 14 ; wiotan 14, 2 ; 26, 3 ; dp. 

63, 11 ; wytum 63, 6 ; gp. witena 

75, 15 ; wiotona 27, 27. [witan.] 
witan (wiotan) (PP.), knoiv : inf. 

2, 11; 48, 17 ; 57, 17 ; ger, wit- 

anne 2, 5 ; 111, 26 ; wiotonne 28, 

14 ; 1 sg. wat 45, 2 ; 46, 23 ; 2 

sg. wast 59, 16 ; 84, 18 ; 3 sg. 



GLOSSARY. 



379 



wat 98, 19 ; 1 pi. witon 118, 19 ; 
3 pi. 53, 27; imp. 2 sg. wite 3, 2 ; 
opt. 1 pL witen 59, 3 ; 2 pi. wite 
ge 94, 1 ; pret. 1 sg. wiste 107, 
15 ; 3 sg. 150, 3 ; wisse 38, 16 ; 3 
pi. wiston 12, 21 ; 27, 16; pret. 
opt. 3 sg. wisse 7, 8 ; 1 pi. wissen 
59, 2 ; — w. neg., see nytan (= 
ne-witan) . 

wite, n., punishment, torment, in- 
jury : gs. wiites 11, 16; 45, 7; 
53, 15 ; as. wite 45, 15 ; 46, 13 ; 
np. witu 7,3; 27,7; 56, 7 ; dp. 
56, 3 ; ap. 67, 20. [Ger. Verweis.] 

wite-dom, m., prophecy : as. 184, 5. 

watega (witiga, wytega, witga), 
m., seer^ prophet : ns. 78, 31 ; 92, 
1 ; wytega 129, 15 ; witga 33, 28 ; 
as. witegan 92, 5 ; witgan 32, 13 ; 
np. wTtgan 166, 9 ; dp. wytegum 
129, 11. [cf. Mod. wiseacre.] 

witegian (W. 11.), prophesy : pret. 
1 sg. witegode 129, 20 ; 3 sg. wit- 
gode 33, 12. 

Wit-land, n., Witland (in Prussia, 
on the Baltic Sea) : ns. 42, 15 ; 
as. 42, 14. 

witnian (W. 11.), punish, torment, 
injure : 3 sg. witnaS 45, 3 ; 3 pi. 
witnia^ 45, 3 ; 54, 5 ; pret. 3 sg. 
witnode 7, 3 ; 45, 15. [wite, cf . 
Mod. twit.] 

witnung, f., torment, punishment : 
ns. 46, 3. 

witodlice, adv., truly, indeed : 74, 
18 ; 78, 29. 

"wiS", prep. (w. gen., dat., ace.) 
with : 1. (w. gen.) toward, to 
(motion, direction): 7, 15; 19, 
20 ; 20, 15 ; 84, 6 ; 104, 21 ; 149, 
8 ; 153, 18. — 2. (w. dat.) toward, 
for, against (direction, exchange, 



opposition) : 150, 10 ; 150, 14 ; 
— prep, adv., 5, 9 ; 16, 3 ; 19, 
4; 21, 8. — 3. (w. ace.) toward, 
along, with, agaitist (motion, di- 
rection, location, extension) : 2, 
12 ; 38, 3 ; 40, 18 ; 84, 14 ; 99, 12 ; 
103, 31 ; — (association, contrast, 
opposition) ; 9, 19 ; 16, 6 ; 17, 21 ; 
21, 5; 52, 6; 61, 4; 138, 29; 
151, 30; — wi^ eastan, adv., to 
the east, 40, 19 ; wi'S upp, iip- 
wards, above, 40, 20 ; wi'S eastan 
prep. (w. ace), east of, 41, 18. 

■wij^erian (W. II.), oppose: pres. 
ptc. wil?erigende 90, 16. 

■wi]>er-lean, n., requital, reward .• 
ns. 153, 3. [cf. Mod. guerdon.] 

wi3?er-saec, n., hostility, opposi- 
tion : ds. -ssece 99, 33. [sacan.] 

wi9'er-weardlice (wy^er-werd- 
lice), adv., m a hostile manner: 
wy^erwerdlice 136, 27. 

wi9'er-winna (wySer-wynna) , m., 
adversary : ns. wySerwynna 131, 
19 ; as. ^vy'Serwynnan 132, 9. 

wiiaf-hogian (W.IL), disregard(w. 
gen.): pret. 3 sg. -hogode 143, 4. 

wiifir-innan, adv., from vnthin ; 
within : ^Q, 23. 

wi9'-metan, -maet m^ton meten(5), 
measure or compare xozY^ (trans.): 
1 pi. -mete we (S. 360, 2) 3, 19. 

wiiar-metenes, f., comparison : ds. 
-nesse 64, 2. 

wiiy-sacan (6), strive against, re- 
nounce (w. dat.): inf. 65, 3. 

iviST-stQndan (-standan) (6), with- 
stand, resist (w. dat.) : inf. 160, 
15 ; -standan 99, 2 ; wySstandan 
132, 4. 

wiaP-ntan, adv., from without; 
without : 96, 24. 



38o 



GLOSSARY. 



wianc, see wlQnc. 

wl^ncu (S. 279), f., pride: np. 
wl(^ncea 70, 25. [wlgnc] 

wlitan, w.at wliton wliten (1), 
look (intr.) : 3 pi. wlita« 176, 29 ; 
pret. 3 sg. 154, 28. 

•wlite, m., appearance, countenance, 
hmuty : ns. 167, 24 ; as. 176, 20 ; 
ds. 71, 15; as. 72, 18; 88, 25. 
[wlitan ; cf . Ger. Antlitz.] 

"wlitig, adj., beautiful, fair, pleas- 
ing : ns. 68, 5; 89, 2 ; 165, 7.— 
Comp., ns. wlitigra 169, 22. 

wlitig-faest, adj., of enduring 
beauty : ns. 168, 24. 

wlitigian(W.II.) , beautify, adorn: 
3 sg. wlitega^ 52, 13. 

wlQnc (wlanc), adj., proud: ns. 
162, 27 ; (w. instr.) 168, 19 ; ds. 
■wlancan 157, 4 ; as. wlancne 153, 
26 ; np. wlance 148, 16 ; 155, 30. 

wod, adj., mad, raging : dp. 104, 2. 
[Mod. obs. wood ; Ger. Wut.] 

Wodnes-daeg, m., Wednesday : as. 
93, 5. [103, 26. 

wodnis, f., madness : ds. -nysse 

woh (wog, w6), adj., crooked, 
wrong ; as noun, wrong, perver- 
sion: ds. to woge 112, 19; as. 
woh 112, 21 ; on w51i 34, 12 ; 52, 
26 ; on won 34, 28 ; 53, 14. 

woh-dsed, f,, wrong deed: np. 
-deeda 67,19. [wolicum 68, 3. 

wohlic (wolic) , ?idi]., wrongful : dp. 

wohlice (wolice), adv., wrongly, 
amiss : wolTce 68, 28. 

wohnes (wones), f., lorong, error, 
vnckedness : np. w5nessa 67, 19 ; 
dp. wonessum 68, 29. 

wolcen, n.,cZoMd.- ns. 125, 30; 167, 
10 ; ds. wolcne 125, 28 ; np. wolcen 
171, 15; dp. 166, 6. [Mod. welkin.] 



wolic (-lice), see wohlic (-lice). 
woma, m., noise, alarm, terror : 

ns. 163, 19. 
WQmb (wamb), f., belly : ns. 175, 

25 ; as. wambe 78, 29. [Mod. 
womb.] 

wQmm (wamm), m., stain, defile- 
ment, sin : dp. 70, 31. 

wones, see wohnes. 

AVQug (wang), m.., plain, field : ns. 
165, 7; gs. WQnges 170, 10. 

wQnn (wann), adj., dark : ns. WQn 
163, 19 ; 168, 18. 

w^op, m., weeping, lamentation : 
ns. 72, 23 ; ds. wope 75, 26 ; 80, 
27; 91,26; 113, 19. [wepan.] 

word, n., viord : ns. 2, 12 ; 81, 24 ; 
ds. worde 2, 19 ; as. word 2, 11 ; 
np. word 124, 21 ; gp. worda 34, 
27; dp. 10, 7; ap. 9, 23 ; 63,3. 

worian (W. II.), move, totter, 
crumble to pieces': 3 pi. woriaS 

162, 25, 

■worn, m., large number, multitude: 
ns. 177, 2 ; as. 163, 7. 

woruld (worold, weoruld, world), 
1, 1. vjorld: ns. weorld 34, 25; 
world 72, 8 ; gs. worulde 8, 9 ; 
worolde 31, 29 ; 34, 21 ; ds. wor- 
ulde 6, 2 ; 12, 6 ; weorulde 46, 

26 ; as. woruld 162, 5 ; weoruld 

163, 23. — 2. lo7ig period of time, 
cycle, eternity : ds. to worulde 
106, 8 ; 141, 25 ; in worulde 178, 
16 ; as. and gp. on worlda world 
73, 4. 

woruld-ar (worold-), f., worldly 
honor : as. woroldare 32, 3. 

woruld-caru, f ., worldly care : ap. 
-cara 99, 26. 

woruld-cund, adj., worldly, secu- 
lar : gp. -cundra 26, 4. 



GLOSSARY. 



381 



n^oruld-freond (world-), m., 
worldly friend : gp. worldfreonda 
71, 6 ; dp. 70, 18. 

woruld-ge-s£elig, adj., loorldly 
prosperous : 11s. 156, 14. 

woruld-ge-sgeia" (weoruld-), f. , 
worldly fortune : np. weoruldge- 
sael^a 57, 1 ; ap. 56, 10. 

woriild-ge-streon, n., loorldly 
riches : ap. 174, 1. 

woruld-had (weoruld-), m., secu- 
lar life : ds. weoruldhade 9, 3 ; 
as. -had 10, 27. 

woruldlic (worold-, world-), adj., 
v:orldly : ap. woroldlecan 31,'21 ; 
gp. -licra 76, 6 ; ap. worldlicu 
68, 9. 

woruld-rice (world-), n., kingdom 
of the iiaorld, vnorld : ds. world- 
rice 69, 6. 

woruld-rice (world-), Sid]., havi7ig 
worldly power or riches : gp. 
worldrTcra 68, 4 ; dp. 71, 2. 

woruld-iafing (worold-), n., worldly 
thing or affair : gp. -^inga 27, 4 ; 
worold- 35, 18 ; ap. -'Sing 87, 17. 

woruld-wela (w^orold-), m., world- 
ly weal, prosperity, riches: gp. 
worold welena 2, 22 ; ap. -welan 
181, 25. 

woruld-wisdora, m., loorldly wis- 
dom : as. 76, 7. 

•vvoS'-craeft, m., art of song: is. 
-craefte 169, 17 ; 184,' 5. [wod.] 

Avraec-hvril, f ., per'iod of exile or of 
distress : ds. -hwile 183, 13. 

Tvraec-last, m., track or path of 
exile, exile: ns. 161, 9; ap. 
-lastas 160, 5. 

wraec-siar, m., journey of exile or 
of peril, exile: ds. -si'Se 75, 12; 
75, 19; as. -sIS 75, 8; 90, 7. 



wracu, f., persecution, cruelty, dis- 
tress : ns. 166, 30. [wrecan.] 

wrsetlic, adj., ornartiental, splen- 
did, loondrous : ns. 175, 25 ; np. 
-lice 167, 12. [wrsett, 'ornament.'] 

wreetlice, adv., splendidly, ivon- 
drously .- 167, 24 ; 175, 12 ; 177, 
26 ; 178, a 

wraS", adj., wroth, angry, hostile: 
gp. wrabra 160, 7. 

wraafu, f., support, sustenance: 
as. wraSe 173, 20. 

wrecan, wrfec wrScon wrecen (5), 
banish, persecute ; wreak, avenge; 
punish : inf. 157, 12 ; 157, 22 ; 1 
pi. wreca^ 93, 2 ; opt. 3 sg. wrece 
47, 4 ; 3 pi, wrecen (w. dat.) 6, 
17; pret. 3 sg. 14, 6; 158, 12; 
pret. opt. 3 sg. wrsece 157, 21. 

wregan (W. I.), accuse: 3 pi. 
wregaS 110, 15 ; opt. 3 sg. wrege 
46, 19; pret.. 3 pi. wregdon 141, 
5. [wr5ht.] 

wr^nc, m.., wrench, bending, twist, 
trick, deceit : gp. wr^nca, modu- 
lation, 169, 23. [Ger. Kank.] 

wridan (S. 382) (1), grow: 3 sg. 
wride'5 173, 10. 

wridian (W. II.), grow, flourish: 
3 sg. wrida'S 166, 6. 

writ, n., vmt, writing: np. writu 
179, 26. 

writan, wrat writon writen (1), 
write : 1 pi. writa'S 109, 6 ; opt. 
3 sg. write 29, 14 ; pret. 3 pi. 
wreoton 11, 6 ; pp. gewryten 
139, 29. 

writere, m., loriter : ds. writere 
111, 18; ap. writeras 112, 19. 

wrixeudlice, adv., in turn : 12, 22. 

wrixlan(W.I.), change, exchange: 
^ sg. wrixleS (of the play of 



382 



GLOSSARY. 



colors) 175, 12. [wrlxl; Ger. 

WcchseL] 
wroht, m. f., persecution, accusa- 
tion, strife, enmity: ns. 186, 14; 

ap. wrohtas 69, 9. [Goth, wrohs ; 

Ger. Eiige.] 
-wucu (wice, weoce), 1, week: gs. 

wucan 92, 25 ; gp. wucena 21, o ; 

dp. 40, 27. 
wudu, m,, wood ; forest : ns. 5, 6 ; 

17, 29 ; 166, 16 ; gs. wuda 17, 28 ; 

ds. wuda, 5, 13 ; 77, 20 ; as. 

wudu 143, 26 ; np. wudas (S.271, 

n.) 5, 15. 
wudu-beam, m., tree of the forest 

or grove : gp. -beama 167, 24. 
wudu-bearo, m. , forest, grove : 

gs. -bearwes 170, 13 ; ds. -bearwe 

170, 30. 
wudu-blsed (bled), 1, blossom of 

the groove : ap. -bleda 171, 25. 
Tvudu-fsesten, n., forest-fastness, 

place protected by woods : ds, 

-fsestenne 18, 18. 
wudu-holt, m. n., forest, grove : 

ns. 166, 13 ; dp. 177, 21. 
wuduwe (widuwe, wydewe), f., 

widow : ns. 79, 14 ; gs. wydewan 

75, 23 ; as. wydewan 79, 18. 
wuht, see wiht. 
wuldor, n., glory, honor, dignity : 

ns. 85, 18 ; ds. wnldre 77, 13 ; 

90, 20 ; as. wuldor 79, 31 ; 96, 23. 
wuldor-cyning, m.., glorious King: 

ns. 171, 27 ; 183, 23. 
wuldor-faeder, m., glorious Fa- 
ther: gs. 9, 27. 
wuldor- faest, adj., immutable in 

glory : ns. -fsesta 136, 12. 
wuldor-full, adj., glorious: ns. 

-fulla 135, 1 ; 137, 6 ; ds. -fulre 

138, 5. 



wuldor-fulliee, adv., gloriously. 

97,9. 
wuldor-gast, m., glorious Spirit ! 

ns. 144, 22. 
Avuldor-torht, adj., gloriously 

bright : ns. 143, 14. 
wuldor-J>rymni, m., glorious 

might or excellence : ap. ->rym- 

mas 70, 6. 
wuldrian (W. II.), glorify: ptc. 

wuldrigende 131, 11 ; imp. 2 pL 

wuldria-S 130, 4. 
wulf, m., loolf: ns. 162, 29 ; as. 

148, 9 ; dp. 120, 21. 
wund, f., wound : as. wunde 153, 

26 ; 158, 4 ; np. wunda 31, 20 •, 

dp. 147, 20 ; ap. wunda 31, 22. 
ivuiid, adj., wounded: ns. 152, 30; 

153, 31. 
wundor, n., vjonder, marvel : ns. 

52, 23 ; 54, 6 ; gp. wundra 9, 27 ; 

32, 24 ; dp. (adv.) 163, 14 ; 177, 

1 ; ap. wundra 83, 27 ; 105, 23 ; 

137, 25. 
wundorlic, adj., wonderful, won- 
drous : ns. 135, 18 ; ds. -Ileum 

110, 23. 
wundorlice, adv. , luondrously : 

Comp., wundorlicor 169, 17. 
wundrian (W. II.), vjonder at a 

thing (w. gen.): inf. 53, 25; 

ptc. wundrigende 95, 14 ; 3 pi. 

wundi'ia'5 53, 26 ; (w. ace ) 176, 

19 ; pret. 1 sg, wundrode 45, 4 ; 

-ade 27, 26; 3 sg. -ode 12, 7; 

3 pi. -odon 104, 25. 
wuuian (W. II.), dwell, remain, 

continue, live (intr.) : inf. 69, 

21 ; 90, 14 ; 132, 21 ; ptc. wuni- 

gende 135, 6 ; 3 sg. wunaS 48, 

9 ; 103, 2 ; 168, 1 ; imp. 2 sg. 

wuna 127, 13 ; pret. 3 sg. wunode 



GLOSSARY. 



3S3 



14, 4 ; 71, 11 ; 74, 22 ; 121, 17 ; 
143, 7 ; -ade 14, 5 ; — (w. local 
ace.) 3 sg. wunaS 168, 24 ; 171, 3. 

wuuung, f., dwelling, abode, ' liv- 
ing\- as, -unge 95, 1; ap. -unga 
80,8. 

wurma, m., (murex ?) , phenicine^ 
purple red, or crimson : dp. 
Wurman 175, 12. 

wurpan, see weorpan. 

wura", wuriSfian, see •weor'S, 
weorlSian. 

wurlS-myiit, see weoriaT-mynd. 

wuton (uton), opt. 1 pi. of witan 
go ; used to introduce an impera- 
tive or an adhortative clause, 
let us : 7, 6 ; 13, 2 ; uton 3, 28 ; 
68, 17. 

wylla (wiella, willa), m., loell, 
spring, fountain : as. willan 63, 
8 {baptismal font) ; np. 167, 12. 

wylle-ge-spryng, m. n., well- 
spring : dp. 168, 28. 

wylle-stream, m., fountain- 
stream : gp. -streama 177, 21 ; 
ap. -streamas 168, 24. 

wylrn (wielm, welm), m. f., well- 
ing, boiling, surging, fervor : ns. 
175, 1 ; ds. wylme 93, 26 ; welme 
11, 24; as. wylm 171, 22. 
[weallan.] 

'svynlic, adj., joyful, pleasant : ns, 
166, 13, 

wyn-lQnd, n,, land of joy : as, 
168, 1. 

wynn, f., joy, delight: ns. wyn 
161, 13 ; w. gen., crowning joy, 
the best, wynn 167, 19 ; wyn 165, 
12 ; 170, 16 ; 175, 8 ; 177, 7 ; gs. 
Wynne 181, 25; gp. wynna 154, 
30 ; dp. 161, 6. [Ger. Wonne.] 

wyn-sum, adj., winsome, delight- 



ful : ns. 72, 21 ; np, wynsumu 

11, 5 ; gp, -sumra 171, 27 ; ap. 

-sume 171, 25. — Comp., ns. 

-sumra 169, 23. 
wyn-sunilic, adj., winsome : ns. 

68, 6 ; 70, 16 ; 72, 18. 
wyn-suinnes, f ., loinsomeness : ds. 

-nesse 71, 4 ; 72, 14 ; as. 72, 19. 
wj^rcan (wyrcean) (W. I.), work, 

make, perform, do : inf. 8, 3 ; 84, 

25 ; wyrcean 36, 2 ; 3 sg. wjTcb' 

49, 3 ; wires 57, 16 ; imp. 2 sg. 

wyre 35, 28 ; opt. 3 sg. wyrce 31, 

1 ; 49, 12 ; 3 pi. wyrcen 32, 24 ; 

pret. 3 sg. worhte 18, 8 ; 22, 17 ; 

31, 1 ; 3 pi. worhtun 20, 21. 
wyrd, f., iveird,fate, destiny: ns. 

48, 16 ; 160, 5 ; gs. wyrde 6, 18 ; 

ds. wyrde 49, 27 ; 160, 15 ; as. 

wyrd 49, 20 ; g-p, wyrda 163, 23, 

[weorSan,] 
wyrhta, m., longht, worker, 

maker : ns. 70, 1 ; 165, 9 ; 169, 

20 ; np. wyrlitan 69, 30. 
wyrm, m., worm, serpent : ns. 173, 

5 ; gs. wyrmes 71, 18 ; gp. wyrma 

70, 23. 
wyrm-lica, m., figure of a drag- 
on (?) ; serpentine ornamenta- 
tion (?): dp. 163, 14. 
wyrnan ( W. I.), deny, refuse, imth- 

hold (w. dat. of pers. and gen. 

of thing): inf. 61, 13 ; pret. 3 sg. 

wyrnde 153, 5 ; 3 pi. -don 147, 1. 

[weam ' refusal' ; Mod. warn.] 
wyrsa, wyrrest, see yfel. 
"wyrt, f., wort, root, plant, hero: 

np. wyrta 172, 16 ; gp. wyrta 3, 

22; 171,27; dp. 180,5; ap. 171, 

25. [Ger. Wurz.] 
wyrt-truiTia, m., root: as. wyrt- 

ruman (S. 225, 3) 1. 11; 2, 17. 



384 



GLOSSARY. 



wyrSfe, see weoriare. 

wyscan (W. I.), ivish (w. dat. of 
pers. and gen. of thing) : pret, 3 
sg. wyscte 33, 11. 



ydel, see idel. 

yfel, adj. , evil, had : as. yflan 47, 3 ; 

np. yfle 34, 9 ; yflan 53, 2 ; gp. 

yflena 55, 15 ; dp. 56, 6 ; yflan 

31, 2. — Comp., ns. wyrsa 53, 12; 

np. wyrsan 56, 19. — Supl., dp. 

wyrrestum 56, 11 ; ap. weorstan 

114, 5 ; wyrstan 121, 8. 
yfel, n., evil, wickedness, mischief: 

ns. 6, 26 ; 53, 7; gs. yfeles 31, 1 ; 

153, 20 ; as. 24, 10 ; ap. yfelu 

138, 28 ; dp. yflum 7, 19 ; 7, 21. 
yfele, adv., badly, miserably: 126, 

9. 
yfelnis, f., vnckedness : as. -nysse 

98, 11. 
yfel-willende (ptc.) adj., willing 

evil, evil-minded : ns. 45, 6 ; 45, 8. 
yfel-wyrcende (ptc.) adj., evil- 
doing : ns. 45, 6 ; 45, 9. 
yflian (W. II.), wrong ^ injure: 3 

sg. yfla-5 46, 10 ; 46, 11 ; pret. 3 

sg. yflode 45, 17. 
yica, see ilea, 
ylding, f ., tarrying, delay : ds. 

yldinge 90, 10 ; 91, 15. [eald.] 
yldo (yldu, yld, ieldu, ield), f., 

age: ns. 167, 1; 186, 16; gs. 

ylde 9, 4 ; as. ylde 102, 14 ; yldu 

171, 21. [Mod. eld.] 
yldra (ieldra), ra.. ancestor, par- 
ent : np. leldran 27, i9 ; jldran 

180, 13 ; gp. yldrena 76, 3 ; ap. 

yldran 179, 15, [eald.J 



ymbe (ymb, embe), prep., w. ace, 
around, about, 1. (place) 1, 3; 
15, 23; 39, 16; 6Q, 14.— 2. 
(time) about, after : 16, 4 ; 16, 
10; 16, 22 ; 21, 26; 22, 15; 23, 
9; 104,3.-3. (notional limita- 
tion, metaph.) concerning: 26, 
12; 35, 5; 35, 10; 50, 19; 81, 
10 ; 87, 8 ; 105, 3 ; 156, 9. — 
prep, adv., 17, 24 ; 18, 2 ; 136, 9. 

ymbe-sprsec, f ., comment, remark, 
criticism : as. -spraece 93, 25. 

ymb-fon (R.), grasp, seize : 3 sg. 
-feh-S 174, 22. 

ymb-hwyrft, m., circuit: ns. 34, 
21 ; as. 166, 22. 

ymb-hydignis (-hygdignis), f., re- 
flection, anxiety: ds. -nysse 140, 
'l8. 

ymb-s^llan (W. I.), encompass: 
pret. 3 sg. -sealde 126, 1. 

ymb-s^ttan (W. I.), surround: 3 
sg. s^te^ 172, 7 ; pp. pi. -s^tte 
65, 8. 

ymb-sittan (5), besiege: pret. 3 
pi. -s^ton 19, 17; 19, 19. 

yinb-utan, adv., about, around: 
19, 16; 48, 1 ; 50, 11. 



yrfe-numa, m 

numan 91, 22. 
yrfe-Tveard, m., heir 

yrhiSTu (-yrlrSo) 
yrhSo 149, 6. 



heir : np. yrfe- 



ns. 178, 6. 
f ., cowardice : as. 
[earh.] 



yrinS', yrmafo (iermS, erm'S) (S. 
255, 3), f., poverty, care, hard- 
ship, misery : ns. yrmSu 167, 1 ; 
179, 6 ; 186, 16 ; ds. yrm'Se 2, 
21 ; dp. 56, 18 ; 56, 24. [earm.] 

yrnan (iernan, irnan), arn urnon 
urnen (3), run: inf. irnan 5, 7; 
ptc. yrnende (of a ship) 42, 5 ; 
pret. 3 sg. 122, 25; 3 pi. 6, 20; 



GLOSS ART. 



385 



75, 19 ; 122, 19 ; pp. (of years) 

177, 23. 
yrre (ierre), n., anger: ds. 132, 

11 ; as. 179,9. 
yrre (ierre, eorre), adj., angry, 

enraged: ns. 150,23; 157, 17. 
ys (is) , see beon. 
ysen, see isen. 
ysle, 1, ashes: np. yslan 172, 27 ; 

ap. 174, 17; 175, 4. 
yst, f ., storm : ns. 4, 2. 



yteren, adj., of an otter: as. 

yterenne 40, 14. [otor.] 
ytnisest, see utera. 
yttra, see utera. 

y3',f.,t6-aw;np. y^all7,23; ap,4,3. 
yS'ari (W. I.), lay imste (trails.): 

pret. 3 sg. yf?de 163, 1. 
ylj-faru, f., yin.ve-course, flood: 

ds. -fare 166. 23. 
ysaf-m^re, m., ocean of waves : as. 

168, 13. 



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>E137 



Briffhtt James Wilsont 1852-1P26. 

An Anglo— Saxon readert ed» » ' wi 
notest a comoiete gloss^ryt t'iS; ch 
on versification and an outt^ne 
Anelo— Saxon grammart by James W» 
Erisht. 4th ed. New York» H, Hoi 
cofflpany» 1917. 

Ixxix. 385 p« 19 cm. 



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